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A historical analysis of central bank independence in Latin America: the Colombian experience, 1923-2008

Meisel, Adolfo; Barón, Juan D.
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Laureano Figuerola Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Laureano Figuerola
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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This paper explores the relationship between central bank independence and inflation in Latin America, using the experience of Colombia (1923-2008) as a case study. Since its creation, in 1923, Colombia’s central bank has undergone several reforms that have changed its objectives and degree of independence. Between 1923 and 1951, it was private and independent, with a legal commitment to price stability. In 1962, monetary responsibilities were divided between a government-dominated monetary board, in charge of monetary policies, and the central bank, which carried them out. In the early 1990s, the bank recovered its independence and its focus on price stability. Inflation varied substantially during these subperiods. Our analysis suggests that the central bank independence, combined with a commitment to price stability, renders the best results in terms of price stability.; Este documento explora la relación entre la independencia del banco central y los niveles de inflación en Latinoamérica, usando como estudio de caso la experiencia de Colombia (1923-2008). Desde su creación en 1923, la independencia y objetivos del banco central en Colombia han sido modificados substancialmente. Entre 1923 y 1951, el banco central fue privado e independiente...

Rural communities and ethnic identities in Latin America

Lifschitz, Javier Alejandro
Fonte: CIES-IUL Publicador: CIES-IUL
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article has as its focus the new configurations of rural communities in Latin America. From the concept of neocommunities, we intend to show that traditional communities have been, since the last decades of the twentieth century, a privileged domain of public policies and social and cultural projects developed by NGOs, cultural tourism agents, Universities, the media and others. We observe that in maroon neocommunities in Brazil these modern agents develop actions of reconstruction, of practices and knowledges of the afrobrazilian universe which influence the dynamic of rural space.

The association between adult drug abuse and childhood maltreatment in students attending seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean

Longman-Mills,Samantha; Williams,Yolanda Maria González; Rodriguez,Marlon Osman Melendez; Baquero,Monica Rosaura García; Rojas,Juan Daniel Gómez; Amaya,Cristina Juárez de; Diaz,Eduardo Alfredo Martínez; Corea,Sobeya Jose Peñalba; Baez,Enrique Miguel
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Programa de Pós Graduação em Enfermagem
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This study investigated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adulthood drug abuse among university students from seven universities in five countries in Latin America and one country in the Caribbean. This multi-country study utilised a cross-sectional design to collect data on drug abuse, as well as retrospective data on maltreatment during childhood. The sample consisted of 2,283 university students, of which 82.6% reported childhood maltreatment experiences, and 33.5% increased levels of psychological distress. A significant relationship was observed between childhood maltreatment and drug abuse as an adult (p<0.05). Although the sampling technique does not permit generalisations to all university students, the current study identified exposure to childhood maltreatment as a potential precursor to adult drug abuse within the populations studied. Therefore, the effectiveness of drug demand reduction strategies at the respective universities may be enhanced by incorporating policies and interventions aimed at childhood maltreatment.

Financial service firms' entry-mode choice and cultural diversity : Spanish companies in Latin America

Álvarez Gil, María José; Cardone Riportella, Clara; Samartín Sáenz, Margarita; Lado, Nora
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Emerging markets in newly industrialised countries have caught the attention of managers of manufacturing companies facing heavy domestic and global pressure. Key barriers to the effective management of international manufacturing operations need to be identified. The same applies to the management of international service operations. The share of services in international trade, the amount of foreign direct investments made and the number of multinational service-sector enterprises has been increasing rapidly in the last two decades. Existing studies on service internationalisation apply a fairly broad theoretical base. This paper contributes by examining the internationalisation behaviour of Spanish financial service-sector companies in Latin America to find out if general internationalisation patterns are applicable or if the manufacturing sector influences their internationalisation behaviour

THE LONG-TERM U.S. STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF HUAWEI_S PENETRATION IN LATIN AMERICA

O'Connor, Nicholas C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Português
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In recent years, Huawei Technologies Inc. has become one of the most powerful telecommunication companies in the world. While it has been very successful, it has been surrounded by controversy. The United States has presented multiple accusations against Huawei; however, the supporting evidence is often lacking. This thesis examines the U.S. strategic implications of Huaweis expansion into Latin America. First, the U.S. economic impact of this expansion is examined. Next, the security concerns posed by Huawei and accusations of espionage, intellectual property infringement, and an inappropriate relationship with Iran are evaluated. These accusations are then evaluated for validity based on the evidence presented. Finally, these findings are summarized and multiple future recommendations for research and actions are presented. Since there is little evidence to support many of the accusations against Huawei, it is essential to either find such evidence, or drop these claims.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

