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Correlates of the incidence of disability and mortality among older adult Brazilians with and without diabetes mellitus and stroke

Andrade, Flavia Cristina Drumond; Guevara, Pilar Eguez; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The combined effect of diabetes and stroke on disability and mortality remains largely unexplored in Brazil and Latin America. Previous studies have been based primarily on data from developed countries. This study addresses the empirical gap by evaluating the combined impact of diabetes and stroke on disability and mortality in Brazil. Methods: The sample was drawn from two waves of the Survey on Health and Well-being of the Elderly, which followed 2,143 older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2006. Disability was assessed via measures of activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, severe ADL limitations, and receiving assistance to perform these activities. Logistic and multinomial regression models controlling for sociodemographic and health conditions were used to address the influence of diabetes and stroke on disability and mortality. Results: By itself, the presence of diabetes did not increase the risk of disability or the need for assistance; however, diabetes was related to increased risks when assessed in combination with stroke. After controlling for demographic, social and health conditions, individuals who had experienced stroke but not diabetes were 3.4 times more likely to have ADL limitations than those with neither condition (95% CI 2.26-5.04). This elevated risk more than doubled for those suffering from a combination of diabetes and stroke (OR 7.34...

How Does Socioeconomic Development Affect Risk of Mortality? An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis From a Recently Transitioned Population in China

Chung, Roger Y.; Schooling, C. Mary; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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During the 20th century, the Hong Kong Chinese population experienced 2 abrupt but temporally distinct macroenvironmental changes: The transition from essentially preindustrial living conditions to a rapidly developing economy through mass migration in the late 1940s was followed by the emergence of an infant and childhood adiposity epidemic in the 1960s. The authors aimed to delineate the effects of these 2 aspects of economic development on mortality, thus providing a sentinel for other rapidly developing economies. Sex-specific Poisson models were used to estimate effects of age, calendar period, and birth cohort on Hong Kong adult mortality between 1976 and 2005. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, including mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), cardiovascular disease excluding IHD, lung cancer, other cancers, and respiratory disease, were considered. Male mortality from IHD and female mortality from other cancers increased with birth into a more economically developed environment. Cardiovascular disease mortality increased with birth after the start of the infant and childhood adiposity epidemic, particularly for men. Macroenvironmental changes associated with economic development had sex-specific effects over the life course...

Developmental expression of drop-dead is required for early adult survival and normal body mass in Drosophila melanogaster

Sansone, Christine Lynn; Blumenthal, Edward M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the gene drop-dead (drd) result in early adult lethality, with flies dying within 2 weeks of eclosion. Additional phenotypes include neurodegeneration, tracheal defects, starvation, reduced body mass, and female sterility. The cause of early lethality and the function of the drd protein remain unknown. In the current study, the temporal profiles of drd expression required for adult survival and body mass regulation were investigated. Knockdown of drd expression by UAS-RNAi transgenes and rescue of drd expression on a drd mutant background by a UAS-drd transgene were controlled with the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70)-Gal4 driver. Flies were heat-shocked at different stages of their lifecycle, and the survival and body mass of the resulting adult flies were assayed. Surprisingly, the adult lethal phenotype did not depend upon drd expression in the adult. Rather, expression of drd during the second half of metamorphosis was both necessary and sufficient to prevent rapid adult mortality. In contrast, the attainment of normal adult body mass required a different temporal pattern of drd expression. In this case, manipulation of drd expression solely during larval development or metamorphosis had no effect on body mass...

The Unfolding Counter-Transition in Rural South Africa: Mortality and Cause of Death, 1994–2009

Houle, Brian; Clark, Samuel J.; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2014 Português
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The HIV pandemic has led to dramatic increases and inequalities in adult mortality, and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatment, together with demographic and socioeconomic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa, has further changed mortality patterns. We describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns in rural South Africa, analyzing data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system from 1994 to 2009 for those aged 5 years and older. Mortality increased during that period, particularly after 2002 for ages 30–69. HIV/AIDS and TB deaths increased and recently plateaued at high levels in people under age 60. Noncommunicable disease deaths increased among those under 60, and recently also increased among those over 60. There was an inverse gradient between mortality and household SES, particularly for deaths due to HIV/AIDS and TB and noncommunicable diseases. A smaller and less consistent gradient emerged for deaths due to other communicable diseases. Deaths due to injuries remained an important mortality risk for males but did not vary by SES. Rural South Africa continues to have a high burden of HIV/AIDS and TB mortality while deaths from noncommunicable diseases have increased, and both of these cause-categories show social inequalities in mortality.

