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Espectroscopia do sistema KCL:KCN:OCN-:EU+2; Optical spectroscopy of K:Cl:KCN:OCN-1:Eu+2 system

Yasuoka, Fatima Maria Mitsue
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/11/1989 Português
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Na tentativa de estudar a viabilidade do sistema KCl:KCN:OCN-: Eu+2 como meio ativo para laser sintonizável na região do infravermelho médio, observou-se uma interessante característica deste sistema na região do visível. Os íons Eu+2 em sítios acoplados aos íons moleculares CN- e OCN- apresentam uma forte luminescência na região do verde (banda larga centrada em 505nm à temperatura ambiente), cuja característica possibilita um estudo posterior da emissão laser deste sistema. Neste trabalho estuda-se a transição 4f7 4f65d de íons Eu+2 por processo de absorção de um fóton, utilizando as técnicas de absorção ótica, luminescência e medição de tempo de vida. Estuda-se, também, a transição 4f7 4f7 (8S7/2 6P7/2) por processo de absorção de dois fótons. Para o estudo da interação entre os íons Eu+2 e íons moleculares CN- foram feitos tratamentos térmicos à diferentes temperaturas, na tentativa de tornar eficaz o aclopamento eletrônico-vibracional, devido à mobilidade que os íons Eu+2 apresentam na rede cristalina. Toda a parte de aquisição de dados é realizada por um sistema, desenvolvido no próprio Grupo de Ótica, acoplado ao microcomputador.; In the attempt to study the feasibility of the KCl:KCN:OCN-: Eu+2 system as an active medium for mid-infrared tunable lasers...

A sombra do objeto : considerações sobre a constituição do eu na psicanálise freudiana

Feres, Cláudia Mendes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
Português
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Tese (doutorado)-Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia Clínica e Cultura.; Este trabalho dedica-se à constituição de eu dentro do arcabouço freudiano, estudada a partir do prisma da melancolia. Apoiados na declaração de Freud (1917[1915]/2006) acerca dos efeitos da sombra do objeto sobre o eu, possuímos como objetivo a investigação das possibilidades de esta ser tomada como uma das vertentes constitutivas do eu. Partirmos da ideia de que o estado de desamparo, articulado às inscrições do sexual, é o ponto de origem de um psiquismo. É apontada e trabalhada a importância da formação de uma imagem narcísica. Utilizando-se a melancolia a partir da célebre metáfora do cristal partido (Freud, 1933[1932]/1980), apontamos o movimento de contra-luto, peleja em que o eu se rebela contra o trabalho de luto. Ao tentar apagar a perda, o eu, identificado à sombra do objeto, escorrega para outra perda, anterior e mais estrutural. Desponta um flanco que indica que houve uma perda: o eu-sombra. Tal fragmento carrega um resto sombrio não elaborável. Além da cisão do eu entre imagem narcísica e eu-sombra, acrescentar-se-ão o desmanche da mescla pulsional e o masoquismo erógeno: a pulsão de morte toma esse fragmento do eu como sua morada...

In search of an EU energy policy for Mediterranean renewables exchange : EU-wide system vs. ‘corridor by corridor’ approach

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; AHNER, Nicole
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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• To date there is no clear EU legal and regulatory framework governing renewables exchange across the Mediterranean. It is a patchwork of Member State, third country and EU energy regulation, complemented by case-sensitive renewables-specific trade arrangements that frame EU imports of energy from renewable sources (RES-E) generated by projects currently under development in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). • As the vision of a Mediterranean energy market for electricity requires extensive investments, institutional and legal reforms and a high level of regulatory accord among EU and MENA countries that is not attainable in the near future, we are in practice moving towards a ‘corridor-by-corridor’ approach rather than towards a fully-fledged EU-style system for Mediterranean RES-E exchanges. • The various regional institutions and organisations involved in EU-MED energy cooperation are crucial for regulatory convergence at the regional level, and thus to enable Mediterranean RES-E trade initiatives. • Since the Green Package allows Member States to use RES-E from non-EU countries for their EU-RES target compliance only if the green energy is physically imported into the EU and does not allow for statistical transfers between the Member States and the third countries...

