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Development of a traffic emission inventory for a mexican city

Jaime, Aideé Morales
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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Air pollution has been one of the priorities issues in the environmental awareness, especially in cities from developing countries. Transport sector has an important contribution to the urban air quality degradation in these countries. Hence the importance to develop traffic emission inventories in order to allow the identification and quantification of atmospheric pollutant emissions in a defined area. The aim of this work is to develop a traffic emission inventory for the city of Querétaro, Mexico, using two different approaches (top-down and bottom-up) and to compare the results obtained from using both methodologies. Vehicle emissions from top-down inventory for the state of Querétaro show an increase compared to vehicle emissions reported in the 1999 Mexican National Emission Inventory due to the accelerated growth and development of the city of Querétaro. Emissions from the municipalities located in the south of the state of Querétaro are higher than in the rest of the municipalities, probably due to the higher number of highways and roads existing in this area. Vehicle emissions from bottom-up inventory using IVE model and considering different type of roads show that arterial roads are the main contributors of emission due to vehicle activity...

The GreenCut2 Resource, a Phylogenomically Derived Inventory of Proteins Specific to the Plant Lineage*

Karpowicz, Steven J.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Grossman, Arthur R.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The plastid is a defining structure of photosynthetic eukaryotes and houses many plant-specific processes, including the light reactions, carbon fixation, pigment synthesis, and other primary metabolic processes. Identifying proteins associated with catalytic, structural, and regulatory functions that are unique to plastid-containing organisms is necessary to fully define the scope of plant biochemistry. Here, we performed phylogenomics on 20 genomes to compile a new inventory of 597 nucleus-encoded proteins conserved in plants and green algae but not in non-photosynthetic organisms. 286 of these proteins are of known function, whereas 311 are not characterized. This inventory was validated as applicable and relevant to diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes using an additional eight genomes from distantly related plants (including Micromonas, Selaginella, and soybean). Manual curation of the known proteins in the inventory established its importance to plastid biochemistry. To predict functions for the 52% of proteins of unknown function, we used sequence motifs, subcellular localization, co-expression analysis, and RNA abundance data. We demonstrate that 18% of the proteins in the inventory have functions outside the plastid and/or beyond green tissues. Although 32% of proteins in the inventory have homologs in all cyanobacteria...

From Models to Measurements: Comparing Downed Dead Wood Carbon Stock Estimates in the U.S. Forest Inventory

Domke, Grant M.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Walters, Brian F.; Smith, James E.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2013 Português
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The inventory and monitoring of coarse woody debris (CWD) carbon (C) stocks is an essential component of any comprehensive National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI). Due to the expense and difficulty associated with conducting field inventories of CWD pools, CWD C stocks are often modeled as a function of more commonly measured stand attributes such as live tree C density. In order to assess potential benefits of adopting a field-based inventory of CWD C stocks in lieu of the current model-based approach, a national inventory of downed dead wood C across the U.S. was compared to estimates calculated from models associated with the U.S.’s NGHGI and used in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. The model-based population estimate of C stocks for CWD (i.e., pieces and slash piles) in the conterminous U.S. was 9 percent (145.1 Tg) greater than the field-based estimate. The relatively small absolute difference was driven by contrasting results for each CWD component. The model-based population estimate of C stocks from CWD pieces was 17 percent (230.3 Tg) greater than the field-based estimate, while the model-based estimate of C stocks from CWD slash piles was 27 percent (85.2 Tg) smaller than the field-based estimate. In general...

Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

Safar, Zeinab; Labib, Mounir W.; Gertler, Alan W.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP), which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC) area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010), along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil) combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS) conducted in 1999...