Geographic Inequalities in All-Cause Mortality in Japan: Compositional or Contextual?

Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V. Venkata
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture. Methods We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs), with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value = 1). Results: Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation) in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa) to 1.190 (Aomori) for men and from 0.864 (Shimane) to 1.132 (Aichi) for women. In some prefectures (e.g....

Demography, Urbanization and Development

Jedwab, Remi; Christiaensen, Luc; Gindelsky, Marina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Developing countries have urbanized rapidly since 1950. To explain urbanization, standard models emphasize rural-urban migration, focusing on rural push factors (agricultural modernization and rural poverty) and urban pull factors (industrialization and urban-biased policies). Using new historical data on urban birth and death rates for seven countries from Industrial Europe (1800–1910) and thirty-five developing countries (1960–2010), this paper argues that a non-negligible part of developing countries’ rapid urban growth and urbanization may also be linked to demographic factors, such as rapid internal urban population growth, or an urban push. High urban natural increase in today’s developing countries follows from lower urban mortality, relative to Industrial Europe, where higher urban deaths offset urban births. This compounds the effects of migration and displays strong associations with urban congestion, providing additional insight into the phenomenon of urbanization without growth.

Estimating the components of indigenous population change, 1996–2001

Kinfu, Yohannes; Taylor, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 279844 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Every five years, the national Census of Population and Housing provides a window on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of Australia’s Indigenous population. Of particular interest to demographers is the opportunity that this provides to benchmark intercensal population estimates and to estimate the components of intercensal population change. In line with each census count of Indigenous Australians since 1971, when a question on self-identified Indigenous origins was introduced, the 2001 count produced an intercensal change in numbers that cannot be explained by demographic processes alone. Unpredictability thus remains a hallmark of Indigenous population growth. In accounting for the unexplained component of population growth we refer to changes in census coverage rather than specifically to changes in propensity to identify. The former may include the latter, although to what extent is unknown. In truth, we still cannot determine the factors that contribute to non-demographic population growth, although it is possible to speculate. There is evidence of a highly systematic movement of people into the census-identified Indigenous population in 1996, and out of the population in 2001. This is suggestive of procedural or processing change...

Trends in hospital admissions and mortality from asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Australia, 1993-2003

Wilson, D.; Tucker, G.; Frith, P.; Appleton, S.; Ruffin, R.; Adams, R.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Objective: To examine evolving changes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in South Australia and Australia as a whole from the perspective of hospital admissions, ventilatory support and mortality data. Design: Retrospective analyses, for the period 1993–2003, of hospital separations data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection, and mortality data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and South Australian hospital morbidity collection. Main outcome measures: Hospital separations, ventilatory support episodes, mortality rates, burden-of-disease rankings. Results: Between 1993 and 2003, in SA and nationally, hospital separations for asthma declined but separations for COPD increased significantly. Falling mortality rates from asthma in both men and women, and from COPD in men, contrast with increasing rates of COPD-related hospitalisation and mortality in women. Conclusions: Hospital admissions and mortality associated with asthma have fallen. Admission rates for COPD are declining for men, but there is no indication that admission rates for women have reached a peak. There is a need for higher prioritisation of COPD, including policies to reduce smoking in women...

