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Novel electroluminescent devices containing Eu(3+)-(2-acyl-1,3-indandionate) complexes with TPPO ligand

TEOTONIO, E. E. S.; BRITO, H. F.; CREMONA, M.; QUIRINO, W. G.; LEGNANI, C.; FELINTO, M. C. F. C.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Fabrication and electroluminescent properties of devices containing europium complexes of general formula [Eu(ACIND)(3)(TPPO)(2)], where ACIND, 2-acyl-1,3-indandionate ligands: and TPPO, triphenylphosphine oxide. as emitter layers are discussed. The double-layer devices based on these complexes present the following configurations: device 1: ITO/TPD/[Eu(AlND)(3)(TPPO)(2)]/Al: device 2: ITO/TPD/[Eu(ISOV-IND)(3)(TPPO)(2)]/Al and device 3: ITO/TPD/[Eu(BIND)(3)(TPPO)(2)]/Al, where AlND, 2-acetyl-1,3-indandionate; ISOVIND, 2-isovaleryl-1,3-indandionate; and BIND, 2-benzoyl-1,3-indandionate, respectively. These devices exhibited photo and electroluminescent emissions. An important characteristic presented by devices is that their electroluminescent (EL) spectra, in the region of (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions of Eu(3+) ion, show profiles that are different from photoluminescent (PL) ones. In addition to narrow bands arising from intraconfigurational-4f(6) transitions, devices 1 and 2 also exhibited a broad band with maximum at around 500 nm which is assigned to electrophosphorescence from the indandionate ligands. On the other hand, EL spectra of device 3 present only narrow bands from (5)D(0) -> (7)F(J) transitions. [Eu(ACIND)(3)(TPPO)(2)] complexes are promising candidates to prepare efficient organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) when compared with those containing Eu(3+)-complexes of aliphatic beta-diketonate anions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FACEPE; FACEPE; RENAMI; RENAMI; CNPq-PRONEX; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

Structure and luminescent investigation of the Ln(III)-beta-diketonate complexes containing tertiary amides

Teotonio, Ercules E. S.; Brito, Hermi Felinto de; Sa, Gilberto F. de; Felinto, Maria Claudia F. C.; Santos, Regina Helena de Almeida; Fuquen, Rodolfo Moreno; Costa, Israel F.; Kennedy, Alan R.; Gilmore, Denise; Faustino, Wagner M.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; OXFORD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Ln(III)-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and dibenzoylmethanate complexes (Ln = Eu(III) and Gd(III) ions) containing tertiary amides such as dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethylbenzamide (DMB) as neutral ligands are reported. The Ln complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, complexometric titration with EDTA, and infrared spectroscopy. Single-crystal X-ray structure data of the [Eu(DBM)(3).(DMA)] compound indicates that this complex crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group PT with the following cell parameters: a = 10.2580(3) angstrom, b = 10.3843(2) angstrom, c= 22.3517(5) angstrom, alpha = 78.906(2)degrees, beta = 78.049(2)degrees, lambda= 63.239(2)degrees, V= 2066.41(9) angstrom(3), and Z = 2. The coordination polyhedron for the Eu(III) complex may be described as an approximate C-2v distorted monocapped trigonal prism. The optical properties of the Eu(III) complexes were studied based on the intensity parameters and luminescence quantum yield (q). The values of the ohm(2) parameter of the Eu-DBM complexes are larger than those for the Eu-TTA complexes, indicating that the Eu(III) ion is in a more polarizable chemical environment in the former case. The geometries of the complexes have been optimized by using the Sparkle Model...

A cisão subjetiva na lírica portuguesa: século XVI e século XX; The scission of the self in portuguese lyric poetry: fifteenth century and twentieth centure

