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A Influência do Digital na Criação de Espaços de Aprendizagem de Alta Qualidade

Silva, Pedro Nuno Moreira da
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tese apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do Grau de Doutor em Ciências da Informação, especialização em Sistemas e Tecnologias da Informação.; O uso generalizado de Redes de Comunicação e das Tecnologias de Informação é hoje um fenómeno mundial, com múltiplos impactos na forma como se ensina/aprende e nos contextos em que esse processo decorre – Espaços de Aprendizagem. Estes espaços incluem Espaços Físicos de Aprendizagem, Espaços Virtuais de Aprendizagem, Espaços Colaborativos de Aprendizagem, entre outros. Estas propostas estão a proporcionar novos cenários no processo ensino/aprendizagem, com contornos ainda não muito bem definidos. Um Espaço de Aprendizagem necessita de um conjunto complexo de recursos materiais e humanos. Justifica-se um estudo mais aprofundado e continuado, dada a relevância que este tem nas Instituições de Ensino Superior. Nesse sentido, o objectivo geral da presente investigação é conhecer as percepções dos Docentes do Ensino Superior, sobre os Espaços de Aprendizagem, das instituições onde leccionam. São descritos os tipos de espaços existentes, a sua importância, as necessidades sentidas pelos docentes e o tipo de equipamentos sugeridos para esses Espaços. Neste contexto...

Método para proteção dos dados contra falhas de comunicação em redes de sensores sem fios.; Method for data protection against communication failures in smart sensors networks.

Ramires Sobrinho, Rubens
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um método para garantir a proteção dos dados contra falhas de comunicação, em redes de sensores inteligentes sem fios. A rede sem fios foi empregada nos ensaios de modelos físicos reduzidos em centrífuga para estudar o comportamento das âncoras "tartaruga", utilizadas nas linhas de ancoragem de sistemas oceânicos para produção de óleo e gás em águas profundas. O emprego da tecnologia de redes de sensores sem fios tem aumentado em muitas áreas da sociedade, principalmente na engenharia. Dessa forma, muitos problemas estão sendo enfrentados e estudados pelos pesquisadores. Sobretudo no que diz respeito à interferência ambiental, relação de potência e alcance, integridade da informação, miniaturização dos dispositivos, autonomia de energia, limitação de algoritmos e vida útil. A inserção da tecnologia de redes de sensores inteligentes sem fios nos ensaios de modelos físicos reduzidos em centrífuga, além de ser inédita no Brasil, permitirá avanços significativos na determinação de parâmetros que, atualmente, são de difícil obtenção com tecnologias convencionais como os sistemas de aquisição de dados e controle que utilizam cabos e fios. Muitas vezes depara-se com a inconveniência do peso dos cabos e dificuldades de instalação dos dispositivos nos modelos...

Empresa, sociedade e comunicação: debates e tendências na transição pós-moderna; Business, Society and Communication: debates and trends in the context of postmodern transition.

Gioielli, Rafael Luis Pompeia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2012 Português
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Na medida em que o século XXI avança, a sociedade contemporânea passa por transformações socioculturais importantes que gradativamente a distanciam do contexto que caracterizou a modernidade-industrial. Entre outros desdobramentos da transição pós-moderna, a relação entre empresa, sociedade e comunicação se transforma. Uma das dimensões deste fenômeno é a emergência de um modelo específico de Responsabilidade Social Empresarial (RSE), denominado neste trabalho de modelo dinâmico-interativo de RSE. Fundamentado em uma abordagem políticocontratual, prevê um processo permanente de negociação por meio do qual as responsabilidades mútuas entre empresa e sociedade se definem dinamicamente. Paralelamente, a disseminação das novas tecnologias da comunicação e das redes propicia a emergência de um sistema informal de controle sobre as corporações o qual opera na esfera pública mediática por meio da mobilização política da sociedade civil. A este sistema emergente denominamos de governança corporativa extrainstitucional. Frente a estes dois processos, a prática da comunicação empresarial encara desafios que sinalizam para os limites do seu paradigma de origem funcionalista. Por conta disso, advoga-se pela necessidade de adoção de um novo paradigma para a comunicação empresarial capaz de reconhecê-la não mais como instrumento de gestão...