Morbidity and mortality during heatwaves in metropolitan Adelaide

Nitschke, M.; Tucker, G.; Bi, P.
Fonte: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd Publicador: Australasian Med Publ Co Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Objective: To investigate morbidity and mortality associated with heatwaves in metropolitan Adelaide using ambulance, hospital admission, and mortality data. Design, participants and setting: Case-series study comparing health risks in the Adelaide metropolitan population during heatwaves and non-heatwave periods. Main outcome measures: Daily observations for ambulance transports (1993–2006), hospital admissions (1993–2006), and mortality (1993–2004), categorised using International classification of diseases (ninth and tenth revisions) codes for the relevant disease groups. Results: During heatwaves, total ambulance transport increased by 4% (95% CI, 1%–7%), including significant assault-related increases for people aged 15–64 years. Reductions were observed in relation to cardiac, sports- and falls-related events. Total hospital admissions increased by 7% (95% CI, − 1% to 16%). Total mental health admissions increased by 7% (95% CI, 1%–13%), and total renal admissions by 13% (95% CI, 3%–25%). Ischaemic heart disease admissions increased by 8% (95% CI, 1%–15%) among people aged 65–74 years. Total mortality, disease- and age-specific mortality did not increase, apart from a small increase in mental health-related mortality in people aged 65–74 years. Significant decreases were observed in cardiovascular-related mortality. Conclusion: In contrast to evidence from extreme heatwaves in the northern hemisphere...

Explaining age-specific inequalities in mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and ischaemic heart disease among South Korean male public servants: relative and absolute perspectives

Khang, Y.H.; Lynch, J.; Jung-Choi, K.; Cho, H.J.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Objective: To examine age-specific patterns in the ability of major cardiovascular risk factors to explain relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: South Korea. Subjects: 575 377 male public servants aged 30–64 with 16 998 deaths between 1995 and 2003. Main outcomes: All-cause, CVD, and IHD mortality. Results: Four cardiovascular risk factors (cigarette smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, and serum total cholesterol) were significantly associated with mortality risk. Changing relationships in socioeconomic distribution of risk factors with age were observed. The magnitude of reduction in percent change in absolute risk was greater than that in relative risk. While the risk factors explained only 15.2% of excess RR for all-cause mortality in low-income men aged 30–44, the absolute excess risk of all-cause mortality was reduced by 48.3% when the risk factors were removed from the whole population. This pattern was generally true for all causes, CVD, and IHD, and true for all age groups and risk factors examined. Cigarette smoking and hypertension were the leading contributors in explaining relative and absolute inequality in mortality. Conclusion: Policy efforts to eliminate major cardiovascular risk factors in the general population may have a significant effect on reducing the absolute burden of socioeconomic inequality in mortality. Policy efforts to attenuate socioeconomic inequality in cardiovascular risk factors need to be directed to younger age groups in South Korea.; Y H Khang...

Endogenous testosterone and mortality in men: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Araujo, A.; Dixon, J.; Suarez, E.; Murad, M.; Guey, L.; Wittert, G.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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CONTEXT: Low testosterone levels have been associated with outcomes that reduce survival in men. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the association between endogenous testosterone and mortality. DATA SOURCES: Data sources included MEDLINE (1966 to December 2010), EMBASE (1988 to December 2010), and reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Eligible studies were published English-language observational studies of men that reported the association between endogenous testosterone and all-cause or cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. A two-stage process was used for study selection. 1) Working independently and in duplicate, reviewers screened a subset (10%) of abstracts. Results indicated 96% agreement, and thereafter, abstract screening was conducted in singlicate. 2) All full-text publications were reviewed independently and in duplicate for eligibility. DATA EXTRACTION: Reviewers working independently and in duplicate determined methodological quality of studies and extracted descriptive, quality, and outcome data. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 820 studies identified, 21 were included in the systematic review, and 12 were eligible for meta-analysis [n = 11 studies of all-cause mortality (16...

In-hospital mortality risk factors in community acquired pneumonia: evaluation of immunocompetent adult patients without comorbidities

Vicco,Miguel Hernan; Ferini,Franco; Rodeles,Luz; Scholtus,Patricia; Long,Ana Karina; Musacchio,Héctor Mario
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 Português
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Summary Objective: several scores were developed in order to improve the determination of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity and its management, mainly CURB-65 and SACP score. However, none of them were evaluated for risk assessment of in-hospital mortality, particularly in individuals who were non-immunosuppressed and/or without any comorbidity. In this regard, the present study was carried out. Methods: we performed a cross-sectional study in 272 immunocompetent patients without comorbidities and with a diagnosis of CAP. Performance of CURB- 65 and SCAP scores in predicting in-hospital mortality was evaluated. Also, variables related to death were assessed. Furthermore, in order to design a model of in-hospital mortality prediction, sampled individuals were randomly divided in two groups. The association of the variables with mortality was weighed and, by multiple binary regression, a model was constructed in one of the subgroups. Then, it was validated in the other subgroup. Results: both scores yielded a fair strength of agreement, and CURB-65 showed a better performance in predicting in-hospital mortality. In our casuistry, age, white blood cell counts, serum urea and diastolic blood pressure were related to death. The model constructed with these variables showed a good performance in predicting in-hospital mortality; moreover...

