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O Eu construído : Identidade pessoal e consciência de Si

Faia, Maria Amélia
Fonte: Edições Universitárias Lusófona Publicador: Edições Universitárias Lusófona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 56134 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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O problema da identidade pessoal, apresentado na nossa dissertação, tem como preocupação central discernir as condições que viabilizam a sua construção e permanência através do tempo, tendo como paradigma de interpretação o problema da relação do sujeito consigo próprio, com os outros e com o universo simbólico duma determinada época histórica. Assim, a identidade pessoal surge-nos indissociável da respectiva relação com o contexto sócio-cultural da contemporaneidade, onde a coexistência de múltiplos e díspares quadros de referência, impulsionam o eu em direcções distintas, provocando a sua exposição a modelos, valores e estilos de vida diferentes, por vezes até antagónicos, pela proliferação e intensificação dos processos de interacção social. A interioridade do sujeito existencial está agora “colonizada” por uma pluralidade de vozes, que concorrem entre si reclamando o seu direito à existência. Neste contexto, defendemos a ideia de que compete ao sujeito retirar de cada uma delas os elementos pertinentes que permitam a elaboração dos conteúdos pessoais da sua própria interioridade, ou seja, compete ao eu fazer uma síntese hermenêutica de carácter egológico que permita delinear os contornos de uma subjectividade distinta das demais. Esta ideia de identidade enquanto projecto pessoal...

Study on the observation of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) valence states in low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses

SAMPAIO, J. A.; FILADELPHO, M. C.; ANDRADE, A. A.; ROHLING, J. H.; MEDINA, A. N.; BENTO, A. C.; SILVA, L. M. da; GANDRA, F. C. G.; NUNES, L. A. O.; BAESSO, M. L.
Fonte: IOP PUBLISHING LTD Publicador: IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The optical, magnetic and structural properties of Eu doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. The optical absorption coefficient presented two bands at 39 246 and 29 416 cm(-1), which were assigned respectively to the 4f(7) ((8)S(7/2)) -> 4f(6) (4F(J)) 5d (T(2g)), and 4f(7) ((8)S(7/2)) -> 4f(6) (4F(J)) 5d (E(g)) transitions of Eu(2+). The fluorescence measured at 300 K on a sample doped with 0.5 wt% of Eu(2)O(3) exhibited a broad band centered at 17 350 cm(-1), which is attributed to the 4f(6)5d -> 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+), whereas the additional peaks are due to the (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) (J = 1, 2, 4) transitions of Eu(3+). From magnetization and XANES data it was possible to evaluate the fractions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) for the sample doped with 0.5 and 5.0 wt% of Eu(2)O(3), the values of which were approximately 30 and 70%, respectively.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); CAPES; FAPERJ; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)

Recuperação de Eu(III) e U(VI) de efluentes aquosos utilizando a técnica de membranas líquidas suportadas (MLS) e macrocíclicos como agentes extratores; RECOVERY IONS Eu(III) AND U(VI) FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS USING THE SUPPORTED LIQUID MEMBRANES (SLM) TECHNIQUE AND MACROCYCLICS AS EXTRACTOR AGENTS

Santos, Jacinete Lima dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/10/2007 Português
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Este trabalho apresenta um estudo sobre a síntese e caracterização de novos agentes extratores da família dos calixarenos, utilizados com a técnica de membranas líquido suportadas para recuperar íons Eu(III) e U(VI) de efluentes aquosos. Os novos agentes extratores, os n-acetatocalix[n]arenos ( n= 4, 6 e 8), foram obtidos a partir da reação de acetilação dos p-terc-butilcalix[n]arenos (n = 4, 6 e 8) com anidrido acético e caracterizados por: análise elementar de CHN, espectroscopia vibracional na região do infravermelho, espectroscopia de absorção na região do UV-Vis, ressonância magnética nuclear RMN 1H, análise termogravimétrica e testes de solubilidade. Os compostos obtidos foram usados em estudos de distribuição líquido-líquido e também na técnica de membranas líquido suportadas (MLS), utilizando suportes poliméricos de 0,45, 1,2 e 5 m. A partir dos resultados da análise de caracterização verificou-se a funcionalização dos calixarenos. Tanto os calixarenos não funcionalizados quanto os funcionalizados mostraram-se bastante efetivos para extração de íons Eu(III) e U(VI). Da análise dos resultados concluiu-se que: a eficiência de extração é dependente do pH. Para íons Eu(III) a máxima eficiência de extração foi alcançada em pH 4 e 5 e para o U(VI) em pH 7. Os solventes utilizados...