Inventory Reduction and Productivity Growth: Linkages in the Japanese Automotive Industry

Demeester, Lieven; Lieberman, Marvin B.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 2304712 bytes; application/pdf
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The literature on JIT production suggests a causal link between work-in-process inventory and manufacturing productivity. Such a connection has been described in numerous case studies but never tested statistically. This paper uses historical data for 52 Japanese automotive companies to evaluate the inventory-productivity relationship. We find that firms increased their productivity rank during periods of substantial inventory reduction. More detailed tests suggest that inventory reductions stimulated gains in productivity: on average, each 10% reduction in inventory led to about a 10% gain in labor productivity, with a lag of about one year. Such effects were more immediate for Toyota affiliates but undetectable for close suppliers of Nissan. These findings imply that inventory reduction served as an important driver of process improvement for many Japanese automotive companies, although some firms emphasized other methods.

Measuring impact of CONWIP control on production rate and inventory distribution for a flexible production system through simulation; Measuring impact of CONstant Work in Process control on production rate and inventory distribution for a flexible production system through simulation

Lampe, Erik Joseph
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 30 leaves
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This research investigates the production output and inventory distribution of a manufacturing system that produces multiple part types on flexible machines while incorporating CONWIP inventory controls. The production machines, which are separated by individual storage areas for each part type, are modeled as unreliable and operate according to a strict priority sequence. The maximum total inventory of each part type in the entire system is limited a preset number of tokens in the system. While varying the token levels and the demand for finished parts, the average production output for each part type and the average inventory level for each buffer is monitored to understand their behaviors. The relationship between the inventory distributions and the production rates is also investigated. The goal of this research is to develop intuition behind the system behavior.; by Erik Joseph Lampe.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 30).

LP-based subgradient algorithm for joint pricing and inventory control problems; Linear programming-based subgradient algorithm for joint pricing and inventory control problems

Rao, Tingting
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
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It is important for companies to manage their revenues and -reduce their costs efficiently. These goals can be achieved through effective pricing and inventory control strategies. This thesis studies a joint multi-period pricing and inventory control problem for a make-to-stock manufacturing system. Multiple products are produced under shared production capacity over a finite time horizon. The demand for each product is a function of the prices and no back orders are allowed. Inventory and production costs are linear functions of the levels of inventory and production, respectively. In this thesis, we introduce an iterative gradient-based algorithm. A key idea is that given a demand realization, the cost minimization part of the problem becomes a linear transportation problem. Given this idea, if we knew the optimal demand, we could solve the production problem efficiently. At each iteration of the algorithm, given a demand vector we solve a linear transportation problem and use its dual variables in order to solve a quadratic optimization problem that optimizes the revenue part and generates a new pricing policy. We illustrate computationally that this algorithm obtains the optimal production and pricing policy over the finite time horizon efficiently. The computational experiments in this thesis use a wide range of simulated data. The results show that the algorithm we study in this thesis indeed computes the optimal solution for the joint pricing and inventory control problem and is efficient as compared to solving a reformulation of the problem directly using commercial software. The algorithm proposed in this thesis solves large scale problems and can handle a wide range of nonlinear demand functions.; by Tingting Rao.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Statistical Modelling of Europe-wide Landslide Susceptibility Using Limited Landslide Inventory Data

VAN DEN EECKHAUT MIET; HERVAS DE DIEGO Francisco; JAEDICKE Christian; MALET Jean-Philippe; MONTANARELLA Luca; NADIM Farrokh
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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In many regions, the absence of a landslide inventory hampers the production of susceptibility or hazard maps. Therefore, a method combining a procedure for sampling of landslide-affected and landslide-free grid cells from a limited landslide inventory and logistic regression modelling was tested for susceptibility mapping of slide- and flow-type landslides on a European scale. Landslide inventories were available for Norway, Campania (Italy) and the Barcelonnette Basin (France) and from each inventory a random subsample was extracted. In addition, a landslide dataset was produced from the analysis of Google Earth images in combination with extraction of landslide locations reported in scientific publications. Attention was paid to have a representative distribution of landslides over Europe. In total, the landslide-affected sample contained 1340 landslides. Then, a procedure to select landslide-free grid cells was designed taking account of the incompleteness of the landslide inventory and the high proportion of flat areas in Europe. Using stepwise logistic regression, a model including slope gradient, standard deviation of slope gradient, lithology, soil and land cover types was calibrated. The classified susceptibility map produced from the model was then validated by visual comparison with national landslide inventory or susceptibility maps available from literature. The first results are promising and suggest that in case of landslide disasters the method can be used for urgently required landslide susceptibility mapping in regions where currently only sparse landslide inventory data are available.; JRC.H.7-Climate Risk Management

