Página 10 dos resultados de 2591 itens digitais encontrados em 0.034 segundos

Inference of gene regulatory networks from time series by Tsallis entropy

LOPES, Fabricio Martins; OLIVEIRA, Evaldo A. de; CESAR JR., Roberto M.
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Background: The inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from large-scale expression profiles is one of the most challenging problems of Systems Biology nowadays. Many techniques and models have been proposed for this task. However, it is not generally possible to recover the original topology with great accuracy, mainly due to the short time series data in face of the high complexity of the networks and the intrinsic noise of the expression measurements. In order to improve the accuracy of GRNs inference methods based on entropy (mutual information), a new criterion function is here proposed. Results: In this paper we introduce the use of generalized entropy proposed by Tsallis, for the inference of GRNs from time series expression profiles. The inference process is based on a feature selection approach and the conditional entropy is applied as criterion function. In order to assess the proposed methodology, the algorithm is applied to recover the network topology from temporal expressions generated by an artificial gene network (AGN) model as well as from the DREAM challenge. The adopted AGN is based on theoretical models of complex networks and its gene transference function is obtained from random drawing on the set of possible Boolean functions...

Uma arquitectura para adaptação de tráfego de baixo débito em aplicações de controlo

Cabral, José
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Electrónica Industrial.; Esta tese descreve o trabalho de investigação efectuado sobre a adaptação de tráfego de baixo débito em aplicações de controlo, e inclui a proposta e análise de uma arquitectura de um sistema que integra Adaptadores de terminal e um Concentrador interligados, através de uma rede de comunicação, a uma Aplicação de controlo. O tráfego gerado em redes de sensores e actuadores, sistemas de controlo distribuído ou por sistemas de aquisição de dados tem sido habitualmente suportado em redes específicas, como os vulgarmente designados Barramentos de Campo, de que são exemplos o CAN e o PROFIBUS. Estas tecnologias apresentam bastantes limitações, principalmente em aspectos relacionados com a integração de serviços e sistemas, largura de banda e área abrangida. Por outro lado, a adaptação de serviços de muito baixo débito em redes de comunicação tem subjacente o controlo do atraso no preenchimento dos pacotes e o respectivo escalonamento, aspectos que têm um impacto significativo na Qualidade de Serviço. Para a resolução destes problemas foi proposta e especificada uma arquitectura modular de um sistema que permite multiplexar vários fluxos de informação...

Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol

Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee® (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access–collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism...

Over provisioning-centric QoS-routing mechanism for the communication paradigm of future internet 4WARD proposal

Neto, Augusto; Figueiredo, Sergio; Aguiar, Rui L; Marçal, Leandro; Freitas, Leandro
Fonte: Springer Verlag Publicador: Springer Verlag
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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35.78%
The FP7 4WARD clean-slate Project envisions overcoming the limitations of current Internet by redefining it to efficiently support complex value-added sessions and services, such as location-based, health-care, critical-mission, and geo processing. The list of networking innovations from 4WARD’s Future Internet (FI) proposal includes a new connectivity paradigm called Generic Path (GP), a common representation for all communications. From the networking point of view, a GP is mapped to a communication path for data propagation. For that, GP architecture relies on routing mechanism for selecting best communication paths. In order to assure reliable communications, the routing mechanism must efficiently provision QoS-aware multi-party capable paths, with robustness functions, while keeping network performance. Therefore, this paper proposes the QoS-Routing and Resource Control (QoS-RRC) mechanism to deal with the hereinabove requirements by means of an over provisioning-centric (bandwidth and paths) approach. QoS-RRC achieves scalability by avoiding per-flow operations (e.g., signaling, state storage, etc.). Initial QoS-RRC performance evaluation was carried out in Network Simulator v.2 (NS-2), enabling drastic reduction of overall signaling exchanges compared to per-flow solutions.