Análise do conceito de eu em James e Skinner; Analysis of the concept of self in James and Skinner

Dentello, Frederico
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/09/2009 Português
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Realizamos um estudo comparativo entre os conceitos de eu tal como formulados pelos psicólogos William James (1842-1910) e B. F. Skinner (1904-1990). No caso de James, a fonte foi o capítulo A consciência do eu de sua obra Os princípios de psicologia, a partir do qual relatamos os constituintes do eu empírico, a reflexão do autor sobre o ego puro e a descrição dos sentimentos, emoções e ações do eu. No caso de Skinner, as fontes foram a seção O indivíduo como um todo da obra Ciência e comportamento humano e o capítulo Pensamento da obra Comportamento verbal, além de alguns outros artigos; discutimos os conceitos de autocontrole e de pensamento conforme o behaviorismo radical, para em seguida definir o eu como um sistema organizado de respostas. Então traduzimos o conceito de eu de James em referências a contingências de reforço: o eu material em termos de filogênese e ontogênese, o eu social em termos de controle de estímulo, o eu espiritual como repertório modelado pela comunidade verbal e o ego puro no contexto dos três níveis de seleção do comportamento humano. Discutimos possíveis influências de James sobre Skinner a partir de relações entre suas teorias psicológicas: a conceituação de eus múltiplos...

Estudo comparativo sincronico entre o Parintintin (Tenharim) e o Uru-eu-uau-uau (Amondava) : contribuições para umarevisão na classificação das linguas tupi-kawahib

Wany Bernardete de AraujoSampaio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/02/1998 Português
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Esta dissertação apresenta um estudo comparativo preliminar, sob o ponto de vista sincrônico, entre as línguas Tupi-Kagwahib: Parintintin (Tenharim) e Uru-euuau..,uau (Amondava). O Parintintin (Tenharim) é falado por cerca de duzentos e oitenta indígenas, localizados na região sul do estado do Amazonas. O Uru-eu-uau-uau possui cerca de 129 falantes distribuídos em cinco sub-grupos, na região central do estado de Rondônia, entre os quais figura o subgrupo Amondava. O trabalho divide-se em três capítulos: o primeiro deles traz informações acerca da bibliografia etnográfica e lingüística disponível sobre os povos Parintintin (Tenharim) e Uru-eu-uau-uau (Amondava). O segundo desenvolve uma análise comparativa entre a fonologia Parintintin (Tenharim) e Uru-eu-uau-uau (Amondava). Caracteriza-se este capítulo, também, por apresentar uma descrição preliminar da fonologia Uru-eu-uau-uau. O terceiro capítulo mostra um estudo comparativo lexical entre as línguas em questão. Procuramos, através deste estudo, verificar se o Uru-eu-uau-uau (Amondava) e o Parintintin (Tenharim) são línguas diferentes entre si ou se são variedades de uma única língua. Com isto, esperamos contribuir para com os estudos comparativos entre as línguas da família Tupi-Guarani...

Study on the observation of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) valence states in low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses

SAMPAIO, J. A.; FILADELPHO, M. C.; ANDRADE, A. A.; ROHLING, J. H.; MEDINA, A. N.; BENTO, A. C.; SILVA, L. M. da; GANDRA, F. C. G.; NUNES, L. A. O.; BAESSO, M. L.
Fonte: IOP PUBLISHING LTD Publicador: IOP PUBLISHING LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.7%
The optical, magnetic and structural properties of Eu doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. The optical absorption coefficient presented two bands at 39 246 and 29 416 cm(-1), which were assigned respectively to the 4f(7) ((8)S(7/2)) -> 4f(6) (4F(J)) 5d (T(2g)), and 4f(7) ((8)S(7/2)) -> 4f(6) (4F(J)) 5d (E(g)) transitions of Eu(2+). The fluorescence measured at 300 K on a sample doped with 0.5 wt% of Eu(2)O(3) exhibited a broad band centered at 17 350 cm(-1), which is attributed to the 4f(6)5d -> 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+), whereas the additional peaks are due to the (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) (J = 1, 2, 4) transitions of Eu(3+). From magnetization and XANES data it was possible to evaluate the fractions of Eu(2+) and Eu(3+) for the sample doped with 0.5 and 5.0 wt% of Eu(2)O(3), the values of which were approximately 30 and 70%, respectively.; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Dual Nationality in the European Union: A study on changing norms in public and private international law and in the municipal laws of four EU member state