Navy inventory management decision-making

MacDonald, Steven D
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The General Accounting Office (GAO) has stated that the Department of Defense (DoD) believes it is better to overbuy inventory items than to manage with just the right amount of stock. This thesis asserts that Navy inventory managers do not have a general tendency to overbuy items, but rather make rational purchasing decisions influenced and motivated by the environment of rewards and penalties in which they work. It is also asserted that Navy inventory managers are risk adverse due to the nature of their environment. Personal stockout costs are examined as one of the key factors influencing decision-making and risk adverse behavior. This thesis introduces a conceptual model that describes the Navy inventory management decision-making environment. This model shows the relationship between personal stockout costs, required service levels, cost considerations, and planning horizons across the different decision-making levels in the Navy. This study concludes that readiness-based performance measures must be changed to incorporate a cost focus, and that the risk facing inventory managers due to personal stockout costs needs to be reduced to change their behavior of lower inventory levels are desired

A continuous review model for the reparable item inventory system.

Freiheit, James Edward
Fonte: Monterey, California. U.S. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.; In general, a reparable inventory system deals with two classes of the same type of item. The first class consists of those items which have been procured from the manufacturer and have never been put to use. The second class consists of those items which have been used, have failed, have been repaired, and are ready to be used again. In addition to the two classes of items, the system also contains two distinct inventories. These are the ready-for-issue and the non-ready-for-issue inventories. The ready-for-issue inventory contains both classes of items in their usable state, and the non-ready-for-issue inventory contains only the latter in its failed but reparable state. This paper develops a quasi-probabilistic inventory model for the reparable inventory system based on the premise that the repair facility is the primary source of inventory, with procurements being made periodically only to supplement this primary source.

Inventory accuracy in NISTARS controlled non-mechanized warehouses

Westhoven, Stephen Douglas
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis studies the inventory accuracy in nonmechanized warehouses under the NISTARS automated warehousing system. This thesis is designed to answer two questions. Is there a significant difference between the NISTARS non-mechanized warehouses and the other types of warehouses? What are the reasons for the difference if one exists? The data were extracted from the official inventory reports of the Naval Supply Center, San Diego, CA. To ensure the data were representative of the inventory position of all warehouses under the control of the supply center, they were taken from the NAVSUP required quarterly STATMAN random sampled inventories. The study indicates that there is a significant difference (13% less) in the inventory accuracy in non-mechanized warehouses under NISTARS control. Also, that the research codes used in the inventory reports are not effective. Additionally, the data output from the inventory reports is not fully used to improve the system

Potential applicability of just-in-time inventory management within the Navy

Giacoman, Rebeca M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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26.7%
There is growing concern over inventory management policies within the Navy as well as questions as to how to improve supply management efficiency. Just-in-time is an inventory management system that has enabled private industries to reduce inventories and waste to become more efficient and profitable. The primary focus of this study is to determine the potential for JIT application within the Navy based on certain criteria necessary for a successful JIT system. Navy organizations are categorized and certain aspects of their resupply functions are analyzed to determine the appropriate inventory management system. A comparison is made of the Navy inventory management system to the elements of a JIT resupply system. An assessment is made to determine eligibility of Navy operations for a JIT inventory management system. Finally, a case study of Naval Aviation Depot North Island, an organization that exhibits potential for JIT, is examined for the specific conditions necessary to permit a JIT resupply system. The study of the NADEP reveals a viable potential for a JIT system within the component repair function. Further research involving review of the current inventory management procedures for the NADEP is recommended.