Del Rio, Antonio Henrique Montero
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/03/2009 Português
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A cisão do eu é um tema literário. Há mesmo uma literatura do eu cindido. Ele aparece em todas as literaturas do mundo e á parte do tema mais amplo do duplo, que também aparece em toda literatura e em todo gênero literário. Mas o eu cindido, ou a cisão subjetiva do eu, é um assunto peculiar à Lírica, por causa do seu caráter subjetivo, ao contrário do duplo em outros gêneros literários, como o Drama e a Narrativa, que apresentam um caráter objetivo. Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo da cisão subjetiva na lírica portuguesa para demonstrar que a cisão do eu poético na lírica portuguesa é um tema presente na literatura portuguesa do século XVI e do século XX. Nosso método de trabalho incluiu uma pesquisa para fixar um corpus poético dos dois séculos, uma comparação entre eles, e a leitura de obras críticas e filosóficas relacionadas a este tema para tentar esboçar uma conclusão. Nosso corpus poético inclui poemas de Jorge Manrique, Francisco de Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, Luís Vaz de Camões (no século XVI); e de Mário de Sá-Carneiro, Fernando Pessoa, Alexandre ONeill, Maria Teresa Horta (no século XX). Nossas obras filosóficas consultadas mais importantes foram Discurso sobre a dignidade do homem...

Contributo para o estudo do impacto dos Fundos Comunitários na economia e no emprego da Região Autónoma dos Açores

Medeiros, Ana Cristina Bettencourt
Fonte: Universidade dos Açores Publicador: Universidade dos Açores
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 11/03/2011 Português
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Ciências Económicas e Empresariais.; O presente trabalho tem por propósito estudar os fundos comunitários no contexto Regional, ao apurar o impacto das verbas da União Europeia na economia e no emprego da Região Autónoma dos Açores. O modelo teórico assenta numa plataforma de modelação da economia dos Açores, representada por um modelo de equilíbrio dinâmico multisectorial geral computável (CGE) - AzorMod, que incorpora o comportamento de seis agentes económicos: Empresas, Famílias, Governo Regional, Governo Central, Comissão Europeia e Resto do Mundo. A simulação realizada estuda o impacto dos fundos comunitários através da criação de um cenário que considera a sua eliminação. O estudo revela que a ausência de verbas comunitárias provoca uma redução do Consumo Público e do nível de bem-estar dos consumidores, por contraposição ao acréscimo do Investimento. O PIB e o Emprego registam uma quebra, no primeiro ano da simulação. O nível do PIB, detido no cenário com transferências da UE, só é recuperado no final de dez anos, e o do Emprego, no final de um ano. Findas estas datas, os valores estimados, sem fundos comunitários, ultrapassam os valores projectados para o cenário com verbas comunitárias.; ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present work comprise the study of the European Union (EU) funds in a regional context...

Reshaping EU development policy : collective choices & the new global order

Mah, Luís
Fonte: ISEG - CEsA Publicador: ISEG - CEsA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The European Union (EU) is one of the world´s leading donors in official development assistance (ODA) to give it a strong weight in the relationship with recipient partner countries, in particular with those that are more dependent on it. Besides the material weight of its funding, the EU has retained historical ties and influence in diplomatic, political and economic terms in many of its ODA recipient partner countries (particular in Sub-Saharan Africa). Since the 2000s, the EU development policy has not only undergone major structural changes in its institutional framework but it has also started to face a new international aid scenario. The paper explores why a normative-based EU development policy is being challenged by reformed EU institutions and a new global order and how the EU is attempting to respond to this context in face of the EU deepest recession since the end of the Second World War.

Discrepâncias do Eu: diferenças estruturais entre as populações não – clinicas e clinicas avaliadas com MCMI – II

Brandão, A; Vasco, A
Fonte: Serviço de Psiquiatria do Hospital Prof. Dr. Fernando Fonseca, E.P.E. Publicador: Serviço de Psiquiatria do Hospital Prof. Dr. Fernando Fonseca, E.P.E.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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A presente investigação aborda a personalidade como estrutura complexa e dinâmica. Relaciona a teoria das discrepâncias do Eu com a teoria de personalidade de Millon. A teoria das discrepâncias do Eu prevê que as discrepâncias com o Eu Ideal e com o Eu Obrigatório estão na base de distintas emoções negativas. A teoria de personalidade de Millon é uma teoria biopsicossocial que salienta a circularidade interacção entre o organismo, o ambiente e a aprendizagem social. O presente estudo avalia as discrepâncias entre o Eu Real (ER), o Eu Ideal (EI) e o Eu Obrigatório (EO), utilizando Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory – II em duas amostras distintas (não-clinica e clinica). Os resultados distinguem os ERs das duas amostras, e foram analisados escala a escala. Os resultados das discrepâncias ER-EI e ER-EO, para cada escala de traço analisados foram mistos. Foi dada maior ênfase ás discrepâncias ER-EI, e foram consideradas as implicações deste estudo para as teorias de personalidade e conceptualização de casos.

