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A Summary and Update of Developing Annuities Markets : The Experience of Chile

Rocha, Roberto; Rudolph, Heinz P.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
The rapid growth of the market for retirement products in Chile has its origins in the pension reform that was implemented in 1981. But the successful development of an active annuity market also reflects many other factors. This paper summarizes and updates an earlier longer study on the development of the Chilean annuity market. The update focuses on the numerous changes that were introduced in 2008. The most striking aspect of the Chilean experience is the very high rate of annuitization. This has been linked to the restrictions that have been applied to lump-sum withdrawals, the offer of inflation-protected annuities, and the robust prudential regulation of providers. But the level of annuitization has also been supported by the annuitization incentives provided to early retirees and the influence of brokers and sales agents. The recent regulatory changes have weakened the impact of the last two factors, while strengthening the demand for annuities at normal retirement.

Characterizing the Business Cycles of Emerging Economies

Calderón, Cesar; Fuentes, Rodrigo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
Using the dating algorithm by Harding and Pagan (2002) on a quarterly database for 23 emerging market economies (EMEs) and 12 developed countries over the period 1980.Q1 - 2006.Q2, the authors proceed to characterize and compare the business cycle features of these two groups. They first find that recessions are deeper and more frequent among EMEs (especially, among LAC countries) and that expansions are more sizable and longer (especially, among East Asian countries). After this characterization, this paper explores the linkages between the cost of recessions (as measured by the average annual rate of output loss in the peak-to-trough phase of the cycle) and several country-specific factors. The main findings are: (a) adverse terms of trade shocks raises the cost of recessions in countries with a more open trade regime, deeper financial markets and, surprisingly, a more diversified output structure. (b) U.S. interest rate shocks seem to have a significant impact on the cost of recessions in East Asian countries. (c) Recessions tend to be deeper if they coincide with a sudden stop...

The Effects of Business Environments on Development : Surveying New Firm-Level Evidence

Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
In the past decade, the World Bank has promoted improving business environments as a key strategy for development, which has resulted in a significant amount of investment in collecting firm-level investment climate surveys across countries. What lessons have emerged from the papers using these new data? The key finding is that the effects of business environments are heterogeneous and depend crucially on industry, initial conditions, and complementary institutions. Some elements of the business environment, such as labor flexibility, low entry and exit barriers, and a reasonable protection from the "grabbing hands" of the government, seem to matter a great deal for most economies. Other elements, such as infrastructure and contracting institutions (courts and access to finance), hinge on their initial status and the size of the market.

The Investment Climate in Brazil, India, and South Africa : A Comparison of Approaches for Sustaining Economic Growth in Emerging Economies

Fan, Qimiao; Reis, José Guilherme; Jarvis, Michael; Beath, Andrew; Frauscher, Kathrin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
This book seeks to contribute to the sharing of knowledge between Brazil, India, and South Africa, three of the largest emerging economies today. By assessing and comparing the investment climate in each, the authors seek to profile concrete steps that countries can take to improve the business environment. The authors focus particularly on identifying the commonalities and differences both within and among the three countries and attempt to highlight examples where policy makers will be able to drawn on the lessons from their own reform experiences and those of their counterparts in other core emerging markets. The book is organized as follows: (1) Provides a brief overview of the investment climate in each of the three countries, highlighting the key constraints identified by the national business communities, and explains the underlying concepts of the investment climate assessments and doing business indicators. (2) Examines the macroeconomic performance of Brazil, India, and South Africa and shows how the three countries perform with regard to taxation and foreign trade and exchange. (3) Reviews key microeconomic regulations...

A Survey of Government Regulation and Intervention in Financial Markets

Klapper, Leora; Zaidi, Rida
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
There has been renewed focus on financial systems, especially in the light of recent literature that documents a positive and robust relationship between development of financial systems and economic growth. Irrespective of how financial development is measured, there is a clear causal relationship with per capita income. King and Levine (1993) was the first paper that examined economic growth for a dataset that spans from 1960-1989 and found predictive power of financial systems in growth. Another richer dataset from 1960-1995 reinforces the existing relationship between finance and growth, while taking into account the issue of reverse causality (Levine, Loayza and Beck 2000). The idea of reverse causality is that it is also possible that economic growth may encourage development of financial systems and these results may reflect reverse feedback rather than any effect of finance on growth. The authors use the recent discovery that systems with English common law tend to have deeper financial systems...

Bank Competition and Financial Stability

Berger, Allen N.; Klapper, Leora F.; Turk-Ariss, Rima
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
Under the traditional "competition-fragility" view, more bank competition erodes market power, decreases profit margins, and results in reduced franchise value that encourages bank risk taking. Under the alternative "competition-stability" view, more market power in the loan market may result in greater bank risk as the higher interest rates charged to loan customers make it more difficult to repay loans and exacerbate moral hazard and adverse selection problems. But even if market power in the loan market results in riskier loan portfolios, the overall risks of banks need not increase if banks protect their franchise values by increasing their equity capital or engaging in other risk-mitigating techniques. The authors test these theories by regressing measures of loan risk, bank risk, and bank equity capital on several measures of market power, as well as indicators of the business environment, using data for 8,235 banks in 23 developed nations. The results suggest that - consistent with the traditional "competition-fragility" view - banks with a greater degree of market power also have less overall risk exposure. The data also provide some support for one element of the "competition-stability" view - that market power increases loan portfolio risk. The authors show that this risk may be offset in part by higher equity capital ratios.

Financing the Boom in Public-Private Partnerships in Indian Infrastructure : Trends and Policy Implications

Harris, Clive; Kumar, Sri Tadimalla
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
India has seen rapid growth in recent years in its program of infrastructure public-private partnerships (PPPs). Despite the surge in demand for finance, local financial markets coped well over the period to 2007 and even offered better terms as they became more used to the PPP model. But areas of possible concern have developed. Gearing has increased significantly, and financing terms mean that PPPs are more exposed to interest rate volatility causes for concern in a period of rising rates and reduced liquidity. Further growth in PPPs will likely require a broadening of the sources of financing once the present financial market turmoil has lessened. Addressing these concerns will call for policy reforms to capital markets and concession frameworks.

Social Impact and Social Mitigation of Enterprise Restructuring : Implications for Croatia

Lytle, Paula F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
This report provides an overview of social impact and social mitigation measures that have been addressed in World Bank supported enterprise restructuring programs in Europe and Central Asia. The focus is on lessons learned from the experience elsewhere in the region that could provide guidance to and policy options for Croatia in the on-going process of enterprise restructuring. The first stage of transition focused on the establishment of market-driven, private sector-oriented economies. In recent years, the requirements of European integration and accession have led to an emphasis on fiscal discipline. Closer attention has been paid to implicit subsidies such as budgetary credits, nonpayment of taxes and accumulation of tax arrears, transfers from off-budget funds, and government payment of guaranteed loans. European Union candidate countries have faced similar policy challenges in mitigating the impact of unemployment due to structural shifts in the economy.

Farm Debt in the CIS : A Multi-Country Study of the Major Causes and Proposed Solutions

Csaki, Csaba; Lerman, Zvi; Sotnikov, Sergey
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
The objective of this study is to support the farm privatization and restructuring process in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by presenting a wide range of strategic and tactical options that could be applied to eliminate, or at least reduce, the main factors responsible for the destructive accumulation of debt in large farm enterprises. This objective has accomplished by documenting and analyzing the indebtedness of large-scale farms in five countries of CIS (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine) developing appropriate proposals, and initiating a dialogue with the government on the subject of farm debt resolution. The study presents a region-wide analysis of the farm debt problem based on data collected from selected countries in CIS, and develops proposals for the respective countries as well as for the region as a whole.

Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Slovak Republic

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
This report provides an assessment of the corporate governance policy framework, and enforcement and compliance practices in the Slovak Republic. Slovakia has already upgraded its legislation to meet European Union (EU) Directives. The legislative and regulatory framework dealing with corporate governance issues has improved. The major issues identified by this review include: 1) the general weakness of the supervisory board, which causes some non-compliance with several of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - OECD - Principles; 2) lack of protection for shareholders of "Free Market" companies, and, 3) inadequate authority and institutional capacity at the Financial Market Authority (FMA). Strengths and weaknesses are highlighted and policy recommendations made where appropriate. The report proposes that an Institute of Directors be created to train supervisory board members, disseminate best practice, and promote dialogue between the public and private sectors. Together, the recommendations give issuers the choice to implement best practice...

Mortgage Securities in Emerging Markets

Chiquier, Loïc; Hassler, Olivier; Lea, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
Despite its recognized economic and social importance, housing finance often remains underdeveloped in emerging economies. Residential lending remains small, poorly accessible, and depository-based. Lenders remain vulnerable to significant credit, liquidity, and interest rate risks. As a result, housing finance is relatively expensive and often rationed. The importance of developing robust systems of housing finance is paramount as emerging economy governments struggle to cope with population growth, rapid urbanization, and rising expectations from a growing middle class. The capital markets in many economies can provide an attractive and potentially large source of long-term funding for housing, and solutions to better allocate part of the risks. The advent of institutional investors is creating large and rapidly growing pools of funds that may facilitate the development of mortgage-related securities. Despite such a strong appeal, there are significant barriers to the development of mortgage securities in emerging markets. Their success is dependent on many factors...

Financial Sector Assessment : Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
The principal objectives of this financial sector assessment were to assist the authorities in identifying potential vulnerabilities in the Polish financial system that could have macroeconomic consequences, to suggest measures to reduce these risks, and to outline development needs in the system and strategies to address these concerns. The purpose of this note is to provide a summary of the main findings of the mission, together with the policy priorities identified. The issues facing the Polish financial sector are mostly of development rather than stability nature. Poland has made significant reforms in its financial sector over the last decade, with an acceleration of the restructuring of its banking system in the last three years. Poland has completed the larger part of the transition-related reform agenda in the financial sector. While the overall stability of the financial sector does not appear to be a concern at the moment, enhanced oversight of risk management systems of financial institutions and improvements in crisis prevention and management procedures are necessary.

Privatization and Corporate Governance : Principles, Evidence, and Future Challenges

Dyck, Alexander
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
Unless developing countries embrace a corporate governance perspective, privatization is unlikely to provide the benefits of improved performance with accountability. This article introduces the concept of governance chains that can constrain the grabbing hands of public and private actors by providing information and accountability mechanisms to help investors monitor managers. Empirical data on established firms from 49 countries provide estimates of the relative importance and strength of private and formal chains of governance. The framework and empirical benchmarks help explain the outcomes of past privatizations and suggest certain steps that governments can pursue to be sure to get the most out of future privatization activity.

Mexico : The IOSCO Objectives and Principles of Securities

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
As the supervisor of the securities markets in Mexico, the National Banking and Securities Commission (Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores, CNBV) has developed a robust supervisory framework that exhibits high levels of implementation of the International Organization of Securities Commissions Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation (IOSCO Principles) in many areas. The assessment was conducted during the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) mission to Mexico during the period September 7 to September 21, 2011. The assessment was carried out using the 2003 IOSCO methodology for assessing implementation of the IOSCO Principles. The most significant issues regarding full implementation of the Principles fall under the regulator principles. These issues flow from two sources. First, there is no specific statute governing derivatives (whether exchange traded or over-the-counter (OTC)), nor any other express legislative provisions that govern the regulation of that growing market. Second...

Financial Surety : Guidelines for the Implementation of Financial Surety for Mine Closure

Sassoon, Meredith
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
It is now accepted practice that when a company relinquishes a mining title, whether for an exploration or mining site, it is responsible for carrying out the rehabilitation of that site prior to departure. To ensure this is the case, most jurisdictions now require some form of closure plan or rehabilitation program to be submitted to the regulatory authority prior to the start of any work on the site. It is an increasingly common requirement for the closure plan to contain details of the estimated cost of rehabilitation and for a financial surety to be established at the same time. This report aims to provide governments with the information they need to make their own informed decisions. It is based on a review of existing financial surety systems in a number of countries. Questionnaires were sent out to a total of fourteen regulatory authorities; of these, nine provided sufficient detail about their existing financial surety systems to be included as full case studies. These are presented in the section case studies along with a summary of the latest European Union (EU) waste directives. Except where otherwise stated...

Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Belgium

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Caribbean States

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers. This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Caribbean States. It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), East Asia Pacific Islands, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Latin America and OECD High Income.

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Europe and Central Asia, European Union, Latin America, South Asia, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

Credit Conditions and Foreign Direct Investment During the Global Financial Crisis

Desbordes, Rodolphe; Wei, Shang-Jin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
This paper investigates the effect that tight credit conditions had on outward foreign direct investment flows during the 2008-2010 global financial crisis. A difference-in-differences approach is used to isolate a "credit channel" impact of the global financial crisis on foreign direct investment. The global financial crisis had a stronger negative impact on the relative volume of outward foreign direct investment in financially vulnerable sectors in more financially developed countries, especially if these countries also experienced a banking crisis. These results suggest that lack of access to external finance can partly explain the drop in foreign direct investment during the global financial crisis.

Secured Transaction Systems and Collateral Registries

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.87%
The main objective of this toolkit is to provide technical advice and guidance to World Bank Group staff, donor institutions, government officials and other practitioners on the implementation of secured transactions law and institutional reforms in emerging market countries. However, the Toolkit has not been designed to eliminate the need for in-person expert advice for governments that undertake to introduce a secured transactions system. It is necessary to take into account the factors that are unique to each jurisdiction. The content of the Toolkit will guide the reader through the various stages of the project cycle (identification, diagnostic, solution design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation) involved in the introduction of secured transactions reforms. The recommendations presented in the Toolkit are based on IFC s experience in the secured transactions area, the contributions of a number of experts in this field, existing literature, and reform experience in a number of emerging market countries and the existing best practices in jurisdictions with advanced secured transactions systems. While the Toolkit does not cover all aspects of secured transactions reform...