VONK, Olivier
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The main objective of this study is to examine the phenomenon of dual nationality in the European Union (EU), particularly against the background of the status of European citizenship - a status that is linked to the nationality of each EU Member State (Article 20(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides that ‘citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship’). The study consists of two parts. The first part (Chapters 1 and 2) sets out the approach towards (dual) nationality in Private International Law and EU Law, in particular by analyzing the case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). The second part (Chapters 3- 6) consists of an overview of the dual nationality regimes in four EU Member States - France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain -, and their possible effects on the EU as a whole. Chapter 2 of the thesis is entitled the ‘intra-EU context’, since it primarily deals with the ECJ’s approach towards a dual nationality consisting of two Member State nationalities. The country reports, on the other hand, deal with the ‘extra-EU context’ because the dual nationality policies of the countries under consideration predominantly affect non-Member State nationals. Thus...

EU Higher Education Law. The Bologna Process and Harmonization by Stealth

GARBEN, Sacha Margaretha Maria
Fonte: Kluwer Law International Publicador: Kluwer Law International
Tipo: Livro
Português
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In March 2010, the European Higher Education Area was officially launched, proclaiming the culmination of a ten-year timeframe projected at Bologna in 1999, when the education ministers of 29 European states signed a declaration that would fundamentally influence the future of their higher education systems. Forty-seven countries, including all EU Member States and other countries as far afield as Kazakhstan, now take part in the so-called ‘Bologna Process’. Remarkably, this vast enterprise, which has led to rapid and sweeping changes in almost all higher education systems in Europe, has taken place outside the framework of the European Union and the Council of Europe. In fact, as this important legal analysis shows, it appears that with the Bologna Process the Member States have tried to sidestep the EU’s growing influence on higher education. Although the Bologna Process has generated an impressive literature addressing what it might mean, where it suddenly came from, and how it has become so powerful, until now the legal implications of the process, and its tense relationship with EU law, have been left almost entirely unexamined. This work fills that gap. Among the often controversial issues raised are the following: - avoidance of the democratically legitimate procedures of the EU’s institutional framework for cultural reasons connected with state sovereignty; - the scope of EU legal competence for various kinds of activities in the educational sector; • specific areas of overlap between EU law and the Bologna Process and their implications; • voluntary intergovernmental cooperation as a paradigmatic global shift of internationalization policies in education; - the idea that the university is being redefined...

Judge-made EU Copyright Harmonisation: The case of originality

ROSATI, Eleonora
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Over the last few years, political and academic attention has focused on the future of copyright at the EU level. Following two decades of piecemeal legislative interventions, which have resulted in a limited harmonisation of the copyright laws of EU Member States, a debate has ensued as to the feasibility and desirability of achieving full copyright harmonisation at the EU level. This might be obtained either through a EU copyright code, encompassing a codification of the present body of EU copyright directives, or by way of a regulation (to be enacted pursuant to new Article 118(1) TFEU), aimed at creating an optional unitary copyright title. Thus far, however, no such legislative initiatives have been undertaken. Despite this impasse, the CJEU has notably been acting in a proactive way, inching towards full harmonisation. With its 2009 decision in Case C-5/08 Infopaq, the Court provided a EU-wide understanding of an important principle of copyright: the originality requirement. The CJEU further elaborated upon this in subsequent case law (notably, Case C-393/09 Bezpečnostní Softwarová Asociace, Joined Cases C-403/08 and C-429/08 Murphy, Case C-145/10 Painer, Case C-604/10 Football Dataco and Case C-406/10 SAS). The meaning of originality adopted by the CJEU as a EU-wide standard is akin to that envisaged in continental Member States’ copyright laws...