The Institutional Future of the European Union

Fabbrini, Sergio
Fonte: CIES-IUL Publicador: CIES-IUL
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The ink of the Lisbon Treaty‟s signatories was not yet dry before the financial crisis, which took a serious turn for the worse in 2010, called that Treaty into question. The financial bankruptcy of Greece and Ireland and the serious financial difficulties of Portugal and Spain have, in fact, determined the need for us to reconsider the “EU institutional arrangement”, which was so painstakingly constructed in the course of the first decade of the century. Under the pressure, on one hand, of domestic electoral and constitutional constraints and, on the other, of the financial threat of the collapse of the euro, the EU heads of state and government have finally ended up radically reforming the EU system of economic governance. At the crucial European Council held on 24-25 March 2011, fundamental decisions were adopted, such as: the reinforcement of macroeconomic surveillance, the strengthening of the stability and growth pact, a corrective mechanism for macroeconomic imbalances, the European semester, the Euro Plus pact and the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). This new economic governance system mainly concerns the EU member states who have adopted the euro. The most striking of these innovations, the ESM, implies the establishment of a new treaty by the euro-area member states “as an intergovernmental organisation under public international law”...

Disaggregation via 'governmental independence' : EU law as a trigger for domestic administrative authorities and the disaggregation of the member states' executive

KROEGER, Malte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Supervisor: Professor Loïc Azoulai, European University Institute.; Award date: 12 December 2013; The thesis addresses a recent development in EU administrative law at the interface between the principle of primacy of EU law and the competence of the Member States to enforce EU law. EU law obliges Member States in a growing number of directives or regulations to equip their administrative authorities with independence from the government (‘governmental inde-pendence’). On the basis of two recent decisions of the European Court of Justice concerning the independence of national data protection authorities the legal meaning of governmental independence will be elaborated. This thesis argues that there is a broader approach in EU law triggering the establishment of domestic independent administrative authorities. However, obliging Member States to decouple domestic authorities from the national government is not without consequences. In order to determine these consequences the reception of EU inde-pendence requirements in France and Germany is examined in-depth for which telecommuni-cations, data protection and statistics serve as the fields of reference. In the following, this thesis focuses on the effect within the executive of the Member States and claims that Mem-ber States lose their autonomy regarding the setting up of their internal administrative organi-sation while self-confident administrative authorities appear on the national level challenging governmental decisions: the disaggregating effect. In contrast to other analyses...

Framework for Economic Development in EU External Relations

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This Working Paper is a collection of contributions presented during the Workshop "Framework for Economic Development in EU External Relations on 22nd and 23rd January 2010. The contributions explore various facets of what is known as economic development and what with time has incorporated many new aspects and developed links with other policy fields. Starting off with the traditional realm of the development policies – trade – the paper shifts to explore how the solely economic notion of development has been enhanced through the introduction of the concept of sustainable development, and how this concept was integrated into two policy areas – that of migration and human rights. Each of the contributors provides an in-depth analysis of a respective facet which build up a very complex picture of what economic development in EU external relations has become.; INTRODUCTION PART 1: ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT EU Preferential Rules of Origin Regimes in FTAS with Developing Countries: Differential treatment and the limits of regional harmonisation Does the EUI Competition Law Model Satisfy the Needs of the Emerging Economies? Lessons from the countries without a "carrot" PART 2: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Development and the EU: The concept of sustainable development in the Cariforum EPA External Dimension of Sustainable Development and its Impact on EU-MERCOSUR Relations PART 3: DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATION Shifting Perspective on the Migration and Development Nexus in the EU: From the migration management approach to the development paradigm of mobility? A Critical Appraisal of the EU's Global Approach to Migration (GAM): A useful policy-making instrument in the EU-MENA context? PART 4: DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN RIGHTS EU Approach to Human Rights and Development Nexus– Imitating or innovating the international approach

Biomedicine and EU Law: Unlikely Encounters?