Originality in EU copyright : full harmonisation through case law

ROSATI, Eleonora
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publishing Publicador: Edward Elgar Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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Full harmonization of the copyright laws of EU Member States has long been a holy grail for copyright lawyers, but with the reality thus far being only limited harmonization resulting from ad-hoc legislative interventions, there are serious questions over the feasibility and indeed desirability of this goal. Notwithstanding, as this book makes eloquently clear, whilst legislative initiatives have been limited, the CJEU has been acting proactively, establishing through its decisional practice the de facto harmonization of an important principle of copyright: the originality requirement. Through an assessment of the originality requirement, this work guides the reader in interpreting judicial decisions which are of fundamental importance to current and future understanding of EU copyright. The book’s holistic approach and methodology takes in analysis of; recent decisions of the CJEU in light of broader EU copyright reform debate; the implications of CJEU case law in Member States which have traditionally adopted different approaches to copyright (eg the UK); the originality requirement in EU, UK and continental Member States; recent UK decisions from an EU perspective; and academic copyright reform projects, both in Europe and the US. Originality in EU Copyright will appeal to academics...

The EU, the US and global climate governance

Fonte: Ashgate Publicador: Ashgate
Tipo: Livro
Português
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This volume presents a critical analysis of transatlantic relations in the field of environmental governance and climate change. The work focuses on understanding the possible trends in the evolution of global environmental governance and the prospects for breaking the current impasse on climate action. Drawing on research involving experts from eleven different universities and institutes, the authors provide innovative analyses on policy measures taken by the EU and the US, the world’s largest economic and commercial blocs, in a number of fields, ranging from general attitudes on environmental leadership with regard to climate change, to energy policies, new technologies for hydrocarbons extraction and carbon capture, as well as the effects of extreme weather events on climate-related political attitudes. The book examines the way in which the current attitudes of the EU and the US with regard to climate change will affect international cooperation and the building of consensus on possible climate policies, and looks to the future for international environmental governance, arguably one of the most pressing concerns of civilisation today. This book, which is based on research carried out in the context of the EU-financed FP7 research project TRANSWORLD...

Towards a global data protection framework in the field of law enforcement : an EU perspective

BLASI CASAGRAN, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This thesis seeks to examine the existing EU frameworks for data-sharing for law enforcement purposes, both within the EU and between the EU and third countries, the data protection challenges to which these give rise, and the possible responses to those challenges at both EU and global levels. The analysis follows a bottom-up approach, starting with an examination of the EU internal data-sharing instruments. After that, it studies the data transfers conducted under the scope of an international agreement; and finally, it concludes by discussing the current international initiatives for creating universal data protection standards. As for the EU data-sharing instruments, this thesis demonstrates that these systems present shortcomings with regard to their implementation and usage. Moreover, each instrument has its own provisions on data protection and, despite the adoption of a Framework Decision in 2008, this has not brought about a convergence of data protection rules in the JHA field. A similar multiplicity of instruments is also found when the EU transfers data to third countries for the purpose of preventing and combating crimes. This is evident from examining the existing data-sharing agreements between the EU and the US. Each agreement has a section on data protection and data security rules...

On the asynchronous approvals of GM crops: Potential market impacts of a trade disruption of EU soy imports

HENSELER Martin; PIOT-LEPETIT Isabelle; FERRARI Emanuele; GONZALEZ MELLADO Aida; BANSE Martin; GRETHE Harald; PARISI CLAUDIA; HÉLAINE Sophie
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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Due to their high protein content, soybeans are important feedstuffs in the European Union (EU). However, the cultivation of soybeans using genetically modified (GM) varieties in non-EU countries is increasing and the EU authorization of GM products takes longer than in other countries, leading to an asynchronous approval between the EU and non-EU countries that might induce soybean trade disruptions. This paper uses an integrated modelling system to simulate Argentina, Brazil and the United States ending soybean exports to the EU. The impact on world trade and on the EU import prices of soy products is analysed with a computable general equilibrium model. EU soy imports are shown to decline, and the import price of soybeans in the EU increases. The effects on EU agricultural markets are analysed based on a partial equilibrium model. Feed costs in the EU are found to increase with poultry and pork the most affected: production and exports decline and imports increase. However, the effects of a trade ban are found to be less profound than in many other studies due to compensating substitution effects at various market levels: increasing imports from third countries, increasing domestic oilseed production and the use of other protein feeds.; JRC.J.4-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

THE IMPACT OF EU SUGAR QUOTA REMOVAL ON EU EXTERNAL TRADE IN SUGAR: A BILATERAL PERSPECTIVE

BURRELL Alison; VAN DOORSLAER BENJAMIN; CIAIAN PAVEL; SALPUTRA GUNA
Fonte: AgEcon Publicador: AgEcon
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
Português
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As part of the 2006 reform of the European Union (EU) sugar regime, national quotas on the supply of sugar for domestic human consumption (for which beet producers receive a supported price) were renewed only up to 2014/15. It is the intention of the European Commission that they should not be renewed beyond that date, although this position is currently coming under renewed discussion. Three recent studies (LEI, 2010; European Commission, 2011a; Nolte et al., 2012) have examined the effects of sugar quota abolition on the EU market and its trade position. These studies suggest that the net importer status of the EU would be maintained, although net imports decrease. However, there exist no studies investigating changes in bilateral trade flows between EU and third countries. This paper analyses the impacts of quota sugar cessation on the bilateral trade flows between the EU and third countries in 2020 against a reference scenario in which quotas remain in force. The study uses the partial equilibrium model CAPRI, which covers 77 countries grouped into 40 trade blocks. It models bilateral trade flows and bilateral trade measures between the various trade blocks. The results show that, with the expiry of EU sugar quotas, total EU sugar imports would be 43% lower in 2020...

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - The 2013 Annual Economic Report on the EU Fishing Fleet (STECF 13-15)

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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The 2013 Annual Economic Report (AER) on the European Union (EU) fishing fleet provides a comprehensive overview of the latest information available on the structure and economic performance of EU Member States fishing fleets. The Results on the economic performance indicate that the EU fishing fleet was again in profitable in 2011, with 6% of income being retained as net profit. On the whole, the EU fleet showed improvements in most of the main economic performance indicators analysed when compared to 2010. Yet, in view of the uncertain economic climate and rising fuel prices, the economic performance of the EU fleet in the near future is unclear. Projections for 2012 indicate increased income for over three‐fifths of the fleets analysed but positive profit margins for less than half. This year’s publication includes: (1) an economic and structural overview of the EU fishing fleet; (2) a detailed economic and structural overview of the fishing fleets from each EU Member State; (3) qualitative economic performance assessments for 2011 and 2012 for each EU Member State; (4) economic performance projections for 2013 using the EIAA and BEMTOOL models; (5) regional analyses of the EU fishing fleet; (6) economic assessment of fleets targeting stocks subject the EU fisheries management plans; (7) the latest information on EU fish prices and price trends at EU and Member State level.; JRC.G.4-Maritime affairs

Does online trade live up to the promise of a borderless world? Evidence from the EU Digital Single Market

COWGILL Bo; DOROBANTU Cosmina; MARTENS Bertin
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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An important EU Digital Single Market policy objective is to achieve an open and integrated market for online e-commerce in the EU, to make it easy for consumers to go outside their domestic market and shop online in other EU Member States. This study applies a standard gravity model of international trade to Google e-commerce data to estimate the prevalence of home bias in online shopping in the EU. It compares how much EU Member States trade domestically and with other Member States, and how much the EU trades with itself and with the rest of the world. The research confirms the findings of the (offline) international trade literature, according to which there is strong home bias. There is no unambiguous evidence about the strengths or weaknesses of the EU Digital Single Market. Strong intra-EU home bias suggests that online consumers have a tendency to stay in their home country market. Equally strong extra-EU home bias suggests that online consumers who do decide to shop abroad have a tendency to stay in the EU however, rather than going to a non-EU country. There are indications that online home bias is lower in a comparable cross-border trade setting in North America. Data and methodological limitations do not allow a more detailed analysis.; JRC.J.3-Information Society

Common Noise Assessment Methods in EU: CNOSSOS-EU (Part I: The roadmap)

KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; GERGELY Balazs; ANFOSSO Fabienne; PAVIOTTI Marco
Fonte: I-INCE International Institute of Noise Control Engineering Publicador: I-INCE International Institute of Noise Control Engineering
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
Português
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In the context of the European Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END), the European Commission decided to prepare Common NOise aSSessment methOdS (CNOSSOS-EU) for road, railway, aircraft and industrial noise in order to improve the reliability and the comparability of results across the EU Member States. This paper will present the roadmap of preparation of CNOSSOS-EU which includes: (a) the definition of the target quality and input values requirements for European noise mapping; (b) the establishment of requirements and criteria for the screening, rating and pre-selection among existing assessment methods in EU, USA and Japan that best cover the needs and requirements of END; (c) the conceptualisation of a ¿fit for purpose¿ framework which allows a two-level application of CNOSSOS-EU according to the objectives of the assessment; (d) the selection of the components the common noise assessment methods through a series of Workshops, benchmarking/testing and other ad-hoc meetings with European noise experts; (e) the drafting of the CNOSSOS-EU methodology along with guidelines for its competence use in connection with data requirements and in line with the two-levels ¿fit for purpose¿ framework; (f) the open consultation...

