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Role of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and KC) in the pathogenesis of CPT-11-induced intestinal mucositis in mice: effect of pentoxifylline and thalidomide

MELO, Maria Luisa P.; BRITO, Gerly A. C.; SOARES, Rudy C.; CARVALHO, Sarah B. L. M.; SILVA, Johan V.; SOARES, Pedro M. G.; VALE, Mariana L.; SOUZA, Marcellus H. L. P.; CUNHA, Fernando Q.; RIBEIRO, Ronaldo A.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Introduction Irinotecan (CPT-11) is an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I and is clinically effective against several cancers. A major toxic effect of CPT-11 is delayed diarrhea; however, the exact mechanism by which the drug induces diarrhea has not been established. Purpose Elucidate the mechanisms of induction of delayed diarrhea and determine the effects of the cytokine production inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) and thalidomide (TLD) in the experimental model of intestinal mucositis, induced by CPT-11. Materials and methods Intestinal mucositis was induced in male Swiss mice by intraperitoneal administration of CPT-11 (75 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. Animals received subcutaneous PTX (1.7, 5 and 15 mg/kg) or TLD (15, 30, 60 mg/kg) or 0.5 ml of saline daily for 5 and 7 days, starting 1 day before the first CPT-11 injection. The incidence of delayed diarrhea was monitored by scores and the animals were sacrificed on the 5th and 7th experimental day for histological analysis, immunohistochemistry for TNF-alpha and assay of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and KC ELISA. Results CPT-11 caused significant diarrhea, histopathological alterations (inflammatory cell infiltration...

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate reduces inflammatory pain-like behaviour in mice: role of adenosine acting on A(1) receptors

VALERIO, D. A.; FERREIRA, F. I.; CUNHA, T. M.; ALVES-FILHO, J. C.; LIMA, F. O.; OLIVEIRA, J. R. De; FERREIRA, S. H.; CUNHA, F. Q.; QUEIROZ, R. H.; VERRI JR., W. A.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background and purpose: D-Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) is an intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, exerting pharmacological actions on inflammation by inhibiting cytokine production or interfering with adenosine production. Here, the possible antinociceptive effect of FBP and its mechanism of action in the carrageenin paw inflammation model in mice were addressed, focusing on the two mechanisms described above. Experimental approach: Mechanical hyperalgesia (decrease in the nociceptive threshold) was evaluated by the electronic pressure-metre test; cytokine levels were measured by elisa and adenosine was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Key results: Pretreatment of mice with FBP reduced hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenin (up to 54%), tumour necrosis factor alpha (40%), interleukin-1 beta (46%), CXCL1 (33%), prostaglandin E(2) (41%) or dopamine (55%). However, FBP treatment did not alter carrageenin-induced cytokine (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) or chemokine (CXCL1) production. On the other hand, the antinociceptive effect of FBP was prevented by systemic and intraplantar treatment with an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine)...

MTA-induced neutrophil recruitment: a mechanism dependent on IL-1 beta, MIP-2, and LTB(4)

GOMES, Alessandra Cristina; GOMES FILHO, Joao Eduardo; OLIVEIRA, Sandra Helena Penha de
Fonte: MOSBY-ELSEVIER Publicador: MOSBY-ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the mediators and the resident peritoneal cells involved in the neutrophil migration (NM) induced by mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in mice. Study design. MTA (25 mg/cavity) was injected into normal and pretreated peritoneal cavities (PC) with indomethacin (IND), dexamethasone (DEX), BWA4C, U75302, antimacrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and anti-interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) antibodies and the NM was determined. The role of macrophage (MO) and mast cells (MAST) was determined by administration of thioglycollate 3% or 48/80 compound, respectively. The concentration of IL-1 beta and MIP-2 exudates was measured by ELISA. Results. MTA induced dose-and time-dependent NM into mice PC, with the participation of MO and MAST. NM was inhibited by DEX, BWA4C, and U75302, as well as anti-MIP-2 and anti-IL-1 beta antibodies. In the exudates, IL-1 beta and MIP-2 were detected. Conclusions. This study suggests that MTA induces NM via a mechanism dependent on MAST and MO mediated by IL-1 beta, MIP-2, and LTB(4).; CAPES (Fundacao de Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior); FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo)

Ethanol consumption enhances periodontal inflammatory markers in rats

Maia Dantas, Aline; Ester Mohn, Claudia; Burdet, Berenice; Zorrilla Zubilete, Maria; Monica Mandalunis, Patricia; Carlos Elverdin, Juan; Fernandez-Solari, Javier
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the short term effect of ethanol administration on periodontal disease in rats. Design: Rats received either ethanol 2 g/kg or water by gastric gavage twice a day. On the fifth day ligatures were tied around the molars of half of the rats to induce periodontitis. After 7 days gingival tissue was removed and assayed for inflammatory markers. Finally, hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. Results: The experimental periodontitis increased significantly the mRNA expression (p < 0.001) and activity (p < 0.001) of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gingival tissue, whilst short time ethanol administration increased iNOS activity (p < 0.05) and produced an additive effect on iNOS mRNA expression augmented by periodontitis (p < 0.01). The short time ethanol administration also potentiated the periodontitis stimulatory effect on the mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, in semi-quantitative and real time PCR, respectively) and on the height of periodontal ligament (p < 0.05). However, the ligature-induced periodontitis, but not ethanol administration, increased the prostaglandin E-2 content (p < 0.05) and...

Interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced resistance to bacterial infection: role of the type I IL-1 receptor.

Vogels, M T; Eling, W M; Otten, A; van der Meer, J W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
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Pretreatment with a low dose of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) (3 to 30 micrograms/kg) 24 h before a lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection prolongs survival in neutropenic mice. We investigated the role of the type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) and IL-1RII in this IL-1-induced protection by using a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1-Ra), which blocks effects mainly via IL-1RI. Pretreatment with IL-1Ra before IL-1 partially blocked the IL-1-induced enhanced survival, whereas pretreatment with a specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IL-1RI (35F5) eliminated the IL-1 induced protection. The nonapeptide fragment 163-171 of recombinant human IL-1 beta, which possesses the immunoadjuvant but not the inflammatory effect of the entire molecule via a non-receptor-mediated signal transduction process, did not reproduce the IL-1-induced protection. IL-1-induced protection was associated with reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in conjunction with ameliorated histopathology of the liver. These findings may be due to reduced cytokine production and cytokine sensitivity of target cells after infection. We conclude that the IL-1-induced nonspecific resistance to infection is mediated by cells bearing IL-1RI and is associated with a reduction of liver damage.

Tolerance to endotoxin-induced expression of the interleukin-1 beta gene in blood neutrophils of humans with the sepsis syndrome.

McCall, C E; Grosso-Wilmoth, L M; LaRue, K; Guzman, R N; Cousart, S L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1993 Português
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The induction of genes of host cells stimulated by microbial products such as endotoxin and the tolerance of cells to endotoxin excitation play critical roles in the pathogenesis of microbial-induced acute disseminated inflammation with multiorgan failure (the sepsis syndrome). One gene that is induced in phagocytic cells by endotoxin and that appears to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of the sepsis syndrome is IL-1 beta. We report here that blood neutrophils (PMN) of patients with the sepsis syndrome (sepsis PMN) are consistently tolerant to endotoxin-induced expression of the IL-1 beta gene, as determined by decreased synthesis of the IL-1 beta protein and reductions in IL-1 beta mRNA. This down-regulation of the IL-1 beta gene in sepsis PMN occurs concomitant with an upregulation in the constitutive expression of the type 2 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R2). These phenotypic changes do not persist in PMN of patients recovering from the sepsis syndrome. Tolerance has stimulus and response specificity since sepsis PMN tolerant to endotoxin can respond normally to Staphylococcus aureus stimulation of IL-1 beta production and they normally secrete elastase. Uninfected patients with severe trauma or shock from causes are not tolerant to endotoxin and tolerance is not limited to patients infected with Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism responsible for tolerance involves pretranslational events and is not due to loss of the CD14 surface protein...

Temperature-dependent modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in cultured human astroglial cells by dexamethasone and indomethacin.