Inter layer and cooperative design strategies for green mobile networks; Estratégias de design de camada intermédia e cooperativa para redes sem fios energeticamente eficientes

Alam, Muhammad
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
The promise of a truly mobile experience is to have the freedom to roam around anywhere and not be bound to a single location. However, the energy required to keep mobile devices connected to the network over extended periods of time quickly dissipates. In fact, energy is a critical resource in the design of wireless networks since wireless devices are usually powered by batteries. Furthermore, multi-standard mobile devices are allowing users to enjoy higher data rates with ubiquitous connectivity. However, the bene ts gained from multiple interfaces come at a cost in terms of energy consumption having profound e ect on the mobile battery lifetime and standby time. This concern is rea rmed by the fact that battery lifetime is one of the top reasons why consumers are deterred from using advanced multimedia services on their mobile on a frequent basis. In order to secure market penetration for next generation services energy e ciency needs to be placed at the forefront of system design. However, despite recent e orts, energy compliant features in legacy technologies are still in its infancy, and new disruptive architectures coupled with interdisciplinary design approaches are required in order to not only promote the energy gain within a single protocol layer...

Intrusion tolerant routing with data consensus in wireless sensor networks

Almeida, João Carlos Andrade de
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática; Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rapidly emerging and growing as an important new area in computing and wireless networking research. Applications of WSNs are numerous, growing, and ranging from small-scale indoor deployment scenarios in homes and buildings to large scale outdoor deployment settings in natural, industrial, military and embedded environments. In a WSN, the sensor nodes collect data to monitor physical conditions or to measure and pre-process physical phenomena, and forward that data to special computing nodes called Syncnodes or Base Stations (BSs). These nodes are eventually interconnected, as gateways, to other processing systems running applications. In large-scale settings, WSNs operate with a large number of sensors – from hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes – organised as ad-hoc multi-hop or mesh networks, working without human supervision. Sensor nodes are very limited in computation, storage, communication and energy resources. These limitations impose particular challenges in designing large scale reliable and secure WSN services and applications. However, as sensors are very limited in their resources they tend to be very cheap. Resilient solutions based on a large number of nodes with replicated capabilities...

A Survey of Geosensor Networks: Advances in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring

Nittel, Silvia
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2009 Português
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In the recent decade, several technology trends have influenced the field of geosciences in significant ways. The first trend is the more readily available technology of ubiquitous wireless communication networks and progress in the development of low-power, short-range radio-based communication networks, the miniaturization of computing and storage platforms as well as the development of novel microsensors and sensor materials. All three trends have changed the type of dynamic environmental phenomena that can be detected, monitored and reacted to. Another important aspect is the real-time data delivery of novel platforms today. In this paper, I will survey the field of geosensor networks, and mainly focus on the technology of small-scale geosensor networks, example applications and their feasibility and lessons learnt as well as the current research questions posed by using this technology today. Furthermore, my objective is to investigate how this technology can be embedded in the current landscape of intelligent sensor platforms in the geosciences and identify its place and purpose.

Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

Lee, Dasheng
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2008 Português
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Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV) calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV) preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

Channel estimation and optimal resource allocation of relay assisted communication systems

Jia, Yupeng ; Vosoughi, Azadeh
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:ix, 147 leaves; Illustrations:ill. (some col.)
Português
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012.; Exploding demand for various wireless services has fueled significant development of wireless communication systems and networks in the past few decades. Wireless service providers are continuously striving to improve the design of communication systems and to enable higher data rate and more reliable wireless transmission. A major challenge in designing these systems is the random nature of the wireless transmission media due to the fading process. A recent paradigm shift from the conventional point-to- point communications is relay assisted communications. Motivated by the great success of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems, with multiple transmit and receive antennas, researchers have considered relay assisted communications. Relying on the broadcast nature of the wireless media, a relay assisted communication system emulates a virtual MIMO system and exploits the spatial diversity, also known as cooperative diversity. Cooperative diversity increases the transmission reliability and coverage, without expanding the expenditure of the scarce transmission resources (power and bandwidth). Recently...