Industrial R&D Investment: a Comparative Analysis of the Top EU and non-EU Companies Based on the EU 2004 R&D Scoreboard

CIUPAGEA Constantin; MONCADA PATERNO' CASTELLO PIETRO
Fonte: Universidad de Huelva Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Huelva Publicaciones
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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This paper presents the main results from the first 2004 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard, which lists the top 500 EU companies and the top 500 non-EU companies ranked by their R&D investment. After a short description of the definition and objectives of the exercise, its content and main findings are shown together with results from other analyses performed within DG JRC – Seville, showing the impact of the degree of concentration at the company’s level on the overall industrial R&D stance. There seems to be a correlation between R&D intensity growth and net sales growth. Despite a competitive total amount of R&D investment, the average overall R&D intensity of the sampled European Union companies is much smaller than for their non-EU counterparts. This is related to a smaller proportion of output from sectors with high intrinsic R&D intensity, which is particularly noticeable in IT Hardware and Software and Computer Services. Although R&D investment amounts are comparable for the biggest firms, the share of R&D performers at the middle and the bottom of the EU-500 Scoreboard is much smaller in the EU than in the non-EU. The analysis indicates that national, regional and sectoral patterns deviate considerably from the overall picture of the EU. An entire section of the paper is dedicated to an inter-sector comparison of R&D-related indicators. The issue of concentration of R&D investment among top companies investing in research is investigated in more detail...

Compliance and the Enforcement of EU Law

Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Livro
Português
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The enlargement of the EU has highlighted the challenges of compliance, but it has also helped to suggest new compliance methodologies. The combination of methodologies used by the EU and the differing levels of enforcement available are characteristic of the EU's compliance system, permitting the remarkable reach and penetration of EU norms into national systems. In this new study six authors offer their 1ssessment of the enforcement procedures and compliance processes that have been developed to ensure Member State compliance with EU law. The first three chapters examine the merits of combining both coercive and problem-solving strategies, describing the systems in place and focussing on the different levels at which compliance mechanisms operate: national, regional, and international. It also looks at horizontal compliance as well as 'from above' compliance, creating a complex and rich picture of the EU's system. The final three chapters of the book focus on different aspects of compliance seen from a national perspective. The first analyses the two bases for the use of criminal sanctions to enforce EU law: the ability of Member States to choose to include criminal penalties for non-compliance in their national law; and the imposition of criminal sanctions at a national level by EU law itself. The book then moves on to a discussion of the role of national courts in ensuring Member State compliance with...

The Enforcement of EU Law: The role of the European Commission

ANDERSEN, Stine
Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Livro
Português
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(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2007.); A comprehensive analysis of the European Commission's general role in supervising member state compliance with EU law, this book provides a detailed assessment of centralized EU enforcement. It starts out by asking whether it is viable to establish stronger Commission powers of enforcement at this point in time. Against this backdrop, and as a means of exploring the role of the Commission, the chapters examine a number of different aspects pertaining to enforcement of EU law. Beginning with an appraisal of the Commission's function under the general EU infringement procedure stipulated in Articles 258 and 260 TFEU, the volume argues that the EU lacks independent self-sustained regime authority. Moreover, this is reflected in both substantive EU law and procedural law, including the general EU infringement procedure. Chapter two makes the case that Article 258 TFEU can usefully be explained in terms of managerialism. Chapter three analyses Article 260 TFEU concerning repetitive infringements. In particular, it asserts, EU member state sanctions sustain the managerial approach. It then goes on to examine the Commission's unsuccessful attempts to gain sharper enforcement powers through secondary legislation...

Litigation and arbitration in EU competition law

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
Português
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As courts and arbitrators function daily as front line decision-makers applying EU competition law, this book reflects on a variety of issues related to the litigation and arbitration of cases in this field. It provides expert analysis from perspectives of substance, procedure, fundamental rights, as well as inter-institutional dialogue and coherence. Featuring a range of scholarly contributions, the essays address topics including the 2014 EU ‘Damages Directive’; the EU’s approach to the ‘collective redress’ concept; a range of issues concerning state aid law; the arbitrability of competition law issues and other matters related to arbitration in this context such as judicial review of arbitral awards; and the interplay between arbitral proceedings and competition agency investigations.; -- List of contributors -- Litigation and arbitration in EU competition law, Roberto Cisotta and Mel Marquis -- Part I private antitrust enforcement and judicial coherence in Europe -- TheAntitrust Damages Directive – much ado about nothing?, Sebastian Peyer -- Collective redress – (too) great expectations?, Sonja Keske -- Judicial dialogues and uniformity in the multi-level application of EU competition law, Adelina Adinolfi -- PART II litigating antitrust and state aid issues before the courts of the European Union and the courts of the member states -- Section 1: Antitrust -- Evaluation of evidence by the European Courts in competition cases...