HENNETTE-VAUCHEZ, Stéphanie
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Over the last decade, a significant body of biomedical law has emerged within EU law. In so far as the EU has long been portrayed as aiming mostly if not only at economic integration, it is surprising at face value to see issues such as human embryonic stem cell research or trade in oocytes even reach the EU's political and legal agenda. Although it is possible to argue that the puzzle waters down when one considers not only that EU has in fact always been open to "non-market" values on the one hand but also that biomedical issues have themselves undergone radical transformations recently, as one commonly speaks now of "Tissue Economies", these elements do not seem to suffice for explaining the development of a body of biomedical law within EU law. It is argued here that many of the legal technicalities that sustain the view that the EU does not have any straightforward competences in the field have been balanced by the specifically "polity-building" dimension of "Ethics" (and here bioethics). In other words, the research presented here establishes several manners in which "Ethics"' have been instrumental in the EU law making process, thus bridging EU law and biomedicine and simultaneously enabling the EU to assert itself as polity.

Taking Stock of Recent Migration Flows in the European Union

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report
Português
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Expanded employment opportunities across the continent have been one of the most significant changes to have taken place in Europe during the past 50 years. Since the inception of the European Economic Community in 1957 involving 6 countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany) with a combined population of less than 200 million, the European Union (EU) has grown to encompass nearly 500 million people across 27 member countries that produce, in total, about 30 percent of the world's total gross domestic product. May 2010 marked the six-year anniversary of the inclusion of eight countries from Central and Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia) into the EU, followed by Romania and Bulgaria in January 2007. An important consequence of these 10 new member states (henceforth EU10) joining the EU has been to expand the internal EU labor market, albeit to varying extents for nationals of different member countries. Migration flows out of the EU10 following the 2004 enlargement is hampered by various technical and data constraints. As a result...

The joint Africa-Europe partnership strategy: from Cairo to Lisbon: from an EU strategy for Africa to a joint Africa-EU strategy

Ferreira, Maria da Costa
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2010 Português
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Tese de mestrado, Políticas Europeias, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2009; The scope of this thesis is to study the evolution of the EU's Africa policy in a timeframe of seven years between 2000 and 2007 - from the first to the second EUAfrica Summit. The study aims to identify dominant EU motives and forces in shaping a Joint Strategic Partnership between the two continents and its importance for the EU's positioning in the world. On the one hand, the study will investigate documents relating to the EU-Africa dialogue, and considered key to determine which interests, actors, and discourse have been dominant; on the other hand, it will investigate documents linked to parallel EU strategies over the same period likewise considered key to the evolution of the EU's Africa policy. The thesis is that EU Africa policies must be seen in a wider political context in which the EU aims to project itself in the world as a significant international actor with the power to actively influence world politics through a more integrated approach by integrating, mainstreaming and coordinating external policies and instruments including strategies leading to a greater visibility in the world. The study concludes that Africa represents an important field of interest for the EU. Motives and interests are mixed and include political...

Chemical Feature of Eu abundance in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy

Tsujimoto, Takuji; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Aoki, Wako
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/04/2015 Português
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Chemical abundance of r-process elements in nearby dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies is a powerful tool to probe the site of r-process since their small-mass scale can sort out individual events producing r-process elements. A merger of binary neutron stars is a promising candidate of this site. In faint, or less massive dSph galaxies such as the Draco, a few binary neutron star mergers are expected to have occurred at most over the whole past. We have measured chemical abundances including Eu and Ba of three red giants in the Draco dSph by Subaru/HDS observation. The Eu detection for one star with [Fe/H]=-1.45 confirms a broadly constant [Eu/H] of ~-1.3 for stars with [Fe/H]>-2. This feature is shared by other dSphs with similar masses, i.e., the Sculptor and the Carina, and suggests that neutron star merger is the origin of r-process elements in terms of its rarity. In addition, two very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H]=-2.12 and -2.51 are found to exhibit very low Eu abundances such as [Eu/H]<-2 with an implication of a sudden increase of Eu abundance by more than 0.7 dex at [Fe/H] ~ -2.2 in the Draco dSph. In addition, the detection of Ba abundances for these stars suggests that the r-process enrichment initiated no later than the time when only a few % of stars in the present-day Draco dSph was formed. Though an identification of the origin of an early Eu production inside the Draco dSph should be awaited until more abundance data of stars with [Fe/H]<-2 in the Draco as well as other faint dSphs become available...

The age of the Galactic thin disk from Th/Eu nucleocosmochronology I. Determination of [Th/Eu] abundance ratios

del Peloso, E. F.; da Silva, L.; de Mello, G. F. Porto
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of this work is to resume investigation of Galactic thin disk dating using nucleocosmochronology with Th/Eu stellar abundance ratios, a theme absent from the literature since 1990. A stellar sample of 20 disk dwarfs/subgiants of F5 to G8 spectral types with -0.8 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.3 was selected. In stars with such spectral types and luminosity classes, spectral synthesis techniques must be employed if we wish to achieve acceptably accurate results. A homogeneous, self-consistent set of atmospheric parameters was determined. Effective temperatures were determined from photometric calibrations and H-alpha profile fitting; surface gravities were obtained from Teff, stellar masses and luminosities; microturbulence velocities and metallicities were obtained from detailed, differential spectroscopic analysis, relative to the Sun, using equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines. Chemical abundances of the elements that contaminate the Th and Eu spectral regions (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Ce, Nd, and Sm) were determined through spectroscopic analysis. Abundance uncertainties were thoroughly scrutinised, their average value - (0.10 +/- 0.02) dex - being found to be satisfactorily low. Eu and Th abundances were determined by spectral synthesis of one Eu II line (4129.72 A) and one Th II line (4019.13 A)...

Heat transport of La$_{2-y}$Eu$_y$CuO$_4$ and La$_{1.88-y}$Eu$_y$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$ single crystals

Sun, X. F.; Komiya, Seiki; Ando, Yoichi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To study the rare-earth doping effect on the phonon heat transport of La-based cuprates and shed light on the mechanism of phonon scattering, both $ab$-plane and c-axis thermal conductivities ($\kappa_{ab}$ and $\kappa_c$) are measured for La$_{2-y}$Eu$_y$CuO$_4$ ($y$ = 0, 0.02 and 0.2) and La$_{1.88-y}$Eu$_y$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$ ($y$ = 0 and 0.2) single crystals. It is found that the phonon peak (at 20 -- 25 K) in $\kappa_{ab}(T)$ of La$_{2-y}$Eu$_y$CuO$_4$ shows an anomalous Eu-doping dependence: it completely disappears for $y$ = 0.02, which is discussed to be due to the local lattice distortions around Eu dopants, and reappears for $y$ = 0.2 with much smaller peak magnitude compared to $y$ = 0 sample. In contrast to the strong suppression of the phonon peak in Eu-doped La$_2$CuO$_4$, Eu-doping to La$_{1.88}$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$ enhances the low-$T$ phonon heat transport that results in the reappearance of the phonon peak in this charge-carrier-doped system. The data clearly show that the establishment of static stripe phase rather than the structural change is responsible for the reappearance of phonon peak.; Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, final version published in Phys. Rev. B

The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES) IX. Constraining pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio from observations of r-II stars

Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Christlieb, Norbert
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The oldest stars born before the onset of the main s-process are expected to reveal a pure r-process Ba/Eu abundance ratio. We revised barium and europium abundances of selected very metal-poor (VMP) and strongly r-process enhanced (r-II) stars to evaluate an empirical r-process Ba/Eu ratio. Our calculations were based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation for Ba II and Eu II in the classical 1D MARCS model atmospheres. Homogeneous stellar abundances were determined from the Ba II subordinate and resonance lines by applying a common Ba isotope mixture. We used high-quality VLT/UVES spectra and observational material from the literature. For most investigated stars, NLTE leads to a lower Ba, but a higher Eu abundance. The resulting elemental ratio of the NLTE abundances amounts, on average, log(Ba/Eu) = 0.78+-0.06. This is a new constraint to pure r-process production of Ba and Eu. The obtained Ba/Eu abundance ratio of the r-II stars supports the corresponding Solar System r-process ratio as predicted by recent Galactic chemical evolution calculations of Bisterzo, Travaglio, Gallino, Wiescher, and Kappeler. We present the NLTE abundance corrections for lines of Ba II and Eu II in the grid of VMP model atmospheres.; Comment: 12 pages...

Eu-Eu exchange interaction and Eu distribution in Pb_(1-x)Eu_(x)Te from magnetization steps

ter Haar, Ewout; Bindilatti, Valdir; Oliveira Jr., Nei F.; McCabe, G. H.; Shapira, Y.; Golacki, Z.; Charar, S.; Averous, M.; McNiff Jr, E. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/1997 Português
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The magnetization of Pb_{1-x}Eu_{x}Te samples with x = 1.9, 2.6 and 6.0% was measured at 20 mK in fields up to 50 kOe, and at 0.6 K in fields up to 180 kOe. The 20 mK data show the magnetization steps (MSTs) arising from pairs and from triplets. The pair MSTs are used to obtain the dominant Eu-Eu antiferromagnetic exchange constant, J/k_{B} = -0.264 \pm 0.018 K. The exchange constant for triplets is the same. Comparison of the magnetization curves with theoretical simulations indicates that the Eu ions are not randomly distributed over all the cation sites. The deviation from a random distribution is much smaller if J is assumed to be the nearest-neighbor exchange constant J_{1} rather than the next-nearest-neighbor exchange constant J_{2}. On this basis, J is tentatively identified as J_{1}. To obtain agreement with the data, it must be assumed that the Eu ions tend to bunch together. Comparision with microprobe data indicates that the length scale for these concentration variations is smaller than a few micrometer. The theoretical simulations in the present work improve on those performed earlier by including clusters larger than three spins.; Comment: 9 pages, 6 figs, Revtex, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. B

Securing Energy Efficiency to Secure the Energy Union: How Energy Efficiency meets the EU Climate and Energy Goals

SAHEB YAMINA; OSSENBRINK Heinz
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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In line with the Energy Union strategy, the EU 2030 climate and energy policy framework sees energy saving as Europe’s first fuel in 2030. Making energy efficiency the mechanism for delivering moderation of demand will enable the EU to meet its objectives in terms of security of supply, climate change, jobs, growth and competitiveness. The decarbonisation of the EU energy system is under way. Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions fell by 19% between 1990 and 2013. The power generation and energy-intensive industries covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) are responsible for 45 % of total EU GHG emissions and for 23 % of the emissions reduction achieved between 2005 and 2013. The end-use sectors, such as buildings and transport, covered by the Effort-Sharing Decision (ESD) contributed 13 % of emissions reduction over the same period. Emissions reduction in the EU is a result of economic restructuring, the economic crisis and the EU 2020 climate and energy policy package. With the post-2020 climate and policy package, the Energy Union is seeking to develop a more reliable and transparent governance system. Reporting on progress towards climate and energy targets will be streamlined through integrated national energy and climate plans. Indicators will be developed to ensure consistency and better interaction between the various climate and energy policy instruments. For decarbonisation to be made cost-neutral...

Why keep complying?: compliance with EU conditionality under diminished credibility in Turkey

Masraff, Naz
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2011 Português
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The widely accepted external incentives model of conditionality (EIM) argues that the rewards promised by the EU need to be credible for target states to comply with costly EU conditions. Accordingly, compliance should come to a halt or decline significantly in countries where the credibility of accession – the most powerful reward used by the EU – is very low. The case of Turkey appears therefore to present a puzzle, since the current AKP government is still complying with costly EU conditions despite the negative signals from the most powerful member-states and the EU general public. This thesis first establishes that there is indeed a puzzle. The quantitative and qualitative data gathered on formal and behavioural compliance demonstrates that credibility is not a necessary condition for compliance. There are absolutely no signs of decline in compliance, which challenges the EIM’s credibility assumption. The second part of this thesis moves to consider why the Turkish authorities continue to comply under diminished credibility. It finds that the AKP makes strategic use of EU conditionality. Firstly, compliance with EU conditions serves to curb the powers of the Kemalist/secularist establishment and thereby to secure the party’s continued presence. Secondly...

Obstacles to free movement for "visible minorities" in the EU: Race discrimination and migration controls.

Johnson, Linda Rose
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 Português
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Freedom of movement of people, one of the founding pillars of the European Community, has developed beyond the purely economic activity of the Treaty of Rome 1957 but it is still not easily accessible for all people working and residing within it. The right of free movement has been linked to nationality and the problems for ''visible minorities" in the EU have been the subject of much controversy and discussion. The dismantling of internal borders has resulted in strengthening of external borders and a "Fortress Europe " mentality. The governments of the EU have been