Managing distance: Rural poverty and the promise of communication in post-apartheid South Africa

Skuse, A.; Cousins, T.
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
This article examines rural telecommunications access and use among poor village households in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Discussion is based upon a content analysis of 165 telephone calls, as well as a broader information and communication technology (ICT) ownership, access and use survey undertaken in 50 poor households within a number of rural villages in the Mount Frere district. These data are complimented and supported by qualitative data emerging from a longer-term UK Department for International Development-funded study of ICT use and social communication practices among the urban and rural poor in South Africa. The purpose of the article is to: (i) question existing notions of telecommunications access; (ii) assess the extent to which rural inequalities are exacerbated or ameliorated by telecommunications access; and (iii) examine the extent to which telecommunications are enlisted as a strategic tool by poor households for maintaining kin-based redistributive networks and enhancing livelihood sustainability.; Andrew Skuse; Thomas Cousins; Copyright © 2007 SAGE Publications

Optimization of p-cycle protection schemes in optical networks

de Medeiros Rocha, Caroline Thennecy
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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La survie des réseaux est un domaine d'étude technique très intéressant ainsi qu'une préoccupation critique dans la conception des réseaux. Compte tenu du fait que de plus en plus de données sont transportées à travers des réseaux de communication, une simple panne peut interrompre des millions d'utilisateurs et engendrer des millions de dollars de pertes de revenu. Les techniques de protection des réseaux consistent à fournir une capacité supplémentaire dans un réseau et à réacheminer les flux automatiquement autour de la panne en utilisant cette disponibilité de capacité. Cette thèse porte sur la conception de réseaux optiques intégrant des techniques de survie qui utilisent des schémas de protection basés sur les p-cycles. Plus précisément, les p-cycles de protection par chemin sont exploités dans le contexte de pannes sur les liens. Notre étude se concentre sur la mise en place de structures de protection par p-cycles, et ce, en supposant que les chemins d'opération pour l'ensemble des requêtes sont définis a priori. La majorité des travaux existants utilisent des heuristiques ou des méthodes de résolution ayant de la difficulté à résoudre des instances de grande taille. L'objectif de cette thèse est double. D'une part...

Learning networks and moodle use in online courses: a social network analysis study

Fidalgo, Patrícia Seferlis Pereira
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Doutor em Ciências da Educação Especialidade em Tecnologias, Redes e Multimédia na Educação e Formação; This research presents a case study on the interactions between the participants of the forums of four online undergraduate courses from the perspective of social network analysis (SNA). Due to lack of studies on social networks in online learning environments in higher education in Portugal we have choose a qualitative structural analysis to address this phenomenon. The context of this work was given by the new experiences in distance education (DE) that many institutions have been making. Those experiences are a function of the changes in educational paradigms and due to a wider adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) from schools as well as to the competitive market. Among the technologies adopted by universities are the Learning Management Systems (LMSs) that allow recording, storing and using large amounts of relational data about their users and that can be accessed through Webtracking. We have used this information to construct matrices that allowed the SNA. In order to deepen knowledge about the four online courses we were studying we have also collect data with questionnaires and interviews and we did a content analysis to the participations in the forums. The three main sources of data collection led us to three types of analysis: SNA...

Is Communication Still Possible Amid the Reign of “Incommunication”?; ¿Es aún posible la comunicación en medio del imperio de la in-comunicación?; É ainda possível a comunicação em meio do império da incomunicação?