US Navy Ships Food Service Divisions: Modernizing Inventory Management

Stefan Edwards; Robert James
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
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Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program); The Navy's current inventory management procedures for receipt, inventory, stowage, and issue of provisions onboard ships have remained relatively unchanged for decades. Culinary Specialists are utilizing an antiquated and unreliable inventory management program (the Food Management System'FSM) developed in the 1990s, relying on hand-written receipts, and inventory and issue procedures to manage provisions across the Fleet. As a result of current practices, ships are experiencing an unusually high rate of inspection failures and poor inventory validities. Applying a strategic supply-chain management approach, we will describe current procedures, from receipt to issue of provisions, including collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data. We will offer conclusions and recommendations on ways to substantially improve the overall process (e.g., improve inventory validities, reduce man-hours and improve the quality of life for Culinary Specialists).

Corporate social responsibility and inventory policy

Barcos, Lucía; Barroso, Alicia; Surroca, Jordi; Tribó, Josep A.
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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In this article, we study the impact of implementing corporate social responsible (CSR) practices on a firm’s inventory policy. Our proposal is that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between firms’ CSR and their inventory levels. Two elements explain such proposal. First, stakeholders have different interests regarding the outcome of the inventory system. Specifically, we hypothesize that customers pressure firms to increase inventories; employees have conflicting views regarding inventories and, for this reason, they do not pressure firms in a particular direction; and environmental activists force firms to reduce inventories. The second reason is that there is different level of stakeholder proactiveness contingent on the intensity in the implementation of social responsible policies. In particular, we posit that for low levels of CSR, customers are more relevant, while for larger levels other stakeholders gain more importance. We test this theoretical prediction by crossing two databases, COMPUSTAT, for financial data, and KLD for data on social responsibility. Our final database contains data on 1881 different US companies for the period 1996-2006. The results found conform to our theoretical prediction. Our analysis will be helpful to strategic and tactical decision-making processes on inventory management and will allow researchers to offer concrete advice on the likely outcomes of various stakeholder relationship practices in order to improve the effectiveness of inventory systems. Additionally...

The use of simulation to evaluate inventory models for management of hazardous material

Collins, Bobbi L.; Stroh, Gregory F.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 166 p.
Português
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A problem for the Navy Supply System is identifying the proper inventory model for managing a Hazardous Material Minimization Center. This thesis analyzes three recently proposed inventory models: two continuous review economic order quantity (EOQ) inventory models and a periodic review inventory model. Based on this analysis, the authors develop both a continuous review EOQ model and a periodic review model for evaluation. These models differ from the previous ones in that they comprise all of the relevant hazardous material inventory costs including extension of shelf-life. The two new models are then evaluated through the use of simulation. A base set of data was first used in simulating both models. This was then followed by four additional simulated scenarios providing sensitivity analyses of demand-related changes to each model. The thesis' analysis focuses on total variable costs as the primary tool for evaluating the models. The results in all cases were very close, suggesting that it can be left to the inventory managers as to whether to use a continuous review or periodic review model. Additional testing with actual demand data is strongly recommended before any implementation of either model.; NA; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) authors.

Application of a system-based inventory model to Marine Corps repairable parts

Barnett, Craig P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 32 p. ;
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A critical component of the Marine Corps' self-sustainment capability is its ability to procure and repair components for its ground equipment fleets. Secondary repairables consist of components that can be repaired, and for which repair is generally more economical and timely than purchase. The Marine Corps currently maintains spare repairable parts at seven principal locations, each operating independently of the other. There is excess inventory Service-wide because of the isolation of the inventories and because of mathematical flaws in the Marine Corpsα sparing methodology. The Marine Corps is seeking to centralize the management of secondary repairables and is considering options that include centralizing responsibility and funding (while keeping the inventory model as it is) and changing the inventory model as well as the responsibility and funding. We demonstrate that a centralized, βenterprise-wideγ model of the inventory is superior to a decentralized one. Measures of comparison are total inventory cost and end-item availability. We evaluate stock levels calculated by both the current model and a commercial application called VMetriciÌ -XL. For a selected end-item, the current model produces stock levels totaling $25.9M in inventory and achieves 89.1% availability. For the same level of availability...

