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Avaliação do estado de colaboração logística entre indústria de bens de consumo e redes de varejo supermercadista.; Evaluation of the collaborative logistic between consumers packaged goods and retail market.

Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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É crescente a busca de parcerias entre as empresas de uma cadeia de suprimentos frente à concorrência, ao domínio de grandes empresas, à necessidade do aumento da eficiência logística e, ao mesmo tempo, à necessidade de redução dos custos logísticos. O estudo do relacionamento de parcerias pode traduzir no melhor entendimento das necessidades de cada participante dessa cadeia. Dessa forma, esta tese visa conhecer o estado de colaboração em logística na cadeia do varejo supermercadista no Brasil. Os objetivos são: (a) identificar e avaliar os principais elementos de colaboração existentes entre os parceiros indústria e varejo; (b) identificar quais elementos os parceiros consideram mais importantes para a construção do conceito de colaboração; (c) avaliar o efeito da colaboração na cadeia do varejo supermercadista, em especial no desempenho logístico e nos custos de transação. As teorias e conhecimentos relacionados à pesquisa são referentes a colaboração na cadeia de suprimentos, ao desempenho logístico e a economia dos custos de transação. A metodologia é composta por um estudo qualitativo e quantitativo. O estudo qualitativo, realizado em uma grande rede de varejo supermercadista, teve como objetivo conhecer e avaliar as operações logísticas e servir de entrada para a construção e análise da pesquisa quantitativa. Esta...

Desenvolvimento econômico e deslocamento populacional no primeiro governo Vargas (1930-1945); Economic development and displacement population in the first government of Vargas (1930-1945)

Costa, Julio Cesar Zorzenon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta tese discute a integração do mercado nacional, ocorrida no primeiro Governo Vargas (1930-1945), como importante fator para a construção de uma estrutura econômica de base industrial, que permitiu a entrada da economia brasileira em uma fase de grande desenvolvimento e crescimento econômicos. Enfoca, nesse processo, a função exercida pelos deslocamentos populacionais. A integração do mercado nacional reclamava a construção de um novo padrão de deslocamentos populacionais no país. Embora as características dos deslocamentos populacionais já estivessem se modificando, o Estado interveio nesse processo, mediante a elaboração de políticas específicas, visando aprofundar e acelerar a integração do mercado, inclusive a do mercado de trabalho. As políticas relativas aos deslocamentos populacionais, praticadas e elaboradas no primeiro Governo Vargas, evidenciam a intencionalidade desse governo em apoiar e impulsionar o desenvolvimento de um novo padrão de acumulação urbano-industrial. Mesmo que não tenham alcançado a concretização dos objetivos propostos, as políticas relativas aos deslocamentos populacionais, iniciadas no primeiro Governo Vargas, permitiram a constituição de bases sobre as quais se daria...

Electricity market reform in the European Union : review of progress towards liberalisation and integration

Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael G.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 32 p
Português
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The energy market liberalisation process in Europe is increasingly focused on electricity market integration and related cross border issues. This signals that the liberalisation of national electricity markets is now closer to the long-term objective of a single European energy market. The interface between the national electricity markets requires physical interconnections and technical arrangements. However, further progress towards this objective also raises important issues regarding the framework within which the integrated market is implemented. This paper reviews the progress towards a single European electricity market. We then discuss the emerging issues of market concentration, investments, and security of supply as well as some aspects of market design and regulation that are crucial for dynamic performance of a single European market.

Malawi - Country Economic Memorandum : Seizing Opportunities for Growth through Regional Integration and Trade - Summary of Main Finding and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Malawi needs to focus on exports to maintain and broaden its current inspiring levels of economic growth. The focus of future policy should therefore be on reforms that improve competitiveness in global and regional markets. This does not require a fundamental shift in direction, but instead a rebalancing of policy and expenditures to support an outward-oriented development framework. Until the recent global financial crisis, domestic and regional trends were promising for Malawi: rapid economic growth, strong donor support, increases in foreign direct investment, real potential to upgrade regional infrastructure, and the gradual dismantling of barriers within the region through the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) free trade areas. Despite recent global developments, this report makes the case that, for a small landlocked economy like Malawi, integration into a dynamic and more open Southern Africa region will remain a key to building prosperity and improving livelihoods.

Aid for Trade : Building on Progress Today for Tomorrow’s Future

Hoekman, Bernard; Wilson, John S.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Since 2005, donors and development agencies have increased the overall value of aid for trade and put in place several mechanisms to channel such aid and to ensure that it targets national priorities. This paper reviews recent trends in the allocation of aid for trade and analyses of its effectiveness. It identifies a number of opportunities for concerted action to enhance the impact of aid for trade initiatives, including greater involvement by middle-income countries in the initiative (through improved market access, investment flows, and knowledge transfers); deeper engagement with the private sector -- a key source of information on what works and what does not; a stronger focus on improving the "behind the border" policies that affect the efficiency of key services sectors and help determine firm-level competitiveness; and a stronger focus on monitoring and evaluation of results.

Innovation, Inclusion, and Integration : From Transition to Convergence in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Mitra, Pradeep
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Since the fall of the Berlin Wall the transition countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have witnessed dramatic changes in outputs, the nature of jobs, standards of living, patterns of trade and the quality of education and health services. Yet, during much of this period, institutions that shape firm behavior and outcomes, most notably the business environment, have been converging toward those in developed market economies. The countries that acceded to the European Union in 2004 are the furthest advanced in this process. The countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) are followers but are some distance behind. The six regional flagship studies produced by the Europe and Central Asia Region of the World Bank during the last five years, of which this volume is a synthesis and culmination, attest to this evolution from their particular perspectives. Those studies have covered productivity growth, the enhancement of job opportunities, trade and integration, migration and remittances, poverty and inequality and the challenges posed by aging populations. All the reports in this series offer specific policy recommendations that are intended to help the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union promote economic growth and foster higher living standards in the rapidly changing world in which they are undertaking the transition to a market economy.

CGE Modeling of Market Access in Services

Christen, Elisabeth; Francois, Joseph; Hoekman, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper examines how the applied multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) literature has moved into quantication of the impacts of greater market access for services. This includes discussion of multi-sector linkages to the service sector, as well both measuring barriers to trade and investment (generally with a mix of firm surveys, price comparisons, and econometrics), and how changes in these barriers, however measured, have been implemented in the CGE literature. Three challenges are highlighted. The first is identification of how trade in services takes place and how market access is therefore affected by policy. The second is to find data sufficiently robust for modeling purposes. The third, linked to the data problem, is to quantify the barriers to be examined. Significant progress has been made in modeling foreign direct investment and linking this to productivity, which turns out to be important. The paper also provides an example of modeling productivity linkages to openness and domestic regulation...

Enhancing the Employment Chances of Roma

Bodewig, Christian; Kureková, Lucia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Roma communities in central and southeastern Europe have a history of being excluded from the labor market and still face severe barriers to employment. Besides being marginalized socially, Roma were typically the first to lose their jobs at the outset of the post-communist transition. Many in their next generation grew up in unemployed households, with low educational attainments and limited job skills. The labor market exclusion of Roma persisted even through the years of buoyant economic growth and increasing employment levels prior to the economic slowdown triggered by the global financial crisis in 2008. Many governments in central and southeastern Europe are trying to address the unemployment problem of Roma and other disadvantaged groups by introducing measures to restrict or cut welfare benefit entitlements, so as to strengthen incentives to work. However, research by the World Bank and others shows that simply cutting benefits is unlikely to result in higher employment the labor market exclusion and social marginalization of Roma is a multifaceted issue...

Does Eurosclerosis Matter? Institutional Reform and Labor Market Performance in Central and Eastern Europe

Riboud, Michelle; Sánchez-Páramo, Carolina; Silva-Jáuregui, Carlos
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This paper examines the labor market dynamics of six CEE countries over the last 10 years, paying special attention to the nature of labor market institutions these countries have adopted and their impact on labor market performance. This paper finds that, compared to EU countries, CEE countries fall in the "middle" of the flexibility scale regarding their employment protection legislation. While the effect of labor market institutions is hard to uncover, it should not be disregarded and they are likely to play an important role in the coming years.

The Potential of Regional Power Sector Integration : South African Power Pool Transmission and Trading Case Study

Economic Consulting Associates
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Developing countries are increasingly pursuing and benefitting from regional power system integration (RPSI) as an important strategy to help provide reliable, affordable electricity to their economies and citizens. Increased electricity cooperation and trade between countries can enhance energy security, bring economies-of-scale in investments, facilitate financing, enable greater renewable energy penetration, and allow synergistic sharing of complementary resources. This briefing note draws from the experiences of RPSI schemes around the world to present a set of findings to help address these challenges. It is based on case studies of 12 RPSI projects and how they are dealing with key aspects of RPSI, such as: (i) finding the right level of integration; (ii) optimizing investment on a regional basis; (iii) appropriate regional institutions (iv) technical and regulatory harmonization; (v) power sector reform and integration (vi) the role of donor agencies (vii) reducing emissions through RPSI; and (viii) RPSI and renewable energy.

Financial Regulatory Harmonization and the Globalization of Finance

Jordan, Cally; Majnoni, Giovanni
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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In the globalizing economy, national policymakers are often forced to accept the challenge of financial integration. Faced with the potentially destabilizing effects of international financial markets, they have to strengthen financial regulation, importing international best practices and aligning domestic with foreign regulation, to avoid destabilizing phenomena of regulatory arbitrage. The authors explore the main features of the ongoing process of worldwide financial regulatory convergence and the role played by the global dissemination of financial standards and codes. They analyze the reasons behind the generalized acceptance of international best practices and the limits of the standards and codes approach to financial regulatory harmonization.

Co-Movement of Major Commodity Price Returns : Time-Series Assessment

de Nicola, Francesca; De Pace, Pierangelo; Hernandez, Manuel A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the degree of co-movement among the nominal price returns of 11 major energy, agricultural and food commodities based on monthly data between 1970 and 2013. A uniform-spacings testing approach, a multivariate dynamic conditional correlation model and a rolling regression procedure are used to study the extent and the time-evolution of unconditional and conditional correlations. The results indicate that (i) the price returns of energy and agricultural commodities are highly correlated; (ii) the overall level of co-movement among commodities increased in recent years, especially between energy and agricultural commodities and in particular in the cases of maize and soybean oil, which are important inputs in the production of biofuels; and (iii) particularly after 2007, stock market volatility is positively associated with the co-movement of price returns across markets.

The liberalisation and integration of domestic financial markets in Western Pacific economies

de Brouwer, Gordon
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 281576 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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This paper addresses the integration of domestic financial markets in Western Pacific economies – an unexamined issue in the literature of international financial integration – by exploring the relationship between money market interest rates and deposit and loan interest rates. Rules for setting interest rates on deposits and loans are derived, and these are shown to be consistent with commercial banking practice and to capture recent key developments in the banking sectors of the region. An error-correction model is used to show that the integration of domestic institutional financial markets has increased substantially over the past decade, due to pervasive liberalisation and, more recently, growing competitiveness. The adjustment of domestic institutional rates to changes in money market rates has increased, often significantly, and by the first half of the 1990s the speed and pattern of adjustment of institutional rates in most of the developing/newly developed economies of East Asia had become similar to that in economies with developed financial systems. There is also a difference between the adjustment of deposit and loan rates, with the former adjusting more rapidly. This may be explained by differences in the maturity...

The first European grain invasion: a study in the integration of the European market 1750-1870

FEDERICO, Giovanni
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper argues that market integration should be measured as σ-convergence over the largest possible sample of markets. It test this claim with an empirical analysis of the European market for wheat, rye and candles from the middle of the 18th century to the eve of the first globalization with a new data-base of more than 450 price series. Price dispersion remained constant until the outbreak of French wars, then it increased abruptly. It started to decline after the end of the war, and the process continued steadily until an all-time low in the 1860s. Domestic and international integration contributed in roughly the same proportion to integration in the long-run, but the latter were much more important to account for medium-term changes. The fall in cost of maritime transportation accounted for a substantial share of the price convergence in the second quarter of the 19th century. These results suggest that the level of integration was determined for most of the period by war and political events

Bilateral market power and vertical integration in the spanish electricity spot market

Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Machado, Matilde P.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Spanish electricity spot market is highly concentrated both on the seller and the buyer side. Furthermore, unlike electricity spot markets in other deregulated electricity systems, large buyers and sellers are typically vertically integrated. This allows both large net sellers and large net buyers to strategically influence the spot market price. We develop a supply function model of this market to analyse the impact of market power on prices and productive efficiency and use it empiricially to detect such bilateral market power. Our estimates suggest that market power has had little impact on spot market prices but that substantial productive inefficiencies may have arisen from the exercise of bilateral market power.

A Regional Virtual Market Place for Middle East and North Africa : Milestone Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The Regional Virtual Market Place (RVMP) is an innovative project aiming at fostering regional economic growth and integration in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as well as its integration with the rest of the world. In concrete terms, the RVMP will link buyers and sellers from the MENA region through an electronic platform, a website. The clients of such a platform would be firms that cannot afford to market their products abroad (participation to trade fairs, advertising, and hiring export consultants) or to conduct costly market research to identify business opportunities. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are considered to be the main target of this initiative. A RVMP will be the adequate tool to promote their products, at low cost, in international markets and learn about clients expectations through their posted requests (for instance: a pharmaceutical SME in Belgium looking for some North African plants' oil extracts with some specific characteristics will be able to post a request through the platform). This RVMP would be likely to address the persistent market failure of access to markets by providing a virtual platform for North-South and South-South trade. It will also address information asymmetries by providing the sellers with information about the buyers' expectations and the buyers with information about the seller's trustworthiness (through ratings provided by previous buyers...

China's Integration with the World : Development as a Process of Learning and Industrial Upgrading

Lin, Justin Yifu; Wang, Yan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The process of development is full of uncertainties, especially if it is a process of transition from a planned economy to a market oriented one. Because of uncertainties and country specificity, development must be a process of learning, selective adaptation, and industrial upgrading. This paper attempts to distill lessons from China's reform and opening up process, and investigate the underlying reasons behind China's success in trade expansion and economic growth. From its beginnings with home-grown and second-best institutions, China has embarked on a long journey of reform, experimentation, and learning by doing. It is moving from a comparative advantage-defying strategy to a comparative advantage-following strategy. The country is catching up quickly through augmenting its factor endowments and upgrading industries; but this has been only partially successful. Although China is facing several difficult challenges - including rising inequality, an industrial structure that is overly capital and energy intensive...

Improving California Investor Owned Utilities Procurement Practices: The Need to Include Integration Costs in Renewable Energy Resource Selection

Butler, Kevin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 15/08/2013 Português
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By 2020, 33% of California’s electric power sales will come from renewable energy sources due to California’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). This implies a 359% increase, from 23,000 GWh to more than 80,000 GWh, in renewable energy generation since 2002. Also by 2020, 21% of the sales will be from intermittent renewable resources (IRRs) that will incur integration costs due to required flexible ramping resources to balance power supply and demand of the California grid. The key parties implementing the RPS are divided on the integration cost values of IRRs. The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requires that IOUs use a zero value for integration costs. This results in an inaccurate Net Market Value, a critical component in selecting new renewable resources. IRR generators also support a zero integration cost to avoid a diminution in value. Investor-Owned Utilities (IOUs) support a non-zero cost adder to ensure all costs are accounted to deliver the most cost-effective reliable energy to customers. Firm and reliable renewable energy generators prefer a non-zero cost adder to value dependable energy delivery. Finally, the California Independent Systems Operator (CAISO) with the CPUC acknowledge that integration costs may become significant as the renewable portfolio expands as additional IRRs commence operations. Per studies...

A necessidade de reforma do sistema tributário brasileiro como eliminação de entraves à integração no âmbito do MERCOSUL: análise a partir de experiências europeias; The need for a tax reform in Brazil as a means to overcoming the barriers to integration within the MERCOSUR: an analysis based on the European experience

Rios, Marcelo Jabour
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2015 Português
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Os tratados internacionais firmados após a segunda metade do século XX, em particular aqueles que pretendem superar os tradicionais acordos de livre comércio ou união aduaneira, seguem desafiando o direito contemporâneo. Por serem mais ambiciosos, ultrapassam a clássica forma de cooperação entre países soberanos e exigem uma estrutura institucional mais elaborada, capaz de fazer emergir a vontade expressa nos tratados e de estabelecer as liberdades que serão asseguradas nesse novo ambiente, uma vez que a máxima um povo, um governo, um território, não o define. A experiência mundial bem sucedida que conseguiu erigir um mercado comum, assim compreendido como um espaço sem fronteiras em cujo interior circulam livremente pessoas, serviços, mercadorias e capitais, foi a vivenciada pelas Comunidades Europeias. A clareza dos objetivos traçados, a capacidade de superar as fases de estagnação, a solidez das instituições e, sobretudo, o reconhecimento da supremacia do direito comunitário foram determinantes para o êxito europeu. O triunfo assentou-se, dentre tantos outros pilares, no processo de harmonização das legislações tributárias dos países membros, em especial as que alcançam o consumo de bens e serviços...

O mercado de debêntures e o financiamento produtivo no Brasil: uma análise de cointegração e causalidade; The market of corporate debentures and the financing of productive sector in Brazil: a cointegration and causality analysis

Pimentel, Renê Coppe; Peres, Edna Ferreira; Lima, Gerlando Augusto Sampaio Franco de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade de RP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper analyzes the evolution of the Brazilian corporate debt market and its role on corporate financing from 1994 to 2009. Besides the description of the corporate debt market, the paper analyzes, by using co-integration and causality analysis, if there is long-term relationship between corporate debt market and Brazilian economic growth and the direction of the relationship. Additionally, the corporate debt market is compared to the banking market as complementary and competitive instrument of Brazilian productive financing. Tests suggest that there is significant co-integration between the variables under analysis and, in general, the corporate debt market is Granger-cause of economic growth, which means that there is significant influence of debt volume growth on stimulating economic growth. It was also verified that the corporate debt market seems to be more relevant than the banking market in influencing economic growth.; Este artigo analisa a evolução do mercado brasileiro de debêntures e seu papel no financiamento empresarial entre 1995 e 2009. Além da descrição do mercado de debêntures, o artigo estuda, por meio de análise de cointegração e causalidade, a relação temporal entre o mercado de debêntures e o crescimento econômico brasileiro. Adicionalmente...