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Photoluminescence behavior of Eu(3+) ion doped into gamma- and alpha-alumina systems prepared by combustion, ceramic and Pechini methods

Monteiro, Maria Adriana Fraiha; Brito, Hermi Felinto de; Felinto, Maria Claudia França da Cunha; Brito, Giancarlo Esposito de Souza; Teotonio, Ercules Epaminondas de Sousa; Vichi, Flavio Maron; Stefani, Roberval
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Al(2)O(3):Eu(3+)(1%) samples were prepared by combustion, ceramic, and Pechini methods annealed from 400 to 1400 degrees C. XRD patterns indicate that samples heated up to 1000 degrees C present disordered character of activated alumina (gamma-Al(2)O(3)). However, alpha-Al(2)O(3) phase showed high crystallinity and thermostability at 1200-1400 degrees C. The sample characterizations were also carried out by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface areas analysis (BET method). Excitation spectra of Al(2)O(3):Eu(3+) samples present broaden bands attributed to defects of Al(2)O(3) matrices and to LMCT state of O -> Eu(3+), however, the narrow bands are assigned to (7)F(0) -> (5)D(J),(5)H(J) and (5)L(J) transitions of Eu(3+) ion. Emission spectra of samples calcined up to 1000 degrees C show broaden bands for (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) transitions of Eu(3+) ion suggesting that the rare earth ion is in different symmetry sites showed by inhomogeneous line broadening of bands, confirming the predominance of the gamma-alumina phase. For all samples heated from 1200 to 1400 degrees C the spectra exhibit narrow (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) transitions of Eu(3+) ion indicating the conversion of gamma to alpha-Al(2)O(3) phases...

Sou eu, mas não sou eu: as interações de mulheres mexicanas com o álcool; It was you, but it was not you: Interactions of Mexican women with alcohol.

Cortaza Ramírez, Leticia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2007 Português
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O consumo de álcool na mulher é uma problemática cada dia maior devido ao aumento nos padrões de consumo e na idade precoce em que se da o início do consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. O processo de adição é complexo e afeta a mulheres de todas as classes sociais, estas mulheres vistas em uma perspectiva externa não parecem ter muitas coisas em comum, mas compartilham o consumo de álcool de maneira impulsiva. Daí surge a finalidade deste estudo que foi compreender em que momento o álcool começou a fazer parte da vida da mulher que o consome e que significado atribui para o seu consumo. Diante da natureza do problema, este foi abordado segundo a metodologia qualitativa, tendo como referencial metodológico o estudo de caso, sob a perspectiva teórica de alguns dos pressupostos do Interacionismo Simbólico. Participaram deste estudo 10 mulheres que reconheceram consumir ou ter consumido bebidas alcoólicas. A história oral temática foi a técnica utilizada para a coleta de informação. As entrevistas gravadas foram transcritas, codificadas e categorizadas tomando como referência a análise de conteúdo. A análise de dados obteve como categorias centrais: O mundo das mulheres e sua interação com os objetos que as conformam e Encadeando ações em direção ao consumo de álcool. A partir das interações se evidenciou que a perspectiva da maioria das mulheres sobre o seu mundo foi uma visão continua de eventos de maustratos e objetos (pai...

O silêncio da escola e os Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau do Alto Jamari.; Indigenous group school education: Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau of the Alto Jamari

Paiva, José Osvaldo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/06/2000 Português
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Este estudo volta-se para a educação indígena, mais especificamente ao do grupo Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau do Alto Jamari em sua educação tradicional e a sua expectativa quanto à educação escolar. Esse grupo habita a região central de Rondônia próxima às nascentes dos rios da serra dos Pakaas Novos. Como o objetivo dessa dissertação é o estudo do grupo e da educação escolar que será oferecida a essa comunidade, portanto, para isso, estão presentes todos os aspectos que servirão de contextualização para o grupo e para a educação escolar indígena. Assim o grupo está descrito na sua perspectiva histórica, dentro das grandes migrações indígenas na região amazônica, nos choques interétnicos com as migrações dos não-índios, que estão também descritas, o seu primeiro contato, em 1981, até se conseguir a demarcação de suas terras em 1985. A partir daí serão apresentados os estudos etnográficos que foram feitos sobre a cultura Kawahiba, a qual pertence os Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau, acrescidos aos relatos feitos pelos integrantes da própria comunidade, que poderão dar uma extensão maior a tais estudos. Para tanto, conseguiu-se nesse estudo o relato dos mitos, a descrição da sua organização social e outros aspectos da sua cultura...

Estudo de nanocompósitos luminescentes baseados em complexos de Eu(III) e Ir(III) ancorados à nanopartículas de sílica por bases de Schiff

Mutti, Alessandra Mara Garbosa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 185 f. : il. color., gráfs, tabs.
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Química - IBILCE; Silica is a versatile material and has specific properties that make it a good host for molecules and biomolecules suggesting promising applications such as in catalysis, drug controlled release, biomarkers, and so on. To be used as a biomarker it requires a luminescent molecule covalently linked to its surface. For this application, lanthanide complexes are very promising since they exhibit intense multicolor emissions. Also, some transition metal complexes exhibit good luminescent properties, that makes them good candidates for use as luminescent probes in biological media. The main scope of this work is the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of luminescent functionalized silica nanoparticles. These new phosphors based on silica nanoparticles were obtained by sol-gel method, followed by covalent bounding with Eu3+-complexes or Ir3+-complexes, through a Schiff base ligand type. We also describe the synthesis and characterization of two Schiff base ligands: Salba and SalpaSi. The last one was attached to the silica nanoparticles surface to form SalpaSi- SiO2. Three complexes {[Eu(salba)3], [Eu(salen)2] and [Ir(ppy)2(salba)]} and three conjugates {[Eu(salpaSi)(H2O)x]-SiO2...

A new paradigm of international migration between the European Union and Australia: patterns and implications

Hugo, Graeme
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 652025 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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International migration between the European Union (EU) and Australia has a long history. However, the pattern of this migrational flow has undergone some profound changes in the last decade. This paper provides an Australian-end perspective on these changes using the 2001 Census of Population and Housing, arrival/departure information and survey results to establish the nature and scale of these changes. Australia is recognised, along with Canada, the United States and New Zealand, as a ‘traditional country of immigration’ and the EU has been one of the largest single suppliers of settlers to Australia with 12 percent of Australians at the 2001 Census being born in the EU and a similar number being Australian-born with a EU-born parent. However, with the massive global shifts occurring in international migration, the migration relationship has become much more complex. On the one hand, Australia has entered a new paradigm of international migration in which non-permanent settlement movements have assumed central significance. The EU has been a major source of such people moving to Australia. There has long been a substantial counter flow of people moving from Australia to the EU among which former settlers have dominated. In recent years the numbers of Australian born moving on a permanent or long-term basis to the EU has increased substantially. It is argued that the bulk of research knowledge in Australia is based on the settlement paradigm which is now only a minor part of migration between Australia and Europe. There is a need to reorient research activity in Australia to encompass the new forms of movement. In addition to identifying the scale of the new forms of international migration influencing movements between the EU and Australia...

The impact of EU conditionality upon democratisation: Comparing electoral competition and civil service reforms in post-communist Albania

ELBASANI, Arolda
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
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This dissertation explores how and to what extent EU conditionality can foster democratisation in a highly problematic case such as post-communist Albania. In order to examining the phenomena of democratisation in operational detail, the thesis delves into the sub-systemic level of democratisation focusing on two partial regimes - electoral regime and civil service system. The analysis follows on the rational choice premise that the domestic actors’ strategies of compliance depend on the structure of external incentives i.e. rewards and threats, that appeal to their interest. Our account on the impact of EU conditionality upon democratisation assumes that the likelihood of compliance depends on 1) the size of the rewards attached to conditionality; 2) the size of adoption costs; 3) the clarity of prescriptions and 4) credibility of reinforcement. The first part consists of developing a conceptual framework for assessing and explaining the impact of EU enlargement conditionality over democratisation processes. The second part explores the case of Albanian democratisation and the specific challenge it poses to the working of EU conditionality. The third part analyses the association between EU conditionality and reform seeking to identify whether the fortification of the EU conditionality coincides with a pattern-breaking change in each of the partial regimes of our choice. The thesis concludes that the EU was more successful to foster reforms in the area of electoral competition than public administration and civil service system. The EU seemed to push forward reforms by articulating clear prescriptions regarding the electoral competition; and advancing contractual relations with the country in function of electoral performance.; Defence date: 30 November 2007; Supervisor: P. Schmitter

Myths and Reality of EU Policy Processes and Interest-Groups Participation. Why are interest groups not as successful as they would like to be?

ROZBICKA, Patrycja
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Some interest groups, when referring to their participation in EU policy processes, summarize their experience thus: ‘We are more and more consulted but less and less heard’. While the governance concept in general, and EU multi-level governance in particular, argue for the inclusion of interest groups in the policy process, those groups’ statements prove that in reality the situation is different. The questions that must be answered, then, are: why does this happen, and where is the catch? This thesis examines the EU’s relationships with interest groups in general, and, in particular, the factors supporting and opposing NGOs’ and business groups’ successes and failures in influencing EU policies. I seek to answer the following questions: How does the organization of the EU political system assist or limit NGOs’ and business groups’ participation in the policy process? Does their position in policy networks have any influence on their input transposition? Does it affect the quality of their input? Can external factors to the policy processes themselves be a reason for lack of input implementation? I focus on three case studies. Firstly, as a background study, I examine the EU political system; subsequently, I analyze the EU Sustainable Development Policy and the EU Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (REACH) as particular examples of ‘on-the-ground’ cases. My main methodologies are process-tracing (including comparative content text analysis)...

The Global Reach of the Proposed EU Financial Transaction Tax Directive: Creating momentum through internal legislation?

VAN VOOREN, Bart
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, taxation of the financial sector has forcefully re-emerged on the European Union political agenda. One proposal – rightly or wrongly – received much political attention: a broad-based tax on financial transactions. What had for years existed as a utopia in the minds of grass roots movements, reached a legal and political milestone during Commission President Barosso’s State of the Union speech on 28 September 2011. There he presented a proposal for an EU Directive on a financial transaction tax installed across the 27 EU Member States. It was then an explicit objective of the Union that it would lead by example, and that its pan-European implementation would prove the global feasibility of a financial transaction tax (FTT). The Cannes G-20 Meeting early November 2011 under French chairmanship was expected to launch the global dimension of the FTT, using the momentum created by the proposed EU FTT Directive two months earlier. However, the European sovereign debt crisis caused the EU to teeter on the brink of political, financial and economic collapse, and momentum for a global FTT seemed utterly lost. Nonetheless, political discussions within the Union continued, and at the time of writing – Spring 2012 – discussions in the Council were on-going for some form of pan-EU. The global implementation of the EU FTT Directive is a tale of divided political views between Member States of the Union...

A New Architecture for EU Gas Security of Supply

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; HAFNER, Manfred; DE JONG, Jacques; AHNER, Nicole; TAGLIAPIETRA, Simone
Fonte: Brussels, Claeys & Casteels Publicador: Brussels, Claeys & Casteels
Tipo: Livro
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Is the EU on the right track to meet its stated objective – a true European energy security policy? Is the current architecture on which the EU gas security of supply policy is built able to deliver those responses needed in order to meet the growing risks and changing realities EU gas security faces? How should European institutions and regulation adapt and respond? What tools are available to secure gas supply? This book feeds these questions by taking stock of today’s EU gas security of supply governance. It is based on the four-tier program ‘A New EU Gas Security of Supply Architecture’ organized by the Loyola de Palacio Chair (LdP) together with the Clingendael International Energy Programme (CIEP), the Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Wilton Park Conferences (WPC) that took place in 2011.; --Foreword 1 --The Authors 5 --Introduction 9 --CHAPTER I EU EXTERNAL RELATIONS AND ITS RELATION TO GAS INFRASTRUCTURE, Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra 15 --CHAPTER II BRINGING GAS TO AND THROUGH EU MARKETS, Jacques de Jong 73 --CHAPTER III THE BUILDING OF ENERGY SOLIDARITY IN THE EU, Nicole Ahner and Jean-Michel Glachant 123 --CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS, Jacques de Jong, Manfred Hafner, Jean-Michel Glachant...

Building competitive gas markets in the EU

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; HALLACK, Michelle; VAZQUEZ, Miguel
Fonte: Edward Elgar Publicador: Edward Elgar
Tipo: Livro
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This highly unique book focuses on market design issues common to most EU gas markets, particularly in the context of closer integration. It explores in detail the characteristics and requirements of national gas markets in Europe, which are constructed as virtual hubs based on entry/exit schemes as a requirement of European law. The expert contributors analyse gas supply and demand patterns in the EU, showing that both have changed following the introduction of liquefied natural gas on the supply side and the growth of gas-fired power plants on the demand side. The repeated interactions between the transmission operators’ activity and the gas commodity markets are addressed, as is the design of commercial networks in EU markets. The contributors also question whether the relationship between commercial and physical networks, in terms of the ‘new’ flexibility requirements of users, actually works. By way of conclusion, two proposals for the EU gas target model are presented, both of which tackle the fundamental issues raised in this book, as well as the organization of short-term transactions and the mechanisms for investment in vital new long-life infrastructure needed to integrate EU markets. This volume will be of great interest to practitioners...

The scope of the protection of fundamental rights under the EU charter

LAZZERINI, Nicole
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The recognition of the legally binding value of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights has profoundly transformed the Union system of fundamental rights protection. The novelties not only concern the sources of this protection, but also the conditions for the application and interpretation of EU fundamental rights. In particular, before the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty the Court of Justice was the exclusive architect of its approach to fundamental rights, whereas in the era of the legally binding Charter is confronted with written rules on the subject. Moreover, if there is no doubt that the Lisbon Treaty has put an unprecedented emphasis on the protection and promotion of EU fundamental rights, the Member States have contextually expressed, and with equal emphasis, concerns towards an ever-increasing expansion of the scope of EU fundamental rights, at the expense of domestic standards and material competences. Against this background, the aim of this thesis is to reconstruct the scope of the protection offered (better, that should be offered) by the EU Charter. The analysis covers problems relating both to the scope of application of the Charter and to its effects. Some of the questions addressed are new, as they stem from novelties introduced by the Charter others are veritable topoi of the EU discourse on fundamental rights...

EU Crisis Management: uitagingen en oplossingen

AL KHUDHAIRY Delilah; DE ROO Arie; ANNUNZIATO Alessandro; VAN DER GOOT Erik; DE GROEVE Tom; LINGE Jens
Fonte: Ministry of Defence and Justice Publicador: Ministry of Defence and Justice
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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De kracht van het optreden van de EU bij crises zit hem in haar vermogen de verschillende instrumenten van de Gemeenschap te combineren. Haar instellingen en de lidstaten hebben er dan ook al vele malen gebruik van gemaakt voor rampen binnen en buiten de Gemeenschap. Door een aantal factoren zijn de EU-instellingen echter onder steeds grotere druk komen te staan om het vermogen van de EU tot aanpakken van risico¿s, voorbereiding en bestrijding verder uit te breiden. Het op 1 december 2009 in werking getreden verdrag van Lissabon biedt nieuwe kansen om de crisismanagementcapaciteit van de EU verder te versterken, uit te breiden, beter te coördineren en efficiënter te maken. In het verdrag blijkt de solidariteit met kwetsbare groepen uit de nieuwe juridische basis voor humanitaire hulp en civiele bescherming (artt. 214 en 196 van het verdrag inzake het functioneren van de EU). Met behulp van het mechanisme voor civiele bescherming wordt de hulp van de lidstaten binnen en buiten de Unie eenvoudiger en beter afgestemd, terwijl het instrument voor humanitaire hulp de rol van de EU als ¿s werelds grootste humanitaire donor belichaamt. Via het instrument voor humanitaire hulp kan de EU noodfondsen en de expertise van haar partnerorganisaties (instellingen van de VN...

EU Clearinghouse for NPP OEF

MUEHLEISEN ARTUR
Fonte: Nuclear Society of Slovenia Publicador: Nuclear Society of Slovenia
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
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In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities, but also EU technical support organizations, international organizations and the broader nuclear community, to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from operational experience of nuclear power plants (NPPs) [1,2]. The initiative, called “the EU Clearinghouse”, is organized as a network operated by a centralized office located at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. It gathers European Safety Authorities from EU countries that have NPPs and Switzerland. It is open to European technical support organizations and international organizations. The reduction of occurrence and significance of events in NPPs and their safe operation is its ultimate goal. The objectives of the EU Clearinghouse are to allow effective and efficient implementation of operational experience (OE) feedback for improvement of safety of NPPs through: • Strengthening co-operation between EU Safety Authorities, Technical Support Organizations and the international OE community to collect, evaluate and share NPP operational events data and apply lessons learnt in a consistent manner throughout member countries. • Establishment of European best-practice for assessment of operational events in NPPs • Coordination of the NPP OEF activities and maintenance of effective communication between experts who are involved in OEF analyses from European regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations (TSO) • Support for the long-term EU research and policy needs on NPP Operational Experience Feedback. EU Clearinghouse provides services such as technical and scientific work to disseminate the lessons learned from past operating experience...

Potential EU-Mercosur Free Trade Agreement: Impact Assessment

BURRELL Alison; FERRARI EMANUELE; GONZALEZ MELLADO AIDA ARACELI; HIMICS MIHALY; MICHALEK Jerzy; SHRESTHA SHAILESH KUMAR; VAN DOORSLAER BENJAMIN
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: Livro Formato: Printed
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This report presents the simulations made with two different models of two alternative hypothetical versions of a bilateral free trade agreement between the EU and Mercosur. The two versions of the agreement are based on the final negotiating positions of each party in the previous unresolved negotiating round. A global CGE model, GLOBE, simulates the economy-wide impacts of the trade policy changes involving all sectors of the two regional blocks. A global partial equilibrium model, CAPRI, simulates only the impacts generated by changes in agricultural trade policy and incurred by the agricultural sectors of the two regions. However, CAPRI considers individual agricultural products in more detail and can generate the territorial distribution of their production within the EU at the NUTS 2 regional level. The simulation results show that the economic losses and the adjustment pressures arising from a bilateral trade agreement between the EU and the countries of Mercosur would, as far as the EU is concerned, fall very heavily on the agricultural sector. The gains to other sectors would be widely diffused and, given the very small magnitude of these gains relative to the EU economy as a whole, would be easily absorbed without imposing an adjustment burden. The aggregate welfare changes for the EU...

The Europeanisation of national immigration policies? : liberalising effects of EU membership in a new immigration country

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defense date: 28/05/2010; Examining Board: Andrew Geddes (University of Sheffield), Donatella Della Porta (EUI) (Supervisor), Virginie Guiraudon (CNRS) (Co-supervisor), Anna Triandafyllidou (Democritus University of Thrace); This study examines the impact of European integration in immigration issues on Greek immigration policy. Contrary to widely held claims that immigration policies in Europe become more and more restrictive - the well-known debate on 'Fortress Europe' - Greek legislation on entry, residence and rights of third-country nationals has undergone gradual liberalising developments. This paradox drove my inquiry into the factors, institutions and processes that may explain liberalising immigration policy change for a period of fifteen years (1990 - 2005). Greece, similarly to the rest of southern European 'new' immigration countries, is often charged with the implicit or explicit assumption that its recent turn into a host country for immigrants makes her receptive to the restrictive influence of EU policies on immigration. Is that so? What impact, if any, has cooperation on immigration issues at the EU level had on Greek immigration policy developments and why? What form has it taken, under what conditions, and what mechanisms have been at work? In search for answers...

The other side 'Fortress Europe': Policy transfers in the EU and the liberalising effects of EU membership on Greek immigrant policy

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Bielefeld, Centre of Migration, Citizenship & Development Publicador: Bielefeld, Centre of Migration, Citizenship & Development
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The metaphor of 'Fortress Europe' has been used frequently to denote the restrictive and defensive characteristics of immigration and asylum issues policies in the EU. Wishing to go beyond the prevailing conceptions about the common EU policies, I argue that EU norms on the rights of legally resident third-country nationals can also have pro-immigrant liberalising effects on the policies of the member-states. These effects are most probable in the countries that have recently become immigrant hosts because the EU level of decision-making acted as a transmission belt of the immigration policy concerns, principles and legacies of “older” immigratio countries across time and member-states. Undeniably, the primary focus of common EU norms has been on immigration control. However, the policy concerns and experiences of “older” immigration countries have also resulted in some attention paid to fostering immigrant integration. Away from the spotlights of academic research and public opinion, the Greek participation in the European “Fortress” resulted in the adoption of pro-immigrant policy measures at home that would have been unlikely outside the framework of EU membership. As the Greek case demonstrates, common EU norms may promote the liberalisation of immigrant policies in the EU member states that are “new” immigration countries. These findings invite for a reconsideration of the nature...

Integrating the Least Developed Countries into the World Trading System : The Current Impact of EU Preferences under Everything but Arms

Brenton, Paul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Trade preferences are a key element in industrial countries' efforts to assist the integration of least developed countries (LDCs) into the world economy. Brenton provides an initial evaluation of the impact of the European Union's recently introduced "Everything but Arms" (EBA) initiative on the products currently exported by the LDCs. He shows that the changes introduced by the EBA initiative in 2001 are relatively minor for currently exported products, primarily because over 99 percent of EU imports from the LDCs are in products which the EU had already liberalized, and the complete removal of barriers to the key remaining products-rice, sugar, and bananas-has been delayed. Brenton looks at the role EU preferences to LDCs in general have been playing and could play in assisting the integration of the LDCs. He shows that there is considerable variation across countries in the potential impact that EU preferences can have given current export structures. There is a group of LDCs for whom EU trade preferences on existing exports are not significant since these exports are mainly of products where the most-favored-nation duty is zero. Export diversification is the key issue for these countries. For other LDCs...

Sorption of Eu(III) on Attapulgite Studied by Batch, XPS and EXAFS Techniques

Fan, Q. H.; Tan, X. L.; Li, J. X.; Wang, X. K.; Wu, W. S.; Montavon, Gilles
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/12/2009 Português
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The effects of pH, ionic strength and temperature on sorption of Eu(III) on attapulgite were investigated in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA). The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) on attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength, and independent of temperature. In the presence of FA/HA, Eu(III) sorption was enhanced at pH < 4, decreased at pH range of 4 - 6, and then increased again at pH > 7. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the sorption of Eu(III) might be expressed as ?X3Eu0 ?SwOHEu3+ and ?SOEu-OOC-/HA in the ternary Eu/HA/attapulgite system. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of Eu-HA complexes indicated that the distances of d(Eu-O) decreased from 2.451 to 2.360 {\AA} with increasing pH from 1.76 to 9.50, whereas the coordination number (N) decreased from ~9.94 to ~8.56. Different complexation species were also found for the different addition sequences of HA and Eu(III) to attapulgite suspension. The results are important to understand the influence of humic substances on Eu(III) behavior in the natural environment.

First-principles study of luminescence in Eu$^{2+}$-doped inorganic scintillators

Chaudhry, A.; Boutchko, R.; Chourou, S.; Zhang, G.; Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Canning, A.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/01/2014 Português
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Luminescence in Eu$^{2+}$ activated materials corresponds to a transition from an excited state where the lowest Eu 5$d$ level is filled with one electron (often called the (Eu$^{2+}$)$^*$ state) to the ground state with half-filled 4$f$ shell with seven electrons of the same spin. We have performed theoretical calculations based on Density Functional Theory to determine the ground state band structure of Eu-doped materials as well as study the (Eu$^{2+}$)$^*$ excited state. Calculations were performed on Eu doped materials, experimentally known to be either scintillators or non-scintillators, in order to relate theoretically calculable parameters to experimentally observed properties. Applying criteria previously developed for Ce-doped systems (A.Canning, A. Chaudhry, R. Boutchko and N. Gr\o{}nbech-Jensen, Phys. Rev. B Vol.83, 125115 (2011)) to new Eu-doped materials we developed a list of candidate materials for new bright Eu activated scintillators. Ba$_2$CsBr$_5$:Eu is an example of a new bright scintillator from our candidate list that has been synthesized in microcrystalline powder form. As discussed in our previous paper on Ce-doped materials this approach was designed as a systematic high-throughput method to aid in the discovery of new bright scintillator materials by prioritization and down-selection on the large number of potential new materials.; Comment: 10 pages...

Europeanisation and civil society: the early impact of EU pre-accession policies on Turkish NGOs

Ketola, Markus
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2011 Português
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Turkey’s European Union (EU) membership aspirations form a critical junction on the road to further European integration. During the past decade, the role of nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) as facilitators of the accession process has grown exponentially in relevance. In Turkey’s case, specific policies have emerged to support this element of the pre-accession process. By targeting NGOs, these policies aim to Europeanise and democratise Turkish civil society and in so doing prepare Turkey for eventual EU accession. This logic draws on the liberal democratic tradition that anticipates democratisation to be a key outcome of NGO support. The thesis questions the appropriateness of such assumptions, since Turkish NGOs respond to EU policy in a variety of locally meaningful ways that may circumvent the stated policy outcomes. The wider the gap between policy and reality, the more space there is for NGOs to exercise their agency, and more uncertain the Europeanisation processes become. The thesis starts out by juxtaposing the European and Turkish perspectives in turn. The EU approach suggests that NGOs behave similarly across different cultural contexts and can be called upon to perform a variety of roles deemed useful for the overall policy process. However...