A utilização de recursos audiovisuais em comunidades virtuais de aprendizagem : potencialidades e limites para comunicação e construção de conhecimentos em rede; The use of audiovisual resources in virtual learning communities : potentialities and limits to communication and knowledge construction in network

Carla Lopes Rodriguez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Esta tese tem como objetivo mostrar de quais formas a utilização de recursos audiovisuais, como câmeras digitais, aparelhos portáteis multiplayer e ferramentas hipermidiáticas disponíveis em um ambiente de Educação a Distância (EAD), pode favorecer a comunicação e a construção de conhecimentos em rede em um contexto de Inclusão Digital. Esses recursos foram utilizados para o processo de interação e produção de conhecimentos por uma Comunidade Virtual de Aprendizagem (CVA) em formação. Essa CVA, denominada Re@ge - Rede virtual de Agentes - instanciada no ambiente de EAD Tidia-Ae/Sakai, foi composta por pesquisadores, médicos, agentes comunitários de saúde, educador físico, enfermeiros e pessoas vinculadas aos espaços públicos de acesso as Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC) do município de Pedreira, interior do estado de São Paulo (Brasil). Neste contexto, foram criadas situações colaborativas de aprendizagem onde os usuários/aprendizes se apropriavam dos procedimentos, estratégias e recursos disponíveis para coletar, discutir e gerar conteúdos multimidiáticos. Os conteúdos coletados eram compartilhados, discutidos e reelaborados pelos participantes na comunidade virtual e, posteriormente...

Feasibility of Using Distributed Wireless Mesh Networks for Medical Emergency Response

Braunstein, Brian; Trimble, Troy; Mishra, Rajesh; Manoj, B. S.; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.74%
Achieving reliable, efficient data communications networks at a disaster site is a difficult task. Network paradigms, such as Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) architectures, form one exemplar for providing high-bandwidth, scalable data communication for medical emergency response activity. WMNs are created by self-organized wireless nodes that use multi-hop wireless relaying for data transfer. In this paper, we describe our experience using a mesh network architecture we developed for homeland security and medical emergency applications. We briefly discuss the architecture and present the traffic behavioral observations made by a client-server medical emergency application tested during a large-scale homeland security drill. We present our traffic measurements, describe lessons learned, and offer functional requirements (based on field testing) for practical 802.11 mesh medical emergency response networks. With certain caveats, the results suggest that 802.11 mesh networks are feasible and scalable systems for field communications in disaster settings.

Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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35.74%
The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed.

Exploiting Predictable Observer Mobility for Power Efficient Sensor Network Communication

Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Arnab
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Masters Thesis; This thesis introduces techniques that exploit predictable mobility of the observer (data sink) to reduce communication range, thereby saving power in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The movement of public transport vehicles is predictable, and such vehicles can act as mobile observers in wide area WSNs for applications such as pollution monitoring. To understand the gains due to mobility in single hop WSNs, data collection is modelled as a queuing process, with random arrivals representing randomness in the spatial distribution of sensors. This queuing model aids in ana- lyzing the success in data collection and in quantifying network power consumption. A communication protocol is proposed which achieves the predicted power savings. In multihop WSNs, mobility reduces the expected number of hops from sensors to the observer, leading to significant power savings. In addition, having dedicated high data-rate relays near the path of the observer reduces power by orders of magnitude.