How International Actors Interact: Explaining China's engagement with the EU, 2002-2007

GAENSSMANTEL, Frank
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
Português
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Defense Date: 30/09/2009; Examining Board: Marise Cremona (EUI, Law Department), Christopher Hughes (LSE), Pascal Vennesson (EUI/RSCAS) (Supervisor), Lanxin Xiang (Grad Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); This thesis investigates how Chinese decision-makers deal with the complexities of EU foreign-policy making. Which of the many entities within in the EU, among Brussels-based institutions and in member states, do they approach and how? How can the modalities of engagement be explained? What patterns emerge and how and why do they change over time? In answering these questions, the thesis provides insights on three under-researched issues of international relations: first, on how outsiders engage with the EU and whether the EU is capable of managing requests from the outside; second, on how China makes its EU policy, and, by extension, to what extent its decision-making structure can deal with complex foreignpolicy challenges; third, and more generally, on how international actors interact through numerous contacts among the bureaucratic agents within them. To reach these goals, a new analytical framework is introduced that distinguishes three processes to explain such transnational bureaucratic interaction. First...

Participation in EU Rule-making: A Rights-Based Approach

MENDES, Joana
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Livro
Português
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(Published version of EUI Ph.D. thesis, 2009.); * Provides a detailed analysis of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance case law on the right to be heard in adjudicatory and rulemaking procedures, including a critical discussion of seminal cases * Presents a critical overview of participation in EU governance, from the early years of integration to the EU post-Lisbon * Develops a powerful legal argument for the extension of participation rights in EU law, to offer better protection to those affected by European regulation * Offers a legal insight into matters usually studied by political scientists, contrasting the perspective of the courts on participation with the broader perspective of the political process The limited scope of participation in the making of EU law remains a continued source of controversy, featuring prominently in recent institutional and political developments that have been shaping the EU's constitutional framework - most intensely in the follow up of the Commission's White Paper on Governance. Yet little attention has been paid to participation rights as a means of ensuring the procedural protection of persons affected by EU regulation in its diverse forms. This is a dimension of the rule of law that has been largely ignored by EU legislative and judicial bodies. Not only the legislator...

The 'Right to Damages' under EU Competition Law: From Courage v. Crehan to the White Paper and beyond

MILUTINOVIC, Veljko
Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Livro
Português
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(Published version of EUI Ph.D. thesis, 2008.); Since the seminal judgment of the European Court of Justice in Courage v. Crehan (2001), a right to damages is available not only to individuals (i.e. companies) acting against the Member States, but also to individuals acting against each other, as a result of the direct effect of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU. However, it is only since the Commission’s 2008 White Paper on Damages that a real impetus to the ‘private enforcement’ implied by this decision has taken place. If the White Paper is converted into legislation, it will have profound implications on the way both EU competition law and European (EU or national) private law functions. It is the provocative thesis of this book that the Commission’s struggle for a more ‘effective’ system of private enforcement has gone from being a mere enhancement of a single EU policy (competition) to slowly but surely fuelling a paradigm shift in EU law. In an absorbing and richly detailed analysis of this thesis, the author examines such controversial and complex issues facing private enforcement of competition law in the EU as the following: - the binding effect of competition authority decisions on a civil proceeding; - the pass-on defence and standing of indirect purchasers; - distinguishing between restitution and compensation; - arguments defining the ‘right’ plaintiff’; - national procedural autonomy; - containing the ‘spill-over’ effect; and - assessing a unified competition litigation system. The discussion of these issues and others underscores their tendency...