Bernal, Patricia; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Fonte: Universidad de la Sabana Publicador: Universidad de la Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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35.78%
The article analyzes the possibility of an anthropology of communication by looking at the categories of technique, social networks, hyper-connection, emptiness and isolation. In doing so, the authors seek to address the question of communication as expressed in contemporary man’s understanding of himself and his connection to the world. Undoubtedly, the technique indicates man’s place in society, the artifact of artifacts that shapes, in the external world, the multi-faceted knowledge of the mind, accompanied always by communication as possibility. Therefore, it serves the disposition, the connection between elements and the design of a congruent system of symbols that turns the world into one without a center. Now, it is an immense network of isolated individuals, of fractured messages within an uprooted society where there is a danger of becoming lost in the abundance of data circulating through the network or being eliminated in its virtual trash. We communicate only with short computer messages, as opposed to talking directly to one other. Here, the hermeneutic circumlocution of understanding is suppressed by the requirement of brevity. There is no time for that; in other words, no time for understanding in and of itself.; Este artículo analiza las posibilidades de una antropología de la comunicación en un recorrido por las categorías de la técnica...

Pricing and efficiency in wireless cellular data networks

Mukherjee, Shubham
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 101 p.; 4191708 bytes; 4195890 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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In this thesis, we address the problem of resource allocation in wireless cellular networks carrying elastic data traffic. A recent approach to the study of large scale engineering systems, such as communication networks, has been to apply fundamental economic principles to understand how resources can be efficiently allocated in a system despite the competing interests and selfish behavior of the users. The most common approach has been to assume that each user behaves selfishly according to a payoff function, which is the difference between his utility derived from the resources he is allocated, and the price charged by the network's manager. The network manager can influence user behavior through the price, and thereby improve the system's efficiency. While extensive analysis along these lines has been carried out for wireline networks (see, for example, [10], [7], [23], [29], [21]), the wireless environment poses a host of unique challenges. Another recent line of research for wireline networks seeks to better understand how the economic realities of data networks can impact the system's efficiency. In particular, authors have considered the case where the network manager sets prices in order to maximize profits rather than achieve efficient resource allocation; see [1] and references therein.; (cont.) In this thesis...

Stegobot: construction of an unobservable communication network leveraging social behavior

Nagaraja, Shishir; Houmansadr, Amir; Piyawongwisal, Pratch; Singh, Vijit; Agarwal, Pragya; Borisov, Nikita
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
We propose the construction of an unobservable communications network using social networks. The communication endpoints are vertices on a social network. Probabilistically unobservable communication channels are built by leveraging image steganography and the social image sharing behavior of users. All communication takes place along the edges of a social network overlay connecting friends. We show that such a network can provide decent bandwidth even with a far from optimal routing mechanism such as restricted flooding. We show that such a network is indeed usable by constructing a botnet on top of it, called Stegobot. It is designed to spread via social malware attacks and steal information from its victims. Unlike conventional botnets, Stegobot traffic does not introduce new communication endpoints between bots. We analyzed a real-world dataset of image sharing between members of an online social network. Analysis of Stegobot's network throughput indicates that stealthy as it is, it is also functionally powerful -- capable of channeling fair quantities of sensitive data from its victims to the botmaster at tens of megabytes every month.; Comment: Information Hiding, unobservability, anonymity, botnet

Distributed Connectivity of Wireless Networks

Halldorsson, Magnus M.; Mitra, Pradipta
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
We consider the problem of constructing a communication infrastructure from scratch, for a collection of identical wireless nodes. Combinatorially, this means a) finding a set of links that form a strongly connected spanning graph on a set of $n$ points in the plane, and b) scheduling it efficiently in the SINR model of interference. The nodes must converge on a solution in a distributed manner, having no means of communication beyond the sole wireless channel. We give distributed connectivity algorithms that run in time $O(poly(\log \Delta, \log n))$, where $\Delta$ is the ratio between the longest and shortest distances among nodes. Given that algorithm without prior knowledge of the instance are essentially limited to using uniform power, this is close to best possible. Our primary aim, however, is to find efficient structures, measured in the number of slots used in the final schedule of the links. Our main result is algorithms that match the efficiency of centralized solutions. Specifically, the networks can be scheduled in $O(\log n)$ slots using (arbitrary) power control, and in $O(\log n (\log\log \Delta + \log n))$ slots using a simple oblivious power scheme. Additionally, the networks have the desirable properties that the latency of a converge-cast and of any node-to-node communication is optimal $O(\log n)$ time.; Comment: 17 pages...