A Multiscale Data Representation for Distributed Sensor Networks

Wagner, Raymond; Sarvotham, Shriram; Baraniuk, Richard G.; Wagner, Raymond; Sarvotham, Shriram; Baraniuk, Richard G.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Conference paper
Português
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Conference Paper; Though several wavelet-based compression solutions for wireless sensor network measurements have been proposed, no such technique has yet appreciated the need to couple a wavelet transform tolerant of irregularly sampled data with the data transport protocol governing communications in the network. As power is at a premium in sensor nodes, such a technique is necessary to reduce costly communication overhead. To this end, we present an irregular wavelet transform capable of adapting to an arbitrary, multiscale network routing hierarchy. Inspired by the Haar wavelet in the regular setting, our wavelet basis forms a tight frame adapted to the structure of the network. We demonstrate results highlighting the approximation capabilities of such a transform and the clear reduction in communication cost when transmitting a compressed snapshot of the network to an outside user.

A Bit More To IT: Scholarly Communication Forums as Socio-Technical Interaction Networks

Kling, Rob; McKim, Geoffrey; King, Adam
Fonte: Rob Kling Center for Social Informatics Publicador: Rob Kling Center for Social Informatics
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 70329 bytes; 96707 bytes; 87393 bytes; 109164 bytes; 10176 bytes; 119138 bytes; image/jpeg; image/jpeg; image/jpeg; image/jpeg; image/jpeg; text/html
Português
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In this article, we examine the conceptual models that help us understand the development and sustainability of scholarly and professional communication forums on the Internet, such as conferences, pre-print servers, field-wide data sets, and collaboratories. We first present and document the information processing model that is implicitly advanced in most discussions about scholarly communications -- the “Standard Model.” Then we present an alternative model, a model that considers information technologies as Socio-Technical Interaction Networks (STINs). STIN models provide a richer understanding of human behavior with online scholarly communications forums. They also help to further a more complete understanding of the conditions and activities that support the sustainability of these forums within a field than does the Standard Model. We illustrate the significance of the STIN model with examples of scholarly communication forums drawn from the fields of high energy physics, molecular biology, and information systems.; Indiana University

A framework for the security configuration of wireless sensor networks.

Cionca, Victor
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
peer-reviewed; The future of our society, the connected world of tomorrow, will be one of better integration with, and more awareness of our surroundings. Wireless sensor networks will breathe life into objects and allow us to extend our sensory perception to every square of land and water. Before large amounts of information regarding our private lives and surroundings start being sent around the world,privacy issues have to be addressed. At the moment there is no transparent or holistic security solution for wireless sensor networks. Because sensor networks have a wide range of applications with very di erent requirements, and because they have constrained hardware, security solutions can't be static but need to be con gured, tailored, for every single applications, to make effi cient use of the available resources while providing the required security level. Furthermore, the control over the security con guration needs to be placed in the hands of the sensor network's user, because only the user knows the details of the application and can control its parameters. This thesis presents a framework for the security con guration of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which provides complete and transparent communication security to any data stream...

On the use of the ZigBee protocol for wireless sensor networks

Nieuwenhuyse, Anneleen Van; Alves, Mário; Koubâa, Anis
Fonte: IPP Hurray! Research Group Publicador: IPP Hurray! Research Group
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This project was developed within the ART-WiSe framework of the IPP-HURRAY group (http://www.hurray.isep.ipp.pt), at the Polytechnic Institute of Porto (http://www.ipp.pt). The ART-WiSe – Architecture for Real-Time communications in Wireless Sensor networks – framework (http://www.hurray.isep.ipp.pt/art-wise) aims at providing new communication architectures and mechanisms to improve the timing performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The architecture is based on a two-tiered protocol structure, relying on existing standard communication protocols, namely IEEE 802.15.4 (Physical and Data Link Layers) and ZigBee (Network and Application Layers) for Tier 1 and IEEE 802.11 for Tier 2, which serves as a high-speed backbone for Tier 1 without energy consumption restrictions. Within this trend, an application test-bed is being developed with the objectives of implementing, assessing and validating the ART-WiSe architecture. Particularly for the ZigBee protocol case; even though there is a strong commercial lobby from the ZigBee Alliance (http://www.zigbee.org), there is neither an open source available to the community for this moment nor publications on its adequateness for larger-scale WSN applications. This project aims at fulfilling these gaps by providing: a deep analysis of the ZigBee Specification...

Analysis of urban traffic data sets for VANETs simulations

Castellano, Alice; Cuomo, Francesca
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET) are self-organized, distributed communication networks built up from moving vehicles where each node is characterized by variable speed, strict limits of freedom in movement patterns and a variety of traffic dynamics. In the last few years vehicular traffic is attracting a growing attention from both industry and research, due to the importance of the related applications, ranging from traffic control to road safety. However, less attention has been paid to the modeling of realistic user mobility through real empirical data that would allow to develop much more effective communication and networking schemes. The aim of this study is then twofold: on one hand we derived real mobility patters to be used in a VANET simulator and on the other hand we simulated the VANET data dissemination achieved with different broadcast protocols in our real traffic setting.; Comment: Abstract presented at INFOCOM 2013 N2WOMEN workshop

Secure Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks Data Using Linear Kolmogorov Watermarking Technique

Harjito, Bambang; Potdar, Vidyasagar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.75%
In Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), All communications between different nodes are sent out in a broadcast fashion. These networks are used in a variety of applications including military, environmental, and smart spaces. Sensors are susceptible to various types of attack, such as data modification, data insertion and deletion, or even physical capture and sensor replacement. Hence security becomes important issue in WSNs. However given the fact that sensors are resources constrained, hence the traditional intensive security algorithms are not well suited for WSNs. This makes traditional security techniques, based on data encryption, not very suitable for WSNs. This paper proposes Linear Kolmogorov watermarking technique for secure data communication in WSNs. We provide a security analysis to show the robustness of the proposed techniques against various types of attacks. This technique is robust against data deletion, packet replication and Sybil attacks

A Faster Counting Protocol for Anonymous Dynamic Networks

Milani, Alessia; Mosteiro, Miguel A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
We study the problem of counting the number of nodes in a slotted-time communication network, under the challenging assumption that nodes do not have identifiers and the network topology changes frequently. That is, for each time slot links among nodes can change arbitrarily provided that the network is always connected. Tolerating dynamic topologies is crucial in face of mobility and unreliable communication whereas, even if identifiers are available, it might be convenient to ignore them in massive networks with changing topology. Counting is a fundamental task in distributed computing since knowing the size of the system often facilitates the design of solutions for more complex problems. Currently, the best upper bound proved on the running time to compute the exact network size is double-exponential. However, only linear complexity lower bounds are known, leaving open the question of whether efficient Counting protocols for Anonymous Dynamic Networks exist or not. In this paper we make a significant step towards answering this question by presenting a distributed Counting protocol for Anonymous Dynamic Networks which has exponential time complexity. Our algorithm ensures that eventually every node knows the exact size of the system and stops executing the algorithm. Previous Counting protocols have either double-exponential time complexity...

Analysis of Neighbourhoods in Multi-layered Dynamic Social Networks

Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław; Musiał, Katarzyna; Skibicki, Krzysztof
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
Social networks existing among employees, customers or users of various IT systems have become one of the research areas of growing importance. A social network consists of nodes - social entities and edges linking pairs of nodes. In regular, one-layered social networks, two nodes - i.e. people are connected with a single edge whereas in the multi-layered social networks, there may be many links of different types for a pair of nodes. Nowadays data about people and their interactions, which exists in all social media, provides information about many different types of relationships within one network. Analysing this data one can obtain knowledge not only about the structure and characteristics of the network but also gain understanding about semantic of human relations. Are they direct or not? Do people tend to sustain single or multiple relations with a given person? What types of communication is the most important for them? Answers to these and more questions enable us to draw conclusions about semantic of human interactions. Unfortunately, most of the methods used for social network analysis (SNA) may be applied only to one-layered social networks. Thus, some new structural measures for multi-layered social networks are proposed in the paper...

Testing dimension and non-classicality in communication networks

Bowles, Joseph; Brunner, Nicolas; Pawłowski, Marcin
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
We consider networks featuring preparation, transformation, and measurement devices, in which devices exchange communication via mediating physical systems. We investigate the problem of testing the dimension of the mediating systems in the device-independent scenario, that is, based on observable data alone. A general framework for tackling this problem is presented, considering both classical and quantum systems. These methods can then also be used to certify the non-classicality of the mediating systems, given an upper bound on their dimension. Several case studies are reported, which illustrate the relevance of the framework. These examples also show that, for fixed dimension, quantum systems largely outperform classical ones. Moreover, the use of a transformation device considerably improves noise tolerance when compared to simple prepare-and-measure networks. These results suggest that the classical simulation of quantum systems becomes costly in terms of dimension, even for simple networks.; Comment: 11 pages, published version

Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution

Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Cuttone, Andrea; Madsen, Mette My; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years - the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographic, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1,000 individuals, using state-of-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

Mobility Diversity in Mobile Wireless Networks

Havary-Nassab, Veria; Shahbazpanahi, Shahram; Valaee, Shahrokh
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
We introduce the novel concept of mobility diversity for mobile sensor or communication networks as the diversity introduced by transmitting data over different topologies of the network. We show how node mobility can provide diversity by changing the topology of the network. More specifically, we consider a mobile network of a sensor node and a number of sink nodes which are all moving randomly according to different Wiener process mobility models. Assuming that the network topology evolves with time and assuming that the connectivity of the sensor node to at least one sink node is needed for successful communication, we calculate three performance measures for this network, i) the expected number of time instants, where the sensor node is connected to at least one sink node, ii) the probability of outage, being the probability that no sink node is in the vicinity of the sensor node during the observation interval, and finally, iii) the maximum number of consequent failures in the communication. Our theoretical and numerical analysis show that increasing the mobility parameter of the sensor node increases the average number of successful transmissions, decreases the probability of outage, and reduces the maximum delay in the senor-sink communication.

Message in a Sealed Bottle: Privacy Preserving Friending in Social Networks

Zhang, Lan; Li, Xiang-Yang
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.76%
Many proximity-based mobile social networks are developed to facilitate connections between any two people, or to help a user to find people with matched profile within a certain distance. A challenging task in these applications is to protect the privacy the participants' profiles and personal interests. In this paper, we design novel mechanisms, when given a preference-profile submitted by a user, that search a person with matching-profile in decentralized multi-hop mobile social networks. Our mechanisms are privacy-preserving: no participants' profile and the submitted preference-profile are exposed. Our mechanisms establish a secure communication channel between the initiator and matching users at the time when the matching user is found. Our rigorous analysis shows that our mechanism is secure, privacy-preserving, verifiable, and efficient both in communication and computation. Extensive evaluations using real social network data, and actual system implementation on smart phones show that our mechanisms are significantly more efficient then existing solutions.; Comment: 13 pages, 7 figures

A Reactive Location Routing Algorithm with Cluster-Based Flooding for Inter-Vehicle Communication

Aquino S,Raúl; B,Arthur Edwards
Fonte: Centro de Investigación en computación, IPN Publicador: Centro de Investigación en computación, IPN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 Português
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In this paper, we present a reactive location routing algorithm with cluster-based flooding for inter-vehicle communication. We consider a motorway environment with associated high mobility and compare position-based and non-position-based routing strategies, along with a limiting function for flooding mechanisms in reactive ad-hoc protocols. The performance of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-Hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) for non-positional and Location Routing Algorithm with Cluster-Based Flooding (LORA_CBF) for positional algorithms is considered. First, for small-scale networks, our research validates our proposed simulation model with the results of a test bed and the results of mathematical analysis. Then, for large-scale networks, we use simulations to compare our model with both the AODV and DSR reactive routing algorithms. Finally, we use a microscopic traffic model, developed in OPNET, to ascertain the mobility of 250 vehicles on a motorway with regards to average Route Discovery (RD) time, End-to-End Delay (EED), Routing Load, Routing Overhead, Overhead, and Delivery Ratio.