The role of European Union integration in post-communist democratization in Bulgaria and Macedonia

Mitropolitski, Simeon
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Cette recherche porte sur la dimension interprétative de l'intégration européenne et sur son rôle dans la démocratisation au sein des pays postcommunistes. Je focalise mon attention sur la signification pour les gens desdits pays que revêtent la participation politique, la compétence politique, et l’action collective. Cette signification prend forme selon des circonstances spécifiques, agencées par les relations de pouvoir asymétriques avec l’Union européenne (UE). J’examine la littérature sur le rôle de l'intégration européenne dans la démocratisation des pays postcommunistes et je distingue deux paradigmes théoriques principaux : un premier qui met l'accent sur le processus institutionnel, l’autre sur le processus instrumental stratégique. Au sein de ces deux approches, je présente différents auteurs qui voient l'UE soit comme un facteur pro-démocratique, soit comme un facteur antidémocratique dans le contexte postcommuniste de transition politique. Cette recherche ne suit pas théoriquement et méthodologiquement les études contenues dans la revue de la littérature. Plutôt, elle s’appuie sur un modèle théorique inspiré des recherches de McFalls sur la réunification culturelle allemande après 1989. Ce modèle...

Modulating the Photoluminescence of Bridged Silsesquioxanes Incorporating Eu(3+)-Complexed n,n '-Diureido-2,2 '-bipyridine Isomers: Application for Luminescent Solar Concentrators

Graffion, Julien; Cattoen, Xavier; Man, Michel Wong Chi; Fernandes, Vasco R.; Andre, Paulo S.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; Carlos, Luis D.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Two new urea-bipyridine derived bridged organosilanes (P5 and P6) have been synthesized and their hydrolysis-condensation under nucleophilic catalysis in the presence of Eu(3+) salts led to luminescent bridged silsesquioxanes (M5-Eu and M6-Eu). An important loading of Eu(3+) (up to 11%(w)) can be obtained for the material based on the 6,6'-isomer. Indeed the photoluminescence properties of these materials, that have been investigated in depth (photoluminescence (PL), quantum yield, lifetimes), show a significantly different complexation mode of the Eu(3+) ions for M6-Eu, compared with M4-Eu (obtained from the already-reported 4,4'-isomer) and M5-Eu. Moreover, M6-Eu exhibits the highest absolute emission quantum yield value (0.18 +/- 0.02) among these three materials. The modification of the sol composition upon the addition of a malonamide derivative led to similar luminescent features but with an increased quantum yield (026 +/- 0.03). In addition, M6-Eu can be processed as thin films by spin-coating on glass substrates, leading to plates coated by a thin layer (similar to 54 nm) of Eu(3+)-containing hybrid silica exhibiting one of the highest emission quantum yields reported so far for films of Eu(3+)-containing hybrids (0.34 +/- 0.03) and an interesting potential as new luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) with an optical conversion efficiency of similar to 4%. The ratio between the light guided to the film edges and the one emitted by the surface of the film was quantified through the mapping of the intensity of the red pixels (in the RGB color model) from a film image. This quantification enabled a more accurate estimation of the transport losses due to the scattering of the emitted light in the film (0.40)...

Modulating the photoluminescence of bridged silsesquioxanes incorporating Eu(3+)-complexed n,n '-diureido-2,2 '-bipyridine isomers: application for luminescent solar concentrators

Graffion, Julien; Cattoën, Xavier; Man, Michel Wong Chi; Fernandes, Vasco R.; André, Paulo S.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.; Carlos, Luís D.
Fonte: American Chemical Society Publicador: American Chemical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
Two new urea-bipyridine derived bridged organosilanes (P5 and P6) have been synthesized and their hydrolysis-condensation under nucleophilic catalysis in the presence of Eu(3+) salts led to luminescent bridged silsesquioxanes (M5-Eu and M6-Eu). An important loading of Eu(3+) (up to 11%(w)) can be obtained for the material based on the 6,6'-isomer. Indeed the photoluminescence properties of these materials, that have been investigated in depth (photoluminescence (PL), quantum yield, lifetimes), show a significantly different complexation mode of the Eu(3+) ions for M6-Eu, compared with M4-Eu (obtained from the already-reported 4,4'-isomer) and M5-Eu. Moreover, M6-Eu exhibits the highest absolute emission quantum yield value (0.18 +/- 0.02) among these three materials. The modification of the sol composition upon the addition of a malonamide derivative led to similar luminescent features but with an increased quantum yield (026 +/- 0.03). In addition, M6-Eu can be processed as thin films by spin-coating on glass substrates, leading to plates coated by a thin layer (similar to 54 nm) of Eu(3+)-containing hybrid silica exhibiting one of the highest emission quantum yields reported so far for films of Eu(3+)-containing hybrids (0.34 +/- 0.03) and an interesting potential as new luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) with an optical conversion efficiency of similar to 4%. The ratio between the light guided to the film edges and the one emitted by the surface of the film was quantified through the mapping of the intensity of the red pixels (in the RGB color model) from a film image. This quantification enabled a more accurate estimation of the transport losses due to the scattering of the emitted light in the film (0.40)...