Fast and Quality-Guaranteed Data Streaming in Resource-Constrained Sensor Networks

Soroush, Emad; Wu, Kui; Pei, Jian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.78%
In many emerging applications, data streams are monitored in a network environment. Due to limited communication bandwidth and other resource constraints, a critical and practical demand is to online compress data streams continuously with quality guarantee. Although many data compression and digital signal processing methods have been developed to reduce data volume, their super-linear time and more-than-constant space complexity prevents them from being applied directly on data streams, particularly over resource-constrained sensor networks. In this paper, we tackle the problem of online quality guaranteed compression of data streams using fast linear approximation (i.e., using line segments to approximate a time series). Technically, we address two versions of the problem which explore quality guarantees in different forms. We develop online algorithms with linear time complexity and constant cost in space. Our algorithms are optimal in the sense they generate the minimum number of segments that approximate a time series with the required quality guarantee. To meet the resource constraints in sensor networks, we also develop a fast algorithm which creates connecting segments with very simple computation. The low cost nature of our methods leads to a unique edge on the applications of massive and fast streaming environment...

Data reliability in complex directed networks

Sanz, Joaquín; Cozzo, Emanuele; Moreno, Yamir
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
The availability of data from many different sources and fields of science has made it possible to map out an increasing number of networks of contacts and interactions. However, quantifying how reliable these data are remains an open problem. From Biology to Sociology and Economy, the identification of false and missing positives has become a problem that calls for a solution. In this work we extend one of newest, best performing models -due to Guimera and Sales-Pardo in 2009- to directed networks. The new methodology is able to identify missing and spurious directed interactions, which renders it particularly useful to analyze data reliability in systems like trophic webs, gene regulatory networks, communication patterns and social systems. We also show, using real-world networks, how the method can be employed to help searching for new interactions in an efficient way.; Comment: Submitted for publication

Collaborative Storage Management In Sensor Networks

Tilak, Sameer; Abu-Ghazaleh, Nael; Heinzelman, Wendi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/08/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
In this paper, we consider a class of sensor networks where the data is not required in real-time by an observer; for example, a sensor network monitoring a scientific phenomenon for later play back and analysis. In such networks, the data must be stored in the network. Thus, in addition to battery power, storage is a primary resource: the useful lifetime of the network is constrained by its ability to store the generated data samples. We explore the use of collaborative storage technique to efficiently manage data in storage constrained sensor networks. The proposed collaborative storage technique takes advantage of spatial correlation among the data collected by nearby sensors to significantly reduce the size of the data near the data sources. We show that the proposed approach provides significant savings in the size of the stored data vs. local buffering, allowing the network to run for a longer time without running out of storage space and reducing the amount of data that will eventually be relayed to the observer. In addition, collaborative storage performs load balancing of the available storage space if data generation rates are not uniform across sensors (as would be the case in an event driven sensor network), or if the available storage varies across the network.; Comment: 13 pages...

Hardware co-processor to enable MIMO in next generation wireless networks

Horner, Nathaniel
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.79%
One prevailing technology in wireless communication is Multiple Input, Multiple Output (MIMO) communication. MIMO communication simultaneously transmits several data streams, each from their own antenna within the same frequency channel. This technique can increase data bandwidth by up to a factor of the number of transmitting antennas, but comes with the cost of a much higher computational complexity for the wireless receiver. MIMO communication exploits differing channel effects caused by physical distances between antennas to differentiate between transmitting antennas, an intrinsically two dimensional operation. Current Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), on the other hand, are designed to perform computations on one dimensional vectors of incoming data. To compensate for the lack of native support of these higher dimensional operations, current base stations are forced to add multiple new processing elements while many mobile devices cannot support MIMO communication. In order to allow wireless clients and stations to have native support of the two dimensional operations required by MIMO communication, a hardware co-processor was designed to allow the DSP to offload these operations onto another processor to reduce computation time.