Cause-specific mortality and 30-year relative survival of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

Selinger, C.; Andrews, J.; Dent, O.; Norton, I.; Jones, B.; McDonald, C.; Cowlishaw, J.; Barr, G.; Selby, W.; Leong, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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BACKGROUND: Data from the northern hemisphere suggest that patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have similar survival to the general population, whereas mortality in Crohn's disease (CD) is increased by up to 50%. There is a paucity of data from the southern hemisphere, especially in Australia. METHODS: A prevalence cohort (1977-1992) of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) diagnosed after 1970 was studied. Survival status data and causes of death up to December 2010 were extracted from the National Death Index. Relative survival analysis was carried out separately for men and women. RESULTS: Of 816 cases (384 men, 432 women; 373 CD, 401 UC, 42 indeterminate colitis), 211 (25.9%) had died by December 2010. Median follow-up was 22.2 years. Relative survival of all patients with IBD was not significantly different from the general population at 10, 20, and 30 years of follow-up. Separate analyses of survival in CD and UC also showed no differences from the general population. There was no difference in survival between patients diagnosed earlier (1971-1979) or later (1980-1992). At least 17% of the deaths were caused by IBD. Fatal cholangiocarcinomas were more common in IBD (P < 0.001), and fatal colorectal cancers more common in UC (P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In Australia...

Cost calculation and prediction in adult intensive care: A ground-up utilization study

Moran, J.; Peisach, A.; Solomon, P.; Martin, J.
Fonte: Australian Soc Anaesthetists Publicador: Australian Soc Anaesthetists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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The ability of various proxy cost measures, including therapeutic activity scores (TISS and Omega) and cumulative daily severity of illness scores, to predict individual ICU patient costs was assessed in a prospective “ground-up” utilization costing study over a six month period in 1991. Daily activity (TISS and Omega scores) and utilization in consecutive admissions to three adult university associated ICUs was recorded by dedicated data collectors. Cost prediction used linear regression with determination (80%) and validation (20%) data sets. The cohort, 1333 patients, had a mean (SD) age 57.5 (19.4) years, (41% female) and admission APACHE III score of 58 (27). ICU length of stay and mortality were 3.9 (6.1) days and 17.6% respectively. Mean total TISS and Omega scores were 117 (157) and 72 (113) respectively. Mean patient costs per ICU episode (1991 $AUS) were $6801 ($10311), with median costs of $2534, range $106 to $95,602. Dominant cost fractions were nursing 43.3% and overheads 16.9%. Inflation adjusted year 2002 (mean) costs were $9343 ($ AUS). Total costs in survivors were predicted by Omega score, summed APACHE III score and ICU length of stay; determination R2, 0.91; validation 0.88. Omega was the preferred activity score. Without the Omega score...

Anxiety and depression as risk factors for mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery.

Tully, P.; Baker, R.; Knight, J.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Objective This retrospective study examined the association between symptoms of depression, anxiety, and mortality risk following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods We assessed 440 CABG surgery patients' scores on the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and followed up mortality status for a median of 5 years, 10 months. Results There were 67 (15%) deaths overall during the follow-up period. Adjusted survival analysis showed that preoperative depressive symptoms were not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality. Survival analysis with preoperative anxiety adjusted for covariates showed a significantly increased mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR)=1.88 (95% CI=1.12–3.17), P=.02]. Conclusion Preoperative anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with increased mortality risk after adjustment for known mortality risk factors. Future research should further explore the simultaneous role of anxiety and depression on mortality following CABG.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/525474/description#description; Phillip J. Tully, Robert A. Baker and John L. Knight; Crown copyright © 2008 Published by Elsevier

The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape : Selected Papers for the World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011

Lule, Elizabeth L.; Seifman, Richard M.; David, Antonio C.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a long-term development challenge for the region. Nearly 12 million African children have been orphaned as a result of the disease, and 22.5 million people in Africa 61 percent of them women live with HIV. The hyperepidemics in Southern Africa have diluted poverty reduction efforts and in several countries substantially reduced life expectancy. The critical need to address this development problem is reflected in the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), which seeks to halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015 and to make access to treatment for HIV/AIDS universal for all those who need it by 2010. With Sub-Saharan Africa representing nearly two-thirds of those living with HIV globally, and the fact that human development indicators of several countries in the region lag far behind the rest of the world, prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa reaching any of the MDG goals will require a sustained response to HIV/AIDS. Reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS is closely linked to combating other major diseases referenced in sixth MDG...

WILDLIFE ROAD MORTALITY ON THE 1000 ISLANDS PARKWAY IN SOUTH EASTERN ONTARIO: PEAK TIMES, HOT SPOTS, AND MITIGATION USING DRAINAGE CULVERTS

Garrah, Evelyn
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Road mortality threatens the long-term viability of some wildlife populations, particularly herpetofauna. Wildlife road mortalities were recorded during regular bicycle-based surveys of the 1000 Islands Parkway in south eastern Ontario during 2010 and 2011. These data were grouped with similar data collected in 2008 and 2009 to determine when and where animals were killed along the Parkway to better inform mitigation options. Temporal and spatial clustering was significant for five taxonomic groups: snakes were found dead on the road primarily in September, turtles in June, frogs in July, and birds and mammals in June and July. The majority of turtles found on the Parkway were adult females, which may have implications for long-term population demographics and persistence. Regression tree analysis indicates day-of-year as the most important variable in explaining wildlife road mortality for all taxonomic groups, with higher road mortalities coinciding with higher minimum daily temperature. Precipitation and traffic accounted for little variation in snake road mortality, and had no effect on turtle, frog, bird or mammal road kills. Spatial clustering was found for all taxonomic groups with overlapping areas of significant clustering between years identified as hot spots. In addition...

The relationship between selected causes of postneonatal infant mortality and particulate air pollution in the United States.

Woodruff, T J; Grillo, J; Schoendorf, K C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1997 Português
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Recent studies have found associations between particulate air pollution and total and adult mortality. The relationship between particulate air pollution and mortality among infants has not been examined in the United States. This study evaluates the relationship between postneonatal infant mortality and particulate matter in the United States. Our study involved analysis of cohorts consisting of approximately 4 million infants born between 1989 and 1991 in states that report relevant covariates; this included 86 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the United States. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics-linked birth/infant death records were combined at the MSA level with measurements of particulate matter 10 microns or less (PM10) from the EPA's Aerometric Database. Infants were categorized as having high, medium, or low exposures based on tertiles of PM10. Total and cause-specific postneonatal mortality rates were examined using logistic regression to control for demographic and environmental factors. Overall postneonatal mortality rates were 3.1 among infants with low PM10 exposures, 3.5 among infants with medium PM10 exposures, and 3.7 among highly exposed infants. After adjustment for other covariates, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total postneonatal mortality for the high exposure versus the low exposure group was 1.10 (1.04...

Modelling adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus survival at different temperatures in laboratory and field settings

Brady, Oliver J.; Johansson, Michael A.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Bhatt, Samir; Golding, Nick; Pigott, David M.; Delatte, Hélène; Grech, Marta Gladys; Leisnham, Paul T.; Maciel de Freitas, Rafael; Styer, Linda M.; Smith, David L.; Scott, Thomas W.; Gething, P
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field.; Fil: Brady, Oliver J.. University of Oxford. Department of Zoology. Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group; Reino Unido;; Fil: Johansson, Michael A.. Centers For Disease Control And Prevention; Estados Unidos de América;; Fil: Guerra, Carlos A.. University of Oxford. Department of Zoology. Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group; Reino Unido;; Fil: Bhatt, Samir. University of Oxford. Department of Zoology. Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group; Reino Unido;; Fil: Golding...

Effect of healthcare on mortality: Trends in avoidable mortality in Australia and comparisons with Western Europe

Korda, Rosemary; Butler, James
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Publicador: W B Saunders Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objectives: Using the concept of avoidable mortality, international studies suggest that healthcare has been effective in reducing mortality. This paper provides an analysis of avoidable mortality in Australia and compares trends with those of Western Eur