Ética da alteridade segundo Emmanuel Lévinas

Dias, Romeu do Nascimento
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
Português
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Este trabalho apresenta a concepção da ética em Emmanuel Lévinas, acentuando a exterioridade e a alteridade do Outro. Para Lévinas a ontologia não deu conta de acolher o Outro como totalmente Outro, assumindo um caráter de violência e de poder do Eu sobre os entes. Na tentativa de fugir desse paradigma, o filósofo desenvolve um pensamento que tem como base a ética como filosofia primeira e como fundamento a ideia do infinito. A ética fará o papel de questionamento do poder totalizante do Eu e garantirá o acolhimento da alteridade do Outro. O Outro separado do Eu será o infinito que suscitará no Eu o desejo de ir ao encontro do Outro. Será por meio do Rosto que o Eu se encontrará com o Outro. O Rosto do Outro é fragilidade, nudez, discurso, epifania, resistência e é por onde o Eu encontra fisicamente o Outro. Na relação face-a-face o Outro, em sua vulnerabilidade, inaugurará a linguagem fazendo um apelo ético ao Eu, esse apelo é o „tu não matarás‟, essa será a primeira palavra do Rosto. Estar diante do Outro exige ao Eu responder a esse apelo ético saindo de si e se abrindo na acolhida do Outro, sendo responsável por ele. Quando o Outro olha para o Eu, o Eu já é responsável por esse Outro, com uma responsabilidade infinita...

The role of religion in national-EU relations: the cases of Greece and Turkey

Fokas, Efterpe
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2004 Português
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This thesis examines the role of religion in national-EU relations. The focus is on how EU membership (or potential membership) may affect nations of a particular religious background in a particular way and, furthermore, whether religious difference affects national-EU relations in a particular way. The study is based on an internal perspective to two countries-Greece and Turkey-whose religious traditions stand outside a 'core' of religious traditions within the European Union (that is, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism). On the basis of these two cases I argue that neither religion per se (as theology or doctrine), nor the prevalence of a particular faith are definitive factors in national-EU relations. Rather, it is mainly in the domain of institutional interests of the `church' vis-ä-vis the 'state', that we find religion influencing national-EU relations. These institutional interests are, in turn, shaped by the relationship between religion and national identity in each case, and the relationship between 'church' and 'state'. The differences in these relationships in the cases of Greece and Turkey yield vast differences in the way 'religion' affects national-EU relations. This thesis examines the role of religion in national-EU relations. The focus is on how EU membership (or potential membership) may affect nations of a particular religious background in a particular way and...

Making EU foreign policy towards a 'Pariah' state: consensus on sanctions in EU foreign policy towards Myanmar

Minsat, Arthur
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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This thesis seeks to explain why the European Union ratcheted up restrictive measures on Myanmar from 1991 until 2010, despite divergent interests of EU member states and the apparent inability of sanctions to quickly achieve the primary objectives of EU policy. This empirical puzzle applies the ‘sanctions paradox’ to the issue of joint action in the EU. It also connects the assessment of policy effectiveness to EU foreign policy-making. The investigation unravels this conundrum through competitive theory testing. The study discovers that EU foreign policy was essentially decided by the largest member states. Since 1996, the UK has fostered a consensus among EU policymakers on a principled common policy, which would induce political reform in Myanmar mainly via the implementation of punitive measures. Hence, noncompliance by the target with EU demands offers a credible, but insufficient explanation of why the EU tightened its sanctions regime. US pressure on EU policy was marginal. The dissertation argues that a ‘normative’ interpretation of liberal intergovernmentalism best solves this puzzle. The EU met domestic pressures for action, although the measures adopted were clearly too inadequate to be effective. Feedback on policy effectiveness did not play a significant role in EU decision-making. EU policy was driven by a consensus to treat Myanmar as a ‘pariah’ state. Ideological motivations have largely outweighed material interests. Normative arguments were necessary to put proposals on the common agenda; yet...