For a quality leap in business relations between China and Latin America and the Caribbean

ROSALES, Osvaldo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This paper examines the economic and trade relations between China and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It analizes the current role of China in the world economy and the outlook for growth in the Chinese economy and its impact on global trade. Based on this, the article presents the main data of the growing presence of China in the international trade map of LAC and the evolution of Chinese FDI in the region. The article concludes with a set of recommendations aimed at improving the quality of economic and commercial links between China and LAC. Particular emphasis is given to the LAC's exports diversification oriented to China and Chinese investment's attraction oriented to manufactures, services and infrastructure.

ALICE2 Case Study 4 - MAPA D2: Artists and researchers from Europe and Latin America get together through RedCLARA to stage telematics shows

Fonte: RedCLARA Publicador: RedCLARA
Tipo: Relatório Formato: PDF
Português
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Artists and researchers from Europe and Latin America get together through RedCLARA to stage telematics shows telematics shows.

Drivers of e-government maturity in two developing regions: focus on Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

Ifinedo,Princely
Fonte: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP Publicador: TECSI Laboratório de Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informação - FEA/USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2012 Português
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66.19%
This research focuses on the drivers of e-government (E-gov) maturity in two comparable developing regions of the world i.e. Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa (LA&SSA). E-gov maturity refers to the growth levels in a country's online services and its citizens' online participation in governance. To date, few researchers have focused on the drivers of E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. Given the challenges faced by LA&SSA with regard to the implementations and deployment of technological innovations including E-gov, research such as this current one is needed to enrich insight in such contexts. Building on a prior framework and the modernization theory (MT), the impacts of macro-environmental factors of political, economic, social, and technological dimensions on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA are examined. A longitudinal data i.e. a 5-year panel data consisting of 160 observations or data points was used for analysis in conjunction with the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Such factors as human capital development, technological infrastructure, and rule of law were found to have positive impacts on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. To a large extent, national wealth served as an enabler in the proposed research conceptualization and not as a direct driver of E-gov maturity. The implications of the study's findings for research and policy making are discussed and future research areas noted.

Nursing research in Latin America: 1988-1998

Ailinger,Rita L.; Najera,Rosa Maria; Castrillón,Maria Consuelo; Manfredi,Maricel
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
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The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of nursing research in Latin America during the decade from 1988 to 1998. Data from the bi-annual Pan American Colloquia in Nursing Research from 1988 to 1998 were subject to secondary analysis. Findings indicate that most of the research emanated from Brazil, the only country with a doctoral program in nursing in the 1990's. Research topics included: public health issues, clinical studies (usually of adults), nursing care studies of process, therapeutic communication, and administrative issues such as standards of care and quality. The most common design was descriptive quantitative, although there were several qualitative studies. The analysis provides directions for future research and indicates areas of concern, especially the need for theory based nursing research.

Phases of Convergence in Latin America: the Technological Drivers

González, Germán Héctor; Dabús, Carlos Darío; Monterubbianesi, Pablo Daniel
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The paper analyses the convergence hypothesis in Latin America during 1960–2005. The evidence is not favourable to clear convergence or divergence trends and suggests the existence of transitory clubs of convergence. After 1990–1994, the lower income economies showed convergence to the richer countries but in a context of increasing dispersion of the per capita income. The development accounting and the decomposition of the total factor productivity indicate that those results are mainly explained by relative differences in technological capabilities. These are determined by structural and political factors. The efforts to integrate the economies were not enough to reduce the gap.; Fil: González, Germán Héctor. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET - Bahia Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina;; Fil: Dabús, Carlos Darío. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET - Bahia Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina;; Fil: Monterubbianesi, Pablo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - CONICET - Bahia Blanca. Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas y Sociales del Sur; Argentina;

How the full opening of the capital account to highly liquid financial markets led Latin America to two and a half cycles of 'mania, panic and crash'