Spreadsheet decision support model for MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus repair parts inventory management

Butler, Peter B.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 63 p.;28 cm.
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26.7%
This thesis proposes a spreadsheet-based decision support model for determining the most effective repair parts inventory for the MK 16 Underwater Breathing Apparatus (MK 16). Incorporating U.S. Navy demand information, the model provides the inventory manager the ability to modify repair parts inventories as changes occur to the order and shipping times, tempo of operations, or the number of MK 16 assigned. The thesis explores the current methods of MK 16 repair parts inventory design and recommends changes that permit the inventory manager to model an improved inventory within the constraints of each specific scenario. While providing inventory managers the ability to experiment with 'what if' scenarios, the spreadsheet also provides the commanding officer greater control over unit readiness.; NA; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.

Abb Inc. medium-voltage products' supply chain analysis, including inventory, supplier scorecard, and risk assessments; Abb Incorporated medium-voltage products' supply chain analysis, including inventory, supplier scorecard, and risk assessments

Gaskins, Tamboura E. (Tamboura Elyse)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 48 p.
Português
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26.7%
In conformance with ABB's process excellence plan, this thesis study was undertaken to support improvements in on-time delivery of components, decreased order cycles, and reduced inventory levels for ADVAC (spring-mechanized)/AMVAC (magnetic-actuated) medium-voltage circuit breakers. With the goal of improving the efficiency of the ADVAC/AMVAC supply chain, the study involved analyzing circuit breaker inventory level and position, assessing a supplier scorecard, and assessing general supply chain risk methodologies. In an effort to assess supply chain risk, a value stream map was created to uncover where the project team should focus to best address supply chain risk and contingency planning. The project team identified opportunities to improve order processing using an electronic ordering system. The team investigated the feasibility of eliminating or reducing air freight to improve transportation costs. Also, the team examined ADVAC/AMVAC inventory holdings at various stages in the supply chain and determined that it was more cost-effective to hold as much component inventory as possible instead of finished goods inventory, while standardizing delivery cycles, in order to move toward a just-in-time order-fulfillment process.; by Tamboura E. Gaskins.; Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

First inventory of policy on counterterrorism: Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States - 'research in progress'

Neve, Rudie; Vervoorn, Lisette; Leeuw, Frans; Bogaerts, Stefan
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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This report presents a first inventory of measures aimed at combating radicalisation, extremism and terrorism (referred to in this report as counterterrorism policy) in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Commissioned by the NCTb, the WODC (the Research and Documentation Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Justice) carried out a study into counterterrorism measures in place in the countries investigated in early 2006. This study comprises the first international inventory of a number of policy fields under development, whereby the counterterrorism policies discussed here are characterised by extremely rapid development and innovation. This inventory can serve as point of departure for the registration of policy developments and to obtain an insight into their effectiveness. The continuous monitoring of the developments is therefore recommended. Researchers in Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United States have drawn up working documents, each with an inventory of the policy in place in that particular country, taking their information from public sources, mostly government publications and Websites, as well as articles, reports and books. Data on the United Kingdom were collected by the WODC. The closing date for the data collection was 1 February 2006. Besides the inventory...

Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations

Zhou, W. -X.; Mu, G. -H.; Kertész, J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/01/2012 Português
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We study the cross-correlation matrix $C_{ij}$ of inventory variations of the most active individual and institutional investors in an emerging market to understand the dynamics of inventory variations. We find that the distribution of cross-correlation coefficient $C_{ij}$ has a power-law form in the bulk followed by exponential tails and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more possible that two individuals or two institutions have stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues ($\lambda_1$ and $\lambda_2$) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by the random matrix theory and the projection of inventory variations on the first eigenvector $u(\lambda_1)$ are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients $C_{VR}$ between inventory variations and stock returns. Half individuals are reversing investors who exhibit evident buy and sell herding behaviors, while 6% individuals are trending investors. For institutions, only 10% and 8% investors are trending and reversing investors. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations...