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Memory Performance and fMRI Signal in Presymptomatic Familial Alzheimer’s Disease

Braskie, Meredith N.; Medina, Luis D.; Rodriguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Macias-Islas, Miguel Angel; Thompson, Paul M.; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Ringman, John M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
Rare autosomal dominant mutations result in familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD) with a relatively consistent age of onset within families. This provides an estimate of years until disease onset (relative age) in mutation carriers. Increased AD risk has been associated with differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during memory tasks, but most of these studies have focused on possession of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), a risk factor, but not causative variant, of late-onset AD. Evaluation of fMRI activity in presymptomatic FAD mutation carriers versus noncarriers provides insight into preclinical changes in those who will certainly develop AD in a prescribed period of time. Adults from FAD mutation-carrying families (nine mutation carriers, eight noncarriers) underwent fMRI scanning while performing a memory task. We examined fMRI signal differences between carriers and noncarriers, and how signal related to fMRI task performance within mutation status group, controlling for relative age and education. Mutation noncarriers had greater retrieval period activity than carriers in several AD-relevant regions, including the left hippocampus. Better performing noncarriers showed greater encoding period activity including in the parahippocampal gyrus. Poorer performing carriers showed greater retrieval period signal...

The amplitude of the resting-state fMRI global signal is related to EEG vigilance measures

Wong, Chi Wah; Olafsson, Valur; Tal, Omer; Liu, Thomas T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
In resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional connectivity measures can be influenced by the presence of a strong global component. A widely used pre-processing method for reducing the contribution of this component is global signal regression, in which a global mean time series signal is projected out of the fMRI time series data prior to the computation of connectivity measures. However, the use of global signal regression is controversial because the method can bias the correlation values to have an approximately zero mean and may in some instances create artifactual negative correlations. In addition, while many studies treat the global signal as a non-neural confound that needs to be removed, evidence from electrophysiological and fMRI measures in primates suggests that the global signal may contain significant neural correlates. In this study, we used simultaneously acquired fMRI and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting-state activity to assess the relation between the fMRI global signal and EEG measures of vigilance in humans. We found that the amplitude of the global signal (defined as the standard deviation of the global signal) exhibited a significant negative correlation with EEG vigilance across subjects studied in the eyes-closed condition. In addition...

On the Definition of Signal-To-Noise Ratio and Contrast-To-Noise Ratio for fMRI Data

Welvaert, Marijke; Rosseel, Yves
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Signal-to-noise ratio, the ratio between signal and noise, is a quantity that has been well established for MRI data but is still subject of ongoing debate and confusion when it comes to fMRI data. fMRI data are characterised by small activation fluctuations in a background of noise. Depending on how the signal of interest and the noise are identified, signal-to-noise ratio for fMRI data is reported by using many different definitions. Since each definition comes with a different scale, interpreting and comparing signal-to-noise ratio values for fMRI data can be a very challenging job. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing definitions. Further, the relationship with activation detection power is investigated. Reference tables and conversion formulae are provided to facilitate comparability between fMRI studies.

Interpreting the effects of altered brain anatomical connectivity on fMRI functional connectivity: a role for computational neural modeling

Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often...

Changes in hemodynamic responses in chronic stroke survivors do not affect fMRI signal detection in a block experimental design

Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Schmit, Brian D.; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
The use of canonical functions to model BOLD-fMRI data in people post-stroke may lead to inaccurate descriptions of task-related brain activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the spatiotemporal profile of hemodynamic responses (HDRs) obtained from stroke survivors during an event-related experiment could be used to develop individualized HDR functions that would enhance BOLD-fMRI signal detection in block experiments. Our long term goal was to use this information to develop individualized HDR functions for stroke survivors that could be used to analyze brain activity associated with locomotor-like movements. We also aimed to examine the reproducibility of HDRs obtained across two scan sessions in order to determine whether data from a single event-related session could be used to analyze block data obtained in subsequent sessions. Results indicate that the spatiotemporal profile of HDRs measured with BOLD-fMRI in stroke survivors was not the same as that observed in individuals without stroke. We observed small between-group differences in the rates of rise and decline of HDRs that were more apparent in individuals with cortical as compared to subcortical stroke. There were no differences in the peak or time to peak of HDRs in people with and without stroke. Of interest...

Fast Bootstrapping and Permutation Testing for Assessing Reproducibility and Interpretability of Multivariate fMRI Decoding Models

Conroy, Bryan R.; Walz, Jennifer M.; Sajda, Paul
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Multivariate decoding models are increasingly being applied to functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) data to interpret the distributed neural activity in the human brain. These models are typically formulated to optimize an objective function that maximizes decoding accuracy. For decoding models trained on full-brain data, this can result in multiple models that yield the same classification accuracy, though some may be more reproducible than others—i.e. small changes to the training set may result in very different voxels being selected. This issue of reproducibility can be partially controlled by regularizing the decoding model. Regularization, along with the cross-validation used to estimate decoding accuracy, typically requires retraining many (often on the order of thousands) of related decoding models. In this paper we describe an approach that uses a combination of bootstrapping and permutation testing to construct both a measure of cross-validated prediction accuracy and model reproducibility of the learned brain maps. This requires re-training our classification method on many re-sampled versions of the fMRI data. Given the size of fMRI datasets, this is normally a time-consuming process. Our approach leverages an algorithm called fast simultaneous training of generalized linear models (FaSTGLZ) to create a family of classifiers in the space of accuracy vs. reproducibility. The convex hull of this family of classifiers can be used to identify a subset of Pareto optimal classifiers...

A versatile software package for inter-subject correlation based analyses of fMRI

Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
In the inter-subject correlation (ISC) based analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the extent of shared processing across subjects during the experiment is determined by calculating correlation coefficients between the fMRI time series of the subjects in the corresponding brain locations. This implies that ISC can be used to analyze fMRI data without explicitly modeling the stimulus and thus ISC is a potential method to analyze fMRI data acquired under complex naturalistic stimuli. Despite of the suitability of ISC based approach to analyze complex fMRI data, no generic software tools have been made available for this purpose, limiting a widespread use of ISC based analysis techniques among neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a graphical user interface (GUI) based software package, ISC Toolbox, implemented in Matlab for computing various ISC based analyses. Many advanced computations such as comparison of ISCs between different stimuli, time window ISC, and inter-subject phase synchronization are supported by the toolbox. The analyses are coupled with re-sampling based statistical inference. The ISC based analyses are data and computation intensive and the ISC toolbox is equipped with mechanisms to execute the parallel computations in a cluster environment automatically and with an automatic detection of the cluster environment in use. Currently...

Modeling of the hemodynamic responses in block design fMRI studies

Shan, Zuyao Y; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M; McMahon, Katie L; Blokland, Gabriella G A M; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Reutens, David C
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
The hemodynamic response function (HRF) describes the local response of brain vasculature to functional activation. Accurate HRF modeling enables the investigation of cerebral blood flow regulation and improves our ability to interpret fMRI results. Block designs have been used extensively as fMRI paradigms because detection power is maximized; however, block designs are not optimal for HRF parameter estimation. Here we assessed the utility of block design fMRI data for HRF modeling. The trueness (relative deviation), precision (relative uncertainty), and identifiability (goodness-of-fit) of different HRF models were examined and test–retest reproducibility of HRF parameter estimates was assessed using computer simulations and fMRI data from 82 healthy young adult twins acquired on two occasions 3 to 4 months apart. The effects of systematically varying attributes of the block design paradigm were also examined. In our comparison of five HRF models, the model comprising the sum of two gamma functions with six free parameters had greatest parameter accuracy and identifiability. Hemodynamic response function height and time to peak were highly reproducible between studies and width was moderately reproducible but the reproducibility of onset time was low. This study established the feasibility and test–retest reliability of estimating HRF parameters using data from block design fMRI studies.

Unsupervised Spatiotemporal Analysis of FMRI Data Using Graph-Based Visualizations of Self-Organizing Maps

Katwal, Santosh B.; Gore, John C.; Marois, René; Rogers, Baxter P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
We present novel graph-based visualizations of self-organizing maps for unsupervised functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis. A self-organizing map is an artificial neural network model that transforms high-dimensional data into a low-dimensional (often a 2-D) map using unsupervised learning. However, a postprocessing scheme is necessary to correctly interpret similarity between neighboring node prototypes (feature vectors) on the output map and delineate clusters and features of interest in the data. In this paper, we used graph-based visualizations to capture fMRI data features based upon 1) the distribution of data across the receptive fields of the prototypes (density-based connectivity); and 2) temporal similarities (correlations) between the prototypes (correlation-based connectivity). We applied this approach to identify task-related brain areas in an fMRI reaction time experiment involving a visuo-manual response task, and we correlated the time-to-peak of the fMRI responses in these areas with reaction time. Visualization of self-organizing maps outperformed independent component analysis and voxelwise univariate linear regression analysis in identifying and classifying relevant brain regions. We conclude that the graph-based visualizations of self-organizing maps help in advanced visualization of cluster boundaries in fMRI data enabling the separation of regions with small differences in the timings of their brain responses.

BROCCOLI: Software for fast fMRI analysis on many-core CPUs and GPUs

Eklund, Anders; Dufort, Paul; Villani, Mattias; LaConte, Stephen
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data is becoming ever more computationally demanding as temporal and spatial resolutions improve, and large, publicly available data sets proliferate. Moreover, methodological improvements in the neuroimaging pipeline, such as non-linear spatial normalization, non-parametric permutation tests and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approaches, can dramatically increase the computational burden. Despite these challenges, there do not yet exist any fMRI software packages which leverage inexpensive and powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) to perform these analyses. Here, we therefore present BROCCOLI, a free software package written in OpenCL (Open Computing Language) that can be used for parallel analysis of fMRI data on a large variety of hardware configurations. BROCCOLI has, for example, been tested with an Intel CPU, an Nvidia GPU, and an AMD GPU. These tests show that parallel processing of fMRI data can lead to significantly faster analysis pipelines. This speedup can be achieved on relatively standard hardware, but further, dramatic speed improvements require only a modest investment in GPU hardware. BROCCOLI (running on a GPU) can perform non-linear spatial normalization to a 1 mm3 brain template in 4–6 s...

An evaluation of independent component analyses with an application to resting-state fMRI

Risk, Benjamin B.; Matteson, David S.; Ruppert, David; Eloyan, Ani; Caffo, Brian S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
We examine differences between independent component analyses (ICAs) arising from different as-sumptions, measures of dependence, and starting points of the algorithms. ICA is a popular method with diverse applications including artifact removal in electrophysiology data, feature extraction in microarray data, and identifying brain networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ICA can be viewed as a generalization of principal component analysis (PCA) that takes into account higher-order cross-correlations. Whereas the PCA solution is unique, there are many ICA methods–whose solutions may differ. Infomax, FastICA, and JADE are commonly applied to fMRI studies, with FastICA being arguably the most popular. Hastie and Tibshirani (2003) demonstrated that ProDenICA outperformed FastICA in simulations with two components. We introduce the application of ProDenICA to simulations with more components and to fMRI data. ProDenICA was more accurate in simulations, and we identified differences between biologically meaningful ICs from ProDenICA versus other methods in the fMRI analysis. ICA methods require nonconvex optimization, yet current practices do not recognize the importance of, nor adequately address sensitivity to, initial values. We found that local optima led to dramatically different estimates in both simulations and group ICA of fMRI...

EEG/fMRI contributions to our understanding of Genetic Generalized Epilepsies

Kay, Benjamin; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
The first reports of combined EEG and fMRI used for evaluation of epileptic spikes date back to the mid-90’s. At that time the technique was called EEG-triggered fMRI – the “triggered” corresponded to an epilepsy specialist reviewing live EEG while the patient was located in the scanner; after the spike was identified, scan was initiated to collect the data. Since then major progress has been made in combined EEG/fMRI data collection and analyses. These advances allow studying the electrophysiology of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) in vivo in greater detail than ever. In addition to continuous data collection, we now have better methods for removing physiologic and fMRI-related artifacts, more advanced understanding of the hemodynamic response functions, and better computational methods to address the questions regarding the origins of the epileptiform discharge generators in patients with GGEs. These advances have allowed us to examine numerous cohorts of children and adults with GGEs while not only looking for spike and wave generators but also examining specific types of GGEs (e.g., juvenile myoclonic epilepsy or childhood absence epilepsy), drug-naïve patients, effects of medication resistance, or effects of epileptiform abnormalities and/or seizures on brain connectivity. While the discussion is ongoing...

Parenchymal spin-lock fMRI signals associated with cortical spreading depression

Autio, Joonas A; Shatillo, Artem; Giniatullin, Rashid; Gröhn, Olli H
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
We found novel types of parenchymal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in the rat brain during large increases in metabolism. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a self-propagating wave of cellular activation, is associated with several pathologic conditions such as migraine and stroke. It was used as a paradigm to evoke transient neuronal depolarization leading to enhanced energy consumption. Activation of CSD was investigated using spin-lock (SL), diffusion, blood oxygenation level-dependent and cerebral blood volume fMRI techniques. Our results show that the SL-fMRI signal is generated by endogenous parenchymal mechanisms during CSD propagation, and these mechanisms are not associated with hemodynamic changes or cellular swelling. Protein phantoms suggest that pH change alone does not explain the observed SL-fMRI signal changes. However, increased amounts of inorganic phosphates released from high-energy phosphates combined with pH changes may produce SL- power-dependent longitudinal relaxation in the rotating frame (R1ρ) changes in protein phantoms that are similar to those observed during CSD, as seen before in acute ischemia under our experimental conditions. This links SL-fMRI changes intimately to energy metabolism and supports the use of the SL technique as a new...

A wavelet method for modeling and despiking motion artifacts from resting-state fMRI time series

Patel, Ameera X.; Kundu, Prantik; Rubinov, Mikail; Jones, P. Simon; Vértes, Petra E.; Ersche, Karen D.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
The impact of in-scanner head movement on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals has long been established as undesirable. These effects have been traditionally corrected by methods such as linear regression of head movement parameters. However, a number of recent independent studies have demonstrated that these techniques are insufficient to remove motion confounds, and that even small movements can spuriously bias estimates of functional connectivity. Here we propose a new data-driven, spatially-adaptive, wavelet-based method for identifying, modeling, and removing non-stationary events in fMRI time series, caused by head movement, without the need for data scrubbing. This method involves the addition of just one extra step, the Wavelet Despike, in standard pre-processing pipelines. With this method, we demonstrate robust removal of a range of different motion artifacts and motion-related biases including distance-dependent connectivity artifacts, at a group and single-subject level, using a range of previously published and new diagnostic measures. The Wavelet Despike is able to accommodate the substantial spatial and temporal heterogeneity of motion artifacts and can consequently remove a range of high and low frequency artifacts from fMRI time series...

Amplitude differences in high-frequency fMRI signals between eyes open and eyes closed resting states

Yuan, Bin-Ke; Wang, Jue; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liu, Dong-Qiang
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
Recent studies employing rapid sampling techniques have demonstrated that the resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal exhibits synchronized activities at frequencies much higher than the conventional frequency range (<0.1 Hz). However, little work has investigated the changes in the high-frequency fluctuations between different resting states. Here, we acquired rs-fMRI data at a high sampling rate (TR = 400 ms) from subjects with both eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), and compared the amplitude of fluctuation (AF) between EO and EC for both the low- and high-frequency components. In addition to robust AF differences in the conventional low frequency band (<0.1 Hz) in visual cortex, primary auditory cortex and primary sensorimotor cortex (PSMC), we also detected high-frequency (primarily in 0.1–0.35 Hz) differences. The high-frequency results without covariates regression exhibited noisy patterns. For the data with nuisance covariates regression, we found a significant and reproducible reduction in high-frequency AF between EO and EC in the bilateral PSMC and the supplementary motor area (SMA), and an increase in high-frequency AF in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of sampling rate by down-sampling the data to effective TR = 2 s. Briefly...

Sensitivity and Specificity of Interictal EEG-fMRI for Detecting the Ictal Onset Zone at Different Statistical Thresholds

Tousseyn, Simon; Dupont, Patrick; Goffin, Karolien; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Paesschen, Wim
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
There is currently a lack of knowledge about electroencephalography (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) specificity. Our aim was to define sensitivity and specificity of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses to interictal epileptic spikes during EEG-fMRI for detecting the ictal onset zone (IOZ). We studied 21 refractory focal epilepsy patients who had a well-defined IOZ after a full presurgical evaluation and interictal spikes during EEG-fMRI. Areas of spike-related BOLD changes overlapping the IOZ in patients were considered as true positives; if no overlap was found, they were treated as false-negatives. Matched healthy case-controls had undergone similar EEG-fMRI in order to determine true-negative and false-positive fractions. The spike-related regressor of the patient was used in the design matrix of the healthy case-control. Suprathreshold BOLD changes in the brain of controls were considered as false positives, absence of these changes as true negatives. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for different statistical thresholds at the voxel level combined with different cluster size thresholds and represented in receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curves. Additionally, we calculated the ROC-curves based on the cluster containing the maximal significant activation. We achieved a combination of 100% specificity and 62% sensitivity...

A Review of fMRI Simulation Studies

Welvaert, Marijke; Rosseel, Yves
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
Simulation studies that validate statistical techniques for fMRI data are challenging due to the complexity of the data. Therefore, it is not surprising that no common data generating process is available (i.e. several models can be found to model BOLD activation and noise). Based on a literature search, a database of simulation studies was compiled. The information in this database was analysed and critically evaluated focusing on the parameters in the simulation design, the adopted model to generate fMRI data, and on how the simulation studies are reported. Our literature analysis demonstrates that many fMRI simulation studies do not report a thorough experimental design and almost consistently ignore crucial knowledge on how fMRI data are acquired. Advice is provided on how the quality of fMRI simulation studies can be improved.

A hierarchical model for probabilistic independent component analysis of multi-subject fMRI studies

Guo, Ying; Tang, Li
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
An important goal in fMRI studies is to decompose the observed series of brain images to identify and characterize underlying brain functional networks. Independent component analysis (ICA) has been shown to be a powerful computational tool for this purpose. Classic ICA has been successfully applied to single-subject fMRI data. The extension of ICA to group inferences in neuroimaging studies, however, is challenging due to the unavailability of a pre-specified group design matrix. Existing group ICA methods generally concatenate observed fMRI data across subjects on the temporal domain and then decompose multi-subject data in a similar manner to single-subject ICA. The major limitation of existing methods is that they ignore between-subject variability in spatial distributions of brain functional networks in group ICA. In this paper, we propose a new hierarchical probabilistic group ICA method to formally model subject-specific effects in both temporal and spatial domains when decomposing multi-subject fMRI data. The proposed method provides model-based estimation of brain functional networks at both the population and subject level. An important advantage of the hierarchical model is that it provides a formal statistical framework to investigate similarities and differences in brain functional networks across subjects...

Fixation-Related fMRI Analysis in the Domain of Reading Research: Using Self-Paced Eye Movements as Markers for Hemodynamic Brain Responses During Visual Letter String Processing

Richlan, Fabio; Gagl, Benjamin; Hawelka, Stefan; Braun, Mario; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Hutzler, Florian
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
The present study investigated the feasibility of using self-paced eye movements during reading (measured by an eye tracker) as markers for calculating hemodynamic brain responses measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Specifically, we were interested in whether the fixation-related fMRI analysis approach was sensitive enough to detect activation differences between reading material (words and pseudowords) and nonreading material (line and unfamiliar Hebrew strings). Reliable reading-related activation was identified in left hemisphere superior temporal, middle temporal, and occipito-temporal regions including the visual word form area (VWFA). The results of the present study are encouraging insofar as fixation-related analysis could be used in future fMRI studies to clarify some of the inconsistent findings in the literature regarding the VWFA. Our study is the first step in investigating specific visual word recognition processes during self-paced natural sentence reading via simultaneous eye tracking and fMRI, thus aiming at an ecologically valid measurement of reading processes. We provided the proof of concept and methodological framework for the analysis of fixation-related fMRI activation in the domain of reading research.

Using fMRI non-local means denoising to uncover activation in sub-cortical structures at 1.5 T for guided HARDI tractography

Bernier, Michaël; Chamberland, Maxime; Houde, Jean-Christophe; Descoteaux, Maxime; Whittingstall, Kevin
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.79%
In recent years, there has been ever-increasing interest in combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) for better understanding the link between cortical activity and connectivity, respectively. However, it is challenging to detect and validate fMRI activity in key sub-cortical areas such as the thalamus, given that they are prone to susceptibility artifacts due to the partial volume effects (PVE) of surrounding tissues (GM/WM interface). This is especially true on relatively low-field clinical MR systems (e.g., 1.5 T). We propose to overcome this limitation by using a spatial denoising technique used in structural MRI and more recently in diffusion MRI called non-local means (NLM) denoising, which uses a patch-based approach to suppress the noise locally. To test this, we measured fMRI in 20 healthy subjects performing three block-based tasks : eyes-open closed (EOC) and left/right finger tapping (FTL, FTR). Overall, we found that NLM yielded more thalamic activity compared to traditional denoising methods. In order to validate our pipeline, we also investigated known structural connectivity going through the thalamus using HARDI tractography: the optic radiations, related to the EOC task...