Palma, Jos? Gabriel
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Latin America has recently experienced three cycles of capital inflows, the first two ending in major financial crises. The first took place between 1973 and the 1982 'debt-crisis'. The second took place between the 1989 'Brady bonds' agreement (and the beginning of the economic reforms and financial liberalisation that followed) and the Argentinian 2001/2002 crisis, and ended up with four major crises (as well as the 1997 one in East Asia); Mexico (1994), Brazil (1999), and two in Argentina (1995 and 2001/2). Finally, the third inflow-cycle began in 2003 as soon as international financial markets felt reassured by the surprisingly neo-liberal orientation of President Lula's government; this cycle intensified in 2004 with the beginning of a (purely speculative) commodity price-boom, and actually strengthened after a brief interlude following the 2008 global financial crash; and at the time of writing (mid-2011) this cycle is still unfolding, although already showing considerable signs of distress. The main aim of this paper is to analyse the financial crises resulting from this second cycle (both in LA and in East Asia) from the perspective of Keynesian/ Minskyian/Kindlebergian financial economics. I will attempt to show that no matter how diversely these newly financially liberalised Developing Countries tried to deal with the absorption problem created by the subsequent surges of inflow (and they did follow different routes)...

Before the Body Count: Homicide Statistics and Everyday Governance in Latin America

Willis, Graham Denyer
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; Homicide statistics are a widely accepted metric of security and democracy. There is reason to believe that these statistics are not reflective of what is commonly thought. This article argues for a focus on how bodies come or do not come to be -of what happens before states count bodies. The experience of S?o Paulo relates that how many people die and how many do not, is connected to the governance of an organized crime group known as the PCC. The punishment practices of the PCC and groups like it throughout Latin America reshape the lived paradigm of governance over life and death, albeit in concealed ways. Statistics are produced by and productive of a de jure state, different from the state de facto. The acceptance of state-made homicide figures, whether for analysis, visualization or political claims, is consequential for the future of lived security and social science knowledge production.; The author would like to thank the Drugs, Security and Democracy program of the Social Science Research Council/ Open Society Foundations for support in carrying out associated research and the Social Science and Humanities of Canada for Post-Doctoral Fellowship support during the writing of this article.

Drivers of e-government maturity in two developing regions: focus on Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa

Ifinedo, Princely
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This research focuses on the drivers of e-government (E-gov) maturity in two comparable developing regions of the world i.e. Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa (LA&SSA). E-gov maturity refers to the growth levels in a country's online services and its citizens' online participation in governance. To date, few researchers have focused on the drivers of E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. Given the challenges faced by LA&SSA with regard to the implementations and deployment of technological innovations including E-gov, research such as this current one is needed to enrich insight in such contexts. Building on a prior framework and the modernization theory (MT), the impacts of macro-environmental factors of political, economic, social, and technological dimensions on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA are examined. A longitudinal data i.e. a 5-year panel data consisting of 160 observations or data points was used for analysis in conjunction with the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. Such factors as human capital development, technological infrastructure, and rule of law were found to have positive impacts on E-gov maturity in LA&SSA. To a large extent, national wealth served as an enabler in the proposed research conceptualization and not as a direct driver of E-gov maturity. The implications of the study's findings for research and policy making are discussed and future research areas noted.

Climate Change and Coffee Communities in Latin America

Fox, Claire; Furgiuele, Joanna; Haider, Saira; Ramirez, Martin; Younis, Mike
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Coffee production is an essential component of the rural economy and smallholder livelihoods in countries throughout Latin America. Coffee producers and the global coffee supply have been threatened by the effects of climate change, such as increases in severe weather events that cause harvest failures and changes in growing conditions that decrease volume or quality. We researched climate change adaptation strategies for both livelihood stability and coffee production sustainability that are feasible for smallholder producers to implement. Our group conducted a research study for our client Counter Culture Coffee in partnership with three coffee cooperatives: La Orgánica in Colombia, Coordinadora de Organizaciones de Desarrollo de Concepción Huista (CODECH) in Guatemala, and Cenfrocafé in Peru. We used a mixed methods approach and triangulated our data by applying multiple sources to answer similar questions. We interviewed cooperative leaders, conducted surveys, held focus groups, and participated in transect walks. We also interviewed key actors from the government, nonprofit, and private sectors within each country that play a role in developing the resilience and/or adaptive capacity of smallholder coffee producers. Our results show how across all three countries...

STATE OF 101 PROTECTED AREAS IN LATIN AMERICA

Cuartas, Maria Fernanda
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 736660 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
On-site evaluations of the status of protected areas provide guidance to managers, stakeholders, and decision makers on the development of strategies to address the most critical issues faced by protected areas. In this project I used the results obtained from the application of ParksWatch methodology to assess threats and management issues of protected areas in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. The analysis detected a number of institutional weaknesses such as management planning, staffing, and infrastructure. In addition, I identified the five major threats to these protected areas, which are consistent throughout Latin America: poaching, illegal agriculture, grazing, illegal logging, and exotic species.

The Diffusion of Regulatory Capitalism in Latin America: Sectoral and National Channels in the Making of a New Order

Jordana, Jacint; Levi-Faur, David
Fonte: American Academy of Political and Social Science Publicador: American Academy of Political and Social Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This article analyzes the sweeping restructuring of the state in Latin America and the consequent institutionalization of a new regulatory order. The analysis is grounded in an original database that covers the creation of regulatory agencies and their reform in nineteen countries and twelve sectors over the period from 1979 to 2002. The authors' data capture both the national and the sectoral patterns of the rise of the new order, and the authors distinguish between (1) national patterns of diffusion, whereby the number of prior regulatory authorities within a country determines the probability of the establishment of new authorities in that country; and (2) sectoral patterns of diffusion, whereby the number of prior regulatory authority in the same sector in other countries determines the probability of the establishment of new regulatory authority in that sector. The results coincide with a growing body of literature that emphasizes the role of contagious diffusion and shed some new light on sectoral and national channels of diffusion.

Research in Latin America

Crisis States Research Centre,
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper provides full details of the Crisis States Programme in Latin America.

Impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on patients with bacteremia in intensive care units and resistance patterns in Latin America

Cortés,J. A.; Garzón,D. C.; Navarrete,J. A.; Contreras,K. M.
Fonte: Revista argentina de microbiología Publicador: Revista argentina de microbiología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Patient care in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with an increased risk of developing nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is responsible for a great number of cases, 23% of which have attributable mortality in developed countries and can affect up to 52% of ICU patients. The main cause of mortality is inadequate and inappropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy. The incorrect use of antimicrobials is a major risk for identifying multidrug resistant microorganisms, thereby involving increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Implementing several surveillance systems and becoming acquainted with resistance patterns represent a valuable tool for identifying, preventing and treating this infectious complication. There is paucity of data regarding antimicrobial resistance in bacteremic patients in Latin America, and the available data reveals a worrying scenario.

Country-level correlates of cervical cancer mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean

Pereira-Scalabrino,Ana; Almonte,Maribel; dos-Santos-Silva,Isabel
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To identify country-level correlates of geographical variations in cervical cancer (CC) mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC mortality rates for LAC countries (n=26) were examined in relation to country-specific socio-economic indicators (n=58) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) prevalence using linear regression models. RESULTS: High mortality at ages <5 years, low per capita total expenditure on health, and low proportion of the population with access to sanitation were identified as the best independent predictors of CC mortality (R² =77%). In the subset of countries (n=10) with HPV prevalence estimates, these socio-economic indicators together with high-risk HPV prevalence explained almost all the between-country variability in CC mortality (R² =98%). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that continuing socioeconomic improvements in LAC countries will be associated with further reductions in CC mortality even in the absence of organised population-based screening and vaccination programmes.

Learning from the tigers-comparing innovation institutions in rapidly developing economies with Latin America

Hira,Anil
Fonte: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas Publicador: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
This article compares innovation policies and institutions in Latin America (LA) with those of the tiger economies of East Asia and Europe. We find that there are clear differences in the resources, prioritization, and organization of science and technology policy between LA and the tigers, which may help to explain the disappointing economic performance of the region in recent decades. The article suggests that a systematic reorganization of innovation policy is needed in LA. The commonalities of the tigers suggest such a reevaluation should not only consider levels of resources, but also new institutional frameworks for prioritizing, coordinating, and commercializing new technologies for greater benefits throughout the economy and society.