Velasco, S; Tarlow, M; Olsen, K; Shay, J W; McCracken, G H; Nisen, P D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1991 Português
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In bacterial meningitis, LPS induces production in cerebrospinal fluid of the cytokines IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), which are the principle mediators of meningeal inflammation. IL-1 beta and TNF alpha induce fever, and elevated temperature may affect cytokine expression. Dexamethasone treatment improves outcome in bacterial meningitis possibly by inhibiting IL-1 beta and TNF alpha. In this report, the effects of elevated temperature and dexamethasone on LPS-stimulated IL-1 beta and TNF alpha mRNA gene expression and protein synthesis were studied in human astrocytoma cell lines and primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes. Cells cultured at 40 degrees C exhibited smaller peaks of IL-1 beta and TNF alpha transcription and protein synthesis compared with cells cultured at 37 degrees C. The addition of dexamethasone before, during, or after exposure of the cells to LPS resulted in temperature-dependent inhibition of IL-1 beta transcription and protein synthesis. The most extensive inhibition occurred in pretreated cells cultured at 37 degrees C. Cotreatment with LPS and dexamethasone also inhibited TNF alpha mRNA transcription at both temperatures. The effects of another antiinflammatory agent, indomethacin...

Suppression of endothelin-1-induced mitogenic responses of human aortic smooth muscle cells by interleukin-1 beta.

Fujitani, Y; Ninomiya, H; Okada, T; Urade, Y; Masaki, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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When applied to quiescent human aortic smooth muscle cells (AOSMC), endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused significant increases in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell proliferation, confirming an activity of ET-1 as a potent mitogen on AOSMC. As an in vitro model to evaluate the significance of the mitogenic activity of ET-1 on smooth muscle cells during atherogenesis, we studied possible modulations of the responsiveness of the cells by treatment with various cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF alpha, and TGF beta). Of the four cytokines tested, we found that the treatment of the cells with IL-1 beta dramatically reduced the responsiveness of the cells to ET-1; IL-1 beta treatment at the concentration of 0.2 ng/ml for 8 h completely abolished the activity of ET-1 to induce the mitogenic responses. IL-1 beta treatment caused no changes in the responses induced by EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, or PDGF. Studies on ET-1-induced intracellular signaling events in IL-1 beta-treated cells revealed that the failure of ET-1 to induce mitogenic responses was due to an increase in cAMP formation secondary to ET-1-induced activation of prostanoid metabolism. These findings on AOSMC in vitro raise the possibility that...

Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta by monocytic cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

Molina, J M; Scadden, D T; Byrn, R; Dinarello, C A; Groopman, J E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1989 Português
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The production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and IL-1 beta by the monocytic cell line THP-1, productively infected with HIV-1, was investigated using specific RIA and Northern blot analysis. HIV-infected cells, like uninfected cells, did not constitutively produce any detectable amounts of protein or mRNA for TNF alpha or IL-1 beta. After stimulation with LPS or a combination of LPS plus IFN-gamma, TNF alpha and IL-1 beta were detected in tissue culture supernatants and cell lysates and transcripts for both cytokines were seen on Northern blots. No significant difference in production of these two cytokines was observed between uninfected and chronically infected cells. Acutely HIV-infected cells, however, showed phenotypic changes compatible with maturation and an increase in TNF alpha and IL-1 beta mRNA production, and released significantly higher levels of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta compared with chronically infected or uninfected cells. Furthermore, LPS stimulation of HIV-infected cells increased virus production. These results suggest that HIV-infected monocytic cells may produce increased amounts of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in response to stimuli that could be present in vivo.

Chronic treatment with interleukin-1 beta induces coronary intimal lesions and vasospastic responses in pigs in vivo. The role of platelet-derived growth factor.

Shimokawa, H; Ito, A; Fukumoto, Y; Kadokami, T; Nakaike, R; Sakata, M; Takayanagi, T; Egashira, K; Takeshita, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/1996 Português
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Studies in vitro have suggested that inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about their effects in vivo. Thus, the present study was designed to determine in vivo what histological and functional changes may be induced by chronic treatment with IL-1 beta, one of the major inflammatory cytokines, and also to clarify what mechanisms are involved in those changes. Under aseptic conditions, proximal segments of the left porcine coronary arteries were gently wrapped with cotton mesh absorbing Sepharose beads either with or without recombinant human IL-1 beta. From 1 to 4 wk after the operation, coronary vasospastic responses to intracoronary serotonin or histamine were noted at the IL-1 beta-treated site but not at the control site. Histologically, intimal thickening was greater at the IL-1 beta-treated site than at the control site. Those functional and histological changes induced by the chronic treatment with IL-1 beta were significantly inhibited by the simultaneous treatment with a neutralizing antibody to either IL-1 beta or PDGF. These results indicate that chronic treatment with Il-1 beta induces coronary intimal lesions and vasospastic responses in porcine coronary arteries in vivo and also suggest that these changes are substantially mediated by PDGF.

Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of interleukin-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon gamma in bacterial meningitis.

Ohga, S; Aoki, T; Okada, K; Akeda, H; Fujioka, K; Ohshima, A; Mori, T; Minamishima, I; Ueda, K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1994 Português
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To investigate the role of the inflammatory cytokines, the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured in 11 children with bacterial meningitis and two with mycoplasmic meningoencephalitis and compared with those in 50 children with aseptic meningitis and 15 with non-pleocytotic cerebrospinal fluid. Concentrations of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were each significantly higher in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis than in those with aseptic meningitis or those with non-pleocytotic cerebrospinal fluid. IFN-gamma was detected at low concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of only 2/11 of those with bacterial meningitis. On the other hand, the IFN-gamma concentration was the highest in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aseptic meningitis. These results suggest that the inflammatory cytokines are differently released in the intrathecal space infected with viruses or bacteria.

Evidence against involvement of the acid lysosomal sphingomyelinase in the tumor-necrosis-factor- and interleukin-1-induced sphingomyelin cycle and cell proliferation in human fibroblasts.

Andrieu, N; Salvayre, R; Levade, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/1994 Português
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The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin (SPM) has been reported to mediate a number of responses to extracellular agents, including cytokines. The so-called SPM cycle may result from the activation of different types of sphingomyelinases (SPMases). We investigated the hypothetical contribution of acid lysosomal SPMase in the SPM signal-transduction pathway. We examined the ability of human skin fibroblasts with a genetic deficiency of acid lysosomal SPMase activity to respond to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). We report that both cytokines promoted SPM hydrolysis in fibroblasts derived from patients with Niemann-Pick disease or I-cell disease, similar to that observed in normal cells. Treatment of normal fibroblasts with cationic amphiphilic drugs resulted in inhibition of acid SPMase activity, but had no effect on cytokine-induced SPM turnover. In addition, TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in Niemann-Pick fibroblasts, as in normal cells. Thus our results argue against a role for acid endolysosomal SPMase in mediating the cytokine-induced SPM signalling cascade.

Induction and suppression of cytokine release (tumour necrosis factor-alpha; interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta) by Escherichia coli pathogenicity factors (adhesions, alpha-haemolysin).

König, B; König, W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
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Escherichia coli bacteria expressing mannose-resistant fimbriae/haemagglutination induced the production of substantial amounts of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from a peripheral human lymphocyte, monocyte, basophil (LMB) cell suspension. In this regard, E. coli bacteria with S-mannose-resistant fimbriae/haemagglutination were the most potent inducers of IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion, followed by the E. coli strain with P-mannose-resistant fimbriae/haemagglutination. The E. coli alpha-haemolysin did not stimulate cytokine release from human LMB. In fact, this toxin, at non-toxic concentrations, depressed the spontaneous as well as the E. coli-induced production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1 beta. Our results indicate that two mechanisms may contribute to the severity of E. coli infection: (a) stimulation of cytokine release by type-specific fimbriae/haemagglutination properties and (b) depression of immune response by the E. coli alpha-haemolysin.

Production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by T cells is regulated by B7 and IL-1 beta.

Kruger, M; Van Gool, S; Peng, X H; Coorevits, L; Casteels-Van Daele, M; Ceuppens, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 Português
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55.8%
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has proliferation- and differentiation-inducing effects on immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and it can modulate the function of several types of mature myeloid cells. We have stimulated purified human T cells with immobilized anti-CD3 or mitogenic anti-CD2 (a combination of monoclonal antibodies 9-1 and 9.6) which could induce GM-CSF production. The cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-2 strongly enhanced GM-CSF production, while IL-4, IL-6, GM-CSF, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) had no effect. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol myristate acetate or triggering of CD28 on T cells by monoclonal antibody 9.3 provided accessory signals for enhanced GM-CSF production in activated T cells. Most important, the addition of mouse cells transfected with human B7-1 (CD80), a natural ligand for CD28, provided a potent accessory signal for GM-CSF production by activated T cells, which could not be blocked by cyclosporin A. The effect of IL-1 beta was in fact indirect, and resulted from enhanced IL-2 production, while the effect of B7 resulted from both IL-2-dependent and IL-2-independent pathways. We conclude that antigen-presenting cells (APC) can up-regulate GM-CSF production through IL-1 beta and through CD28 triggering by B7 molecules. As GM-CSF itself up-regulates B7 expression and IL-1 beta production by APC...

Interleukin 1 beta is localized in the cytoplasmic ground substance but is largely absent from the Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes of stimulated human monocytes

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/1988 Português
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55.81%
The subcellular location of IL-1 beta was determined using a postsectioning immunoelectron microscopic method on ultrathin frozen sections of human monocytes stimulated with LPS. This methodology permits access of antibody probes to all sectioned intracellular compartments, and their visualization at high resolution. Staining was performed with a rabbit antibody that specifically recognized amino acids 197-215 in the 33-kD IL-1 beta precursor molecule, followed by affinity-purified goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated to 10 nm colloidal gold particles. Approximately 90% of the IL-1 beta antigens were localized in the ground substance of the cytoplasm at 4 or 20 h after activation, when both intracellular and extracellular accumulation of IL-1 beta was well underway. No significant IL-1 beta staining was observed on the outer cell membrane, nor within the lumens of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, or secretory vesicles. In contrast, lysozyme was localized in the ER and dense secretory granules using these methods. Our results suggest that IL-1 beta is not anchored on the plasma membrane, and that its secretion occurs by a novel mechanism that does not use a secretory leader sequence, nor the classical secretory pathway involving the ER and Golgi apparatus.

In vivo stimulation and restoration of the immune response by the noninflammatory fragment 163-171 of human interleukin 1 beta

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1988 Português
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The synthetic nonapeptide VQGEESNDK, corresponding to the fragment 163- 171 of human IL-1 beta, showed in vivo immunomodulatory capacities qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to those of the mature human IL-1 beta protein. In fact, both IL-1 beta and the 163-171 fragment stimulated the immune response of normal mice and restored immune reactivities of immunocompromised animals. In addition, the synthetic IL-1 peptide was as efficient as the entire protein in inducing tumor rejection and radioprotection. On the other hand, the 163-171 fragment did not cause any of several inflammation-associated metabolic changes inducible by the whole IL-1 beta molecule in vivo: hypoferremia, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increase in circulating corticosterone, SAA and fibrinogen, decrease in hepatic drug- metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, at variance with IL-1 beta, the 163- 171 peptide did not show the toxic effects causing shock and death in adrenalectomized mice. Thus, these results confirm our previous in vitro observations that functional domains are identifiable within the multipotent cytokine IL-1 beta, and demonstrate the biological relevance of this finding in a variety of in vivo systems. The identification of a selectively active fragment of a cytokine may thus represent a significant step towards a better directed and more rational immunotherapeutic approach.

Association analysis between variants of the interleukin-1β and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene and antidepressant treatment response in major depression

Tadić, André; Rujescu, Dan; Müller, Matthias J; Kohnen, Ralf; Stassen, Hans H.; Szegedi, Armin; Dahmen, Norbert
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This study investigated the possible association of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) C-511T promoter polymorphism and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) (86bp)n variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism with antidepressant response to paroxetine and mirtazapine treatment. The study group consisted of 101 patients suffering from DSM-IV major depression participating in a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Patients homozygous for the IL-1β-511T allele had a significantly faster and more pronounced response to paroxetine treatment than IL-1β-511C allele carriers. No association was found for the IL-1β C-511T polymorphism with mirtazapine treatment response. The IL-1Ra VNTR showed neither an association with paroxetine nor with mirtazapine treatment response. Our results provide further suggestive evidence that time course of response and antidepressant efficacy of paroxetine, but not of mirtazapine, is influenced in a clinically relevant manner by the IL-1β C-511T gene variant. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the IL-1Ra (86bp)n VNTR affects antidepressant treatment response to paroxetine or mirtazapine. An independent replication of our finding is needed. If replicated, the IL-1β C-511T promoter polymorphism could be considered useful for prospective confirmatory pharmacogenetic trials in patients with major depression.

Interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α genetic variants and risk of dementia in the very old: evidence from the “Monzino 80-plus” prospective study

Albani, Diego; Tettamanti, Mauro; Batelli, Sara; Polito, Letizia; Dusi, Sabrina; Ateri, Eleonora; Forloni, Gianluigi; Lucca, Ugo
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The association among single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory genes as interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and dementia has been explored mostly in Alzheimer’s disease, while few data addressing their association with dementia in very old people are available. We performed a prospective, door-to-door population-based study of 80 years or older residents in eight municipalities of Varese province, Italy (the Monzino 80-plus study). No difference was found by a cross-sectional approach comparing IL-1α rs1800587, IL-1β rs3087258 and TNF-α rs1799724 genotypic and allelic frequencies between those affected and not affected by dementia. After a 5-year follow-up, the elderly carriers of T-allele of TNF-α rs1799724 were at an increased risk of dementia (p = 0.03). This association was no more significant adjusting for the apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 allele (APOE-ε4, p = 0.26), which was an independent predictor of dementia onset (p = 0.0002). In short, in this Italian population of oldest olds, dementia was associated to the APOE-ε4 allele only.

Detection of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 production in human thyroid epithelial cells by non-radioactive in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methods.

Zheng, R Q; Abney, E; Chu, C Q; Field, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Maini, R N; Feldmann, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1991 Português
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Human endocrine thyroid epithelial cells have been described to produce cytokines in vitro. In order to determine whether they do so in vivo during thyroiditis, parallel studies on mRNA expression with a non-radioactive in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical detection for the protein were performed on frozen sections of thyroid samples from autoimmune thyroiditis (Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis), non-toxic goitre and normal thyroid tissue. cDNA probes were sulphonated and their hybridization with mRNA was detected with a sulphonyl-specific monoclonal antibody. This signal was amplified and visualized with the alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) system. The protein products were detected with immuno-purified rabbit F(ab')2 antibody fragments recognizing recombinant human cytokines, visualized by the immunoperoxidase technique. Each sample was studied at the two levels. Both interleukin-6 mRNA and protein were found in the endocrine cells. There was no obvious difference between autoimmune thyroiditis and non-toxic goitre. However, normal thyroid epithelial cells produced less interleukin-6. Interleukin-1 alpha mRNA and its protein were found in epithelial cells from Hashimoto's thyroiditis samples...

Regulation of collagenase gene expression by IL-1 beta requires transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

Vincenti, M P; Coon, C I; Lee, O; Brinckerhoff, C E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/1994 Português
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Interleukin-1 beta is believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis by activating collagenase gene expression. We have used a cell culture model of rabbit synovial fibroblasts to examine the molecular mechanisms of IL-1 beta-mediated collagenase gene expression. Stimulation of rabbit synovial fibroblasts with 10 ng/ml recombinant human IL-1 beta resulted in a 20-fold increase in collagenase mRNA by 12 h. Transient transfection studies using collagenase promoter-CAT constructs demonstrated that proximal sequences responded poorly to IL-1 beta, possibly due to insufficient activation of AP-1 by this cytokine. More distal sequences were required for IL-1 beta responsiveness, with a 4700 bp construct showing approximately 5-fold induction above control. To examine post-transcriptional mechanisms, transcript from a human collagenase cDNA was constitutively produced by the simian virus 40 early promoter. IL-1 beta stabilized the constitutively expressed human transcript. Furthermore, mutation of the ATTTA motifs in the 3' untranslated region of the human gene also stabilized the transcript. Finally, the rabbit collagenase 3' untranslated region destabilized a constitutively transcribed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase transcript. These data indicate that in addition to activating transcription...