The Past and Future of EU Law: The Classics of EU Law Revisited on the 50th Anniversary of the Rome Treaty

Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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This book revisits, in a new light, some of the classic cases which constitute the foundations of the EU legal order and is timed to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Rome Treaty establishing a European Economic Community. Its broader purpose, however, is to discuss the future of the EU legal order by examining, from a variety of different perspectives, the most important judgments of the ECJ which established the foundations of the EU legal order. The tone is neither necessarily celebratory nor critical, but relies on the viewpoint of the distinguished line-up of contributors - drawn from among former and current members of the Court (the view from within), scholars from other disciplines or lawyers from other legal orders (the view from outside), and two different generations of EU legal scholars (the classics revisit the classics and a view from the future). Each of these groups will provide a different perspective on the same set of selected judgments. In each short essay, questions such as 'what would have EU law been without this judgment of the Court? what factors might have influenced it?; did the judgment create expectations which were not fully fulfilled?' and so on, are posed and answered. The result is a profound...

EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing peace or consolidating partition in Cyprus?

TOCCI, Nathalie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
Português
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Since 1993, the European Commission, EU member states and the Republic of Cyprus have raised the expectation that the prospect of Cyprus' EU membership would act as a catalyst for a settlement of the island's conflict. Yet the divisions between the positions of the principal parties widened and the 1990s witnessed an escalation of tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean. Thereafter, despite the re-launch of the peace process in 2002-2004, the divided island joined the EU on 1 May 2004. This study analyses the case of Cyprus and the EU. It explores the interrelationship between the evolution of the conflict and the development of EU-Cyprus relations within the accession process; it explains the factors driving the conduct of EU policies towards the conflict; and it demonstrates that the EU framework could have added important incentives for a resolution of the conflict by providing an alternative context within which to address the basic needs of the principal parties.; - Introduction; - The actors in the Cyprus conflict; - The emergence and persistence of the Cyprus conflict; Cyprus' EU accession process and the evolution of the conflict; - Incentives and disincentives in the EU 'Catalytic Effect'; Explaining EU policies towards the Cyprus conflict; - The EU's potential to encourage a solution in Cyprus; Lessons for European foreign policy in ethno-political conflicts; Annex; Bibliography; - Index.

Services and the EU citizen

Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Português
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The importance of services in the EU economy has increased exponentially in the last decades as have the number and scope of EU rules, both those liberalizing the provision of services and those protecting their recipients or consumers. However, these consumers, in their capacity as citizens, are increasingly disillusioned with the EU and its institutions. This book - written by practitioners, academics, and advocates before the European Court - reflects on these developments, examining rules in numerous service sectors, from the capping of roaming call charges upheld in the Vodafone decision, through health care, to the requirement for air carriers to care for and compensate passengers approved in the generous Sturgeon judgment. The Court's positive approach may have been guided by a desire to consolidate the notion of EU citizenship, a status introduced at Maastricht, but without clear content. The book therefore considers whether these uniform, EU-wide, consumer rights may not form an important component of such European citizenship. The Commission's proposal to make 2013 as the European Year of Citizens seems to favor such a view. The book will be essential reading for all those working in the field or are interested in the latest developments with regard to services and how they affect citizens of the EU.; -- Introduction -- Overview / Frank Benyon -- The development of the air transport policy of the European Union from the point of view of the consumer : from the creation of the internal market to the regulation of consumer rights proper / Mikko Huttunen -- Travel and tourism / Jens Karsten -- Electronic communications and the EU consumer / Albert Nijenhaus -- Broadcasting and the EU consumer / Frank Benyon -- The case law of the European Court of Justice on the mobility of patients : an assessment / Julio Baquero-Cruz -- Limits to rights to health care and the extent of member states' discretion to decide the parameters of their public health policies / Roberto Cisotta -- Services and the EU consumer : or the EU citizen? / Frank Benyon -- Epilogue

O conceito de “eu” na filosofia crítica teórica de Kant

Kurle, Adriano Bueno
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Neste trabalho abordamos a concepção de “eu” na filosofia teórica do período chamado “crítico” da filosofia de Immanuel Kant. Para tanto, focamos nossa análise no texto da Crítica da Razão Pura. Iniciamos pela tentativa de determinar o lugar e o caráter do sujeito cognitivo no ponto de partida da construção epistêmica transcendental, distinguindo entre psicologia empírica, psicologia racional e psicologia transcendental, pertencendo a esta última o paradigma de análise de Kant. Apontamos para a impossibilidade de interpretar corretamente o texto sem que se leve em consideração os aspectos psicologistas, ainda que esta psicologia seja a de caráter transcendental. Assim, negamos que a possibilidade de uma análise puramente semântica do texto da Crítica da Razão Pura seja uma alternativa viável para uma interpretação legítima. Partimos posteriormente para a descrição da doutrina do idealismo transcendental, onde se trata da diferença da perspectiva transcendental da perspectiva realista ou transcendente, por onde aparecerão duas perspectivas distintas para o conhecimento de objetos: como fenômeno e como númeno. Seguindo, trataremos sobre os limites do conhecimento e como podemos pensar o sujeito da teoria diante destes limites propostos. Então surge uma tripla distinção das diferentes perspectivas da abordagem do “eu”: “eu” fenomênico...

A Strategy to enhance Eu3+ emission from LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors and green-to-orange multicolor tunable, transparent nanophosphor-polymer composites

Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Yu-Ho; Jang, Ho Seong
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2015 Português
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LiYF4:Eu nanophosphors with a single tetragonal phase are synthesized, and various strategies to enhance the Eu3+ emission from the nanophosphors are investigated. The optimized Eu3+ concentration is 35 mol%, and the red emission peaks due to the 5D0 →7FJ (J = 1 and 2) transitions of Eu3+ ions are further enhanced by energy transfer from a sensitizer pair of Ce3+ and Tb3+. The triple doping of Ce, Tb, and Eu into the LiYF4 host more effectively enhances the Eu3+ emission than the core/shell strategies of LiYF4:Eu(35%)/LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%) and LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%)/LiYF4:Eu(35%) architectures. Efficient energy transfer from Ce3+ to Eu3+ through Tb3+ results in three times higher Eu3+ emission intensity from LiYF4:Ce(15%), Tb(15%), Eu(1%) nanophosphors compared with LiYF4:Eu(35%), which contains the optimized Eu3+ concentration. Owing to the energy transfer of Ce3+ → Tb3+ and Ce3+ → Tb3+ → Eu3+, intense green and red emission peaks are observed from LiYF4:Ce(13%), Tb(14%), Eu(1-5%) (LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu) nanophosphors, and the intensity ratio of green to red emission is controlled by adjusting the Eu3+ concentration. With increasing Eu3+ concentration, the LiYF4:Ce, Tb, Eu nanophosphors exhibit multicolor emission from green to orange. In addition...

From the Nation State to the market : the evolution of EU private law as regulation of the economy beyond the boundaries of the Union?

MICKLITZ, Hans-Wolfgang; PATTERSON, Dennis
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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Published version of EUI LAW WP 2012/15; European Regulatory Private Law Project (ERPL-02), http://hdl.handle.net/1814/22415; This chapter demonstrates how the European Union, being understood as a market state, affects the private legal orders of the Member States and the design of the emerging European private legal order; first within the EU (the inner space of EU Statecraft) and second in the relations of the EU to the outside world (the outer space of European Statecraft or global governance). The national private legal orders may be equated with the pre-modern state nation and later the nation state of the twentieth century, whereas the emerging European private law may be equated with the EU market state. In the inner space of the internal market, the EU is smoothly but steadily building a genuine private law that must be kept distinct from nation state codifications. In the outer space the EU market state — and the Member States nation states — are engaged in using private law as a means to influence global governance processes. The chapter begins by clarifying the notion and concept of the market state in its relation to the EU. It then sketches out the concept of European private law as economic law within the EU and outside the EU. Finally it looks into the role of the EU market state in global governance through private law means.

The eastward expansion of the European Union: Is foreign direct investment being diverted from the EU periphery?

Patterson, Jeffery
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Awokuse, Titus O.; This thesis investigated the relationship between FDI and the EU periphery, along with the region's interaction with the CEECs and EU-27. Much research has been done to identify both the flow and attraction of FDI, but while previous studies have looked at the effect of in the CEECs prior to integration into the EU, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first analysis to capture the effects of the latter two enlargement rounds, utilizing data that includes a running series up until the duration of 2009. By focusing on the most recent data series in the EU periphery and CEECs, along with their respective FDI stock, a more accurate relationship can be discerned. As such, this analysis seeks to investigate FDI and its directional relationship with the CEECs. This analysis relies on a panel model approach, using GMM estimation to evaluate FDI stock in the EU periphery and CEECs during the period from 1995-2009. The resulting coefficients estimated in each specification did not indicate any presence of FDI diversion, instead noting an overall positive impact the CEECs have on peripheral-bound FDI. Moreover, increased opportunities in the EU-27 also have both a positive and significant relationship with FDI in the EU periphery. Subsequently...