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Is Fiscal Federalism Different in the European Union?

Vila Maior, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade Fernando Pessoa Publicador: Universidade Fernando Pessoa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 Português
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A political-economic model largely influenced by the monetarist school inspires European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Accordingly, neither income redistribution nor resource allocation is the cornerstone of economic policy mix. That role is reserved to the stabilisation function. Among those scholars who discuss whether the EU is comparable to existing cases of “conventional fiscal federalism”, the analysis is frequently concentrated on allocation and redistribution. Despite macroeconomic stabilisation is the key aspect of EMU, the paper undergoes a comparative analysis between the European Union (EU) and five mature federations (United States, Canada, Australia, Germany, and Switzerland) as far as resource allocation is concerned. It first surveys the operation of the allocation function in these countries, concluding that there are remarkable differences when the countries under examination are measured within a centralisation/decentralisation continuum. Resource allocation is subsequently reviewed in the context of EMU to capture convergences and divergences with the federations examined – and to what extent do convergent aspects contribute to put a label on the EU in terms of fiscal federalism. The awareness that the discussion is sometimes plagued with conceptual oversight – the confusion between the desirability and feasibility of fiscal federalism in the European integration context – paves the way to the empirical dimension. The paper concludes with an input from statistical data assessing to what extent inter-state solidarity exists (or is absent) in the EU.

The WTO and Domestic Coalitions: The effects of negotiations and enforcement in the European Union

DE BIEVRE, Dirk
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper; application/pdf; digital
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In this PhD dissertation I explain how different forms of international trade institutions affect domestic coalition patterns. Negotiated trade policy instruments create incentives for sector-wide interest representation, while administrative instruments elicit interest aggregation on a more product-specific, intra-sectoral level. I provide a rationale why reciprocal trade negotiations foster sector-wide associations, whereas trade rule enforcement elicits intra-sectoral coalitions. In contrast to existing explanations, these propositions can account for coalition patterns during both the GATT 1947, which consisted of a series of trade negotiation rounds, and the WTO (1995-), which combines negotiations with binding administrative enforcement in the form of international dispute settlement. Comprehensive evidence from EU trade policy lobbying confirms the explanatory force of the hypotheses. Sectoral peak associations co-ordinate interest representation during the GATT and WTO Rounds, whereas private interests predominantly organise on an intra-sectoral level when filing petitions for enforcement instruments administered by the European Commission. Exhaustive databases provide evidence about the predominantly intra-sectoral trade associations that lodge complaints with administrative instruments such as Anti-Dumping...

Legitimating the European Union: The Contested Meanings of an EU Constitution

OBERHUBER, Florian
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Following up on a previous study on the Convention on the Future of Europe, the present article investigates the reception of the EU’s constitutional experience in the public. A qualitative analysis of the press coverage of the various phases of constitutionalisation between the decision on establishing a Convention in December 2001 and the provisional suspension of ratification in 2005 is carried out. While it is pointed out that the constitutional project entailed a bid for legitimacy which implied a strong engagement of the public, the reception of constitutionalisation in the press did not result in a democratic process of mobilisation. However, the failure of such an interpretation of the European Union as a democracy in the making did not amount to a de-legitimation of the EU in the coverage analysed. Rather, another semantic framework for making meaning of the Europolity was found which was based on a predominantly statist reading of its constituents and which legitimated co-operation over unilateral action, namely constructing a normative discourse of the EU member-states in search of a common “European” as opposed to their “national” interests. Hence, the article proposes to take note of the fact that discourses about the European Union show a large degree of polysemia and contestedness...

A European Culture of Religious Tolerance

AUGENSTEIN, Daniel
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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In the European integration process, the European Union continues to struggle for an identity that can generate widespread support amongst its peoples. In this context it has been suggested by some that the European Union should embrace the Christian values that underpin its national traditions and cultures. I shall argue that, instead of relying on a communitarian vision of a ‘Christian Europe’, a European identity should build on a culture of religious tolerance. A European culture of religious tolerance draws on the enduring of difference and the acknowledgement of persisting and intractable conflict as essential experiences of Europe’s Christian past. Thus understood, tolerance lies at the roots of a European identity. At the same time, and through the conditional inclusion of religious diversity in the European nation-states, a European culture of religious tolerance creates over time new commonalities between Europe’s religiously permeated national traditions. Thus understood, tolerance only brings about the conditions for the development of a genuine European identity that amounts to more than (the sum of) its national counterparts.

EU National Economic and Social Councils and Similar Institutions

Fonte: European Economic and Social Committee Publicador: European Economic and Social Committee
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This document brings together information on the national organisations in the 27 countries of the European Union referred to collectively as "Economic and social councils or similar institutions".; The present publication is an integral part of a larger comparative study on EU Member States consultations with civil society on European policy matters. Following a call for tenders launched by the EESC, the European Union Democracy Observatory at the European University Institute in Florence was commissioned to carry out the study under the direction of Didier Chabanet and Professor Alexander H. Trechsel. This publication is also available in French.

Regulatory functions of European contract law : theoretical foundations and practical applications

GORYWODA, Łukasz
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Contract law is increasingly becoming an important part of the European regulatory landscape. The increasing recourse to contract law as a regulatory technique triggers fundamental questions about the aims and the effects of contract law. This thesis tackles these questions by investigating the topic of regulatory functions of European contract law. The objective of the analysis is to see which contract law instrument performs which specific regulatory function at each institutional level (European and Member States). Claiming that traditional accounts of contract law do not yield satisfactory results when applied to the analysis of European contract law, I develop a theoretical framework based on the public interest theory of regulation with its central concept of market failure. Application of this framework demonstrates incentive effects that contract law creates for market actors. Because of these incentive effects, contract law can be regarded as a regulatory technique, equivalent to other techniques of social and economic regulation. I argue that regulatory use of contract law concerns not only the European but also the Member State level, and in both cases contract law regulates at all three stages of the regulatory process (standard-setting...

To say what the law of the EU is : methods of interpretation and the European Court of Justice

LENAERTS, Koen; GUTIÉRREZ-FONS, José A.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Distinguished Lecture delivered on the occasion of the XXIV Law of the European Union course of the Academy of European Law, on 6 July 2013.

The European Motor Challenge Programme Catalogue 2003 to 2009

BERTOLDI Paolo; ELLE Marion
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The Motor Challenge Programme (MCP) is a voluntary commitment scheme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of 2003 to activate European companies to implement energy efficiency measures for motors. Transforming electrical into mechanical power, electrical motors are central devices in modern industrial production. Moving drivers, fans, compressors and pumps these motors are essential for assuring the continuous creation of a multitude of products and services important to our life such as food, beverages, cars, furniture, textiles, consumer electronics, water and energy supply. Motor driven systems account for 30 % of electricity use in the European Union and for 60 % of industrial electricity use constituting therefore a major and relevant area for energy efficiency improvements. Many studies showed that the potential for energy savings is substantial. By the end of 2009, the MCP comprised a total of 93 companies coming from a surprising wide range of industrial sectors with the focus on production and processing originating from 16 countries in the European Union. Only a handful came from service related sectors. The largest groups of MCP partners came from food production (13 %), metal and steel (12 %) and water supply (9 %). Micro and small sized companies were in the minority...

Movimiento circular del conocimiento: consideraciones básicas sobre migraciones cualificadas entre ALC y Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea

Pinyol, Gemma
Fonte: Instituto Franklin de Investigación en Estudios Norteamericanos. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares Publicador: Instituto Franklin de Investigación en Estudios Norteamericanos. Universidad de Alcalá de Henares
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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En los últimos años, la movilidad de trabajadores cualificados se ha convertido en un tema central al hablar de migraciones internacionales. Este interés creciente está directamente vinculado a un proceso de globalización en el que los capitales, la información, las mercancías, el conocimiento y las personas fluyen con una intensidad desconocida hasta la fecha implicando, además, a un mayor número de países. El objetivo de este capítulo es acercarse a la realidad y a las políticas de movilidad de personal cualificado desde América Latina hacia Europa y Estados Unidos. Para ello, se señalaran algunos de los debates relacionados con la circulación de personas cualificadas y el proceso de transformación de la fuga de cerebros en un fenómeno de suma positiva que puede beneficiar al país de origen, al de destino y al propio migrante. El capítulo concluye con una serie de elementos que permiten reflexionar sobre la circulación de la formación y el conocimiento entre los países de América Latina, y Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea.; In recent years, the mobility of high skilled migrants has become a topic when discussing international migrations. This growing interest is directly linked to a globalization process in which capital...

Disenfranchisement in linguistically diverse societies : the case of the European Union

Ginsburgh, V.; Ortuño, Ignacio; Weber, Shlomo
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf; text/plain
Publicado em //2005 Português
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We consider a linguistically diversified society and examine the notion of language disenfran-chisement when some individuals are denied the full access to documents and political process in their native tongues. To calculate the disenfranchisement indices we use the Dyen percentage cognate matrix of linguistic distances between Indo-European languages and apply survey and population data on language proficiency in the European Union. We then determine optimal sets of official languages that depend on society's sensitivity against disenfranchisement and comprehensiveness of the chosen language regime. We also discuss the language situation in the European Union after its last enlargement.; We are grateful to the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and Fundación BBVA for their financial support

Euros, pounds and Albion at arms: European monetary policy and British defense in the 21st century

Fox, Timothy William
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 97 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In the United Kingdom, a central issue of contemporary foreign policy is whether or not to enter into full membership of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Membership has profound implications for the development of the European Union (EU) and the future of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and potentially upon the much heralded Anglo-American 'special relationship'. On a practical level, excluding the political implications of membership, joining the EMU means surrendering the pound sterling for the euro and in doing so the British would also surrender control of monetary policy. This thesis will examine the historical links between British defence and monetary policy and argues that there are strong historical bonds that link the two in the political psychology of Britain. This link has created for Britain twin nationalistic icons in the pound and the military. This thesis illustrates that a paradox exists in that membership in the EMU would improve British defence spending and yet nationalistic forces resist membership. At the same time, forces in Britain in favor of monetary integration, unable to accomplish it but pressured to show they are dedicated to the project of European integration...

European Food Regulation After Enlargement: Should Europe's modes of regulation provide for more flexibility?

ZUREK, Karolina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Defense date: 25/06/2010; Examining Board: Mads ANDENAS (University of Oslo) Marise CREMONA (EUI) Christian JOERGES (Supervisor, former EUI and University of Bremen) Ellen VOS (University of Maastricht); This thesis aims to present a critical legal perspective on the current direction of European Union (EU) food safety regulation. Through an analysis of three regulatory mechanismsmutual recognition, scientific risk analysis and standardisation-combined with a study of the evolution of food legislation in the EU, I seek to show how the current framework fails to face new challenges, such as the globalization of world trade and the last two enlargements. In particular, the thesis focuses upon the case of a newly acceded EU member state, namely Poland. The main argument presented in the thesis is that an enlarged and more diversified Europe must not disregard the numerous socio-economic implications of market regulation. If not properly acknowledged and reflected in the regulatory scheme, the mismatch between market regulation and socio-economic factors can lead to a kind of gradual "disembedding" of the regulatory framework, in the Polanyian sense of the term. This is of critical importance as the EU project is not one-dimensionally geared towards securing greater European unity...

The European Constitution: past and future

Puig, Gonzalo Villalta
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 63168 bytes; 362 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Does Europe need a Constitution? This is the question that has attracted the attention of observers of the European scene, especially lawyers and political scientists, ever since the debate over Giscard d'Estaing's draft Constitution revived public interest in the European project. The general consensus is that the European Union needs a Constitution because it does not have one in the yes sense of the term. This paper will evaluate whether or not the living Constitution upon which the Union is based, the product of the interaction between the Treaties and the case-law, meets the functional and formal criteria that are understood to universally define Constitutions in a politico-democratic context.; no

The Clash of Liberalizations : Preferential versus Multilateral Trade Liberalization in the European Union

Karacaovali, Baybars; Limão, Nuno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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There has been an explosion in the number of preferential trade agreements in the past decade. Preferential trade agreements are characterized by liberalization with respect to only a few partners and thus they can potentially clash with and retard multilateral trade liberalization. Despite this important concern with preferential trade agreements, there is almost no systematic evidence on whether they actually affect multilateral trade liberalization. The authors model the effect of preferential trade agreements on multilateral trade liberalization and show that preferential trade agreements slow down multilateral trade liberalization unless they have a common external tariff and allow for internal transfers. Next, they use detailed data on product-level tariffs negotiated by the European Union in the past two multilateral trade rounds to structurally estimate their model. The authors confirm the main prediction-the European Union's preferential trade agreements have clashed with its multilateral trade liberalization--and find that the effect is quantitatively significant. Moreover, they also confirm several auxiliary predictions of the model and provide new evidence on the political economy determinants of multilateral liberalization in the European Union.

Norm implementation in the enlarged European neighbourhood : justice and home affairs in Moldova and Ukraine

Peich, Xavier
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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L’Union européenne (UE) se sert principalement d’outils normatifs pour exercer du pouvoir sur la scène internationale, notamment par la promotion de ses propres lois et standards. Le meilleur exemple est l’élargissement de l’UE, processus ayant contribué à stabiliser l'Europe et à transformer les candidats en des démocraties de marché, notamment en promouvant un rapprochement avec les normes européennes en échange d’une perspective d’adhésion à l’UE. La Politique européenne de Voisinage (PEV) utilise les mêmes mécanismes développés lors des élargissements, notamment la promotion de réformes en échange d’incitatifs financiers. Par contre, la PEV n’offre aucune perspective d’adhésion à l’UE aux États qui y participent. Ainsi, plusieurs études ont conclu que cette politique ne pourrait engendrer les réformes escomptées. Bien que la coopération au sein de la PEV ne soit pas aussi fructueuse que lors des élargissements, on remarque que certains pays plus que d’autres ont, malgré l’absence de perspective d’adhésion, fait des changements à leur législation en conformité avec les normes européennes. En comparant la coopération dans le secteur de la Justice et des affaires intérieures en Moldavie et en Ukraine...

La cooperación cultural como herramienta para la reafirmación identitaria en el Grupo Visegrád y sus efectos en el posicionamiento del mismo dentro de la Unión Europea 2004-2012

Tocancipá Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2015 Português
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El Grupo Visegrád es un escenario de cooperación multilateral, conformado por Polonia, República Checa, Eslovaquia y Hungría, el cual tiene como objetivo principal contribuir al cumplimiento de los intereses de dichos países, por medio de la financiación de proyectos culturales. El interés de esta monografía consiste en determinar la incidencia de la cooperación cultural en la reafirmación identitaria de cada uno de los miembros del Grupo y, por ende, en la manera como éstos se proyectan dentro de la Unión Europea. Así pues, se identifican los principales hechos históricos que han moldeado los intereses de los países del V4 y que condujeron a la creación de una estructura institucional sólida, que ha servido como plataforma para el accionar de dichos países dentro del bloque europeo. Se utiliza la perspectiva constructivista de Alexander Wendt, la cual permite entender la naturaleza de la cooperación y, su relación con las identidades y los intereses de los Estados.; The Visegrád Group is a stage of multilateral cooperation, formed by Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, that seeks to pursue the interests of those countries through cultural projects funding. The interest of this monograph is to determine the incidence of cultural cooperation on V4 member States identity and...

Análisis de las limitaciones de la Comunidad Andina frente al fracaso del Acuerdo de Asociación con la Unión Europea. Período de estudio: 2007-2008

Roufogalis Serrano, Octavia Margarita
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/10/2012 Português
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En 2007 comienzan las negociaciones para un Acuerdo de Asociación entre la Comunidad Andina y la Unión Europea. En 2008 dicho Acuerdo fracasa. Las razones del fracaso pueden ser pensadas desde lo ideológico, no obstante, existe una limitación institucional que debe ser estudiada con mayor detenimiento para poder entender la dinámica andina frente a la dinámica europea.; In 2007 negotiations begin between the Andean Community and the European Union for an Association Agreement. In 2008 these negotiations fail. To understand the failure, we could think of ideological reasons. Nevertheless, there is an institutional aspect that must be studied thoroughly to understand the dynamics between the Andean Community and the European Union.

The three systems for the protection of fundamental human rights in the European Union and exceptional measures against terrorism: the case of extraordinary extraditions (the CIA flights) with special reference to the Spanish case; Los tres sistemas de protección de los derechos fundamentales en la Unión Europea y las medidas excepcionales contra el terrorismo: el caso de las extradiciones extraordinarias (vuelos de la CIA), especial referencia al caso español

Becerra-Ramírez, José de Jesús; Hernández-Godínez, Alfonso; Barba-Álvarez, Rogelio
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2010 Português
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This document is aimed first of all, make a small introductory reference on the three levels of protection of fundamental rights in Europe with the idea of helping to clarify and understand mainly to non-European systems that we are not talking. For that, based on this, going on to assess the impact generated in these systems suggest that the complaints alleged involvement of European countries in secret CIA flights to combat international terrorism, as well as investigate the responses that have given each protection of these areas to try to clarify them. ; El presente documento tiene como fin, en primer término, hacer una pequeña referencia introductoria sobre los tres niveles de protección de los derechos fundamentales en Europa, con la idea de ayudar a clarificar y entender, principalmente a los no europeos, a qué sistemas nos estamos refiriendo. Luego se analizará el impacto generado en dichos sistemas por las denuncias que señalan una supuesta participación de países europeos en los vuelos secretos de la CIA para combatir el terrorismo internacional, y las respuestas que han dado cada uno de estos ámbitos de protección para intentar aclararlas. Lo anterior toda vez que existe una tendencia doctrinaria que señala la aspiración europea de constituirse en una comunidad de derechos y no sólo de naturaleza económica. De ahí la importancia del asunto elegido...

Importancia del Acuerdo de Asociación que se negocia con la Unión Europea, para ampliar y profundizar las relaciones económicas colombo-europeas

Ramírez Cubillos, Ana María
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2010 Português
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El Acuerdo de Asociación que se negocia con la Unión Europea representa una gran oportunidad para Colombia, de ampliar sus relaciones comerciales con el bloque europeo, puntualmente, el intercambio comercial y los flujos de inversión extranjera. No obstante, se pueden presentar problemas para Colombia, específicamente en el tema de Compras Públicas, debido a las grandes asimetrías competitivas entre el sector empresarial colombiano y el europeo.; The Partnership Agreement being negotiated with the European Union represents a great opportunity for Colombia, to expand its trade relations with the bloc, specificlly, trade flows and foreign investment. However, Colombia could have problems, specifically, in the area of Public Procurement, due to large competitive asymmetries between the Colombian business sector and the European.

European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care

Migliori, G.B.; Zellweger, J.P.; Abubakar, I.; Ibraim, E.; Caminero, J.A.; De Vries, G.; D'Ambrosio, L.; Centis, R.; Sotgiu, G.; Menegale, O.; Kliiman, K.; Aksamit, T.; Cirillo, D.M.; Danilovits, M.; Dara, M.; Dheda, K.; Dinh-Xuan, A.T.; Kluge, H.; Lange,
Fonte: European Respiratory Society Publicador: European Respiratory Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) jointly developed European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) aimed at providing European Union (EU)-tailored standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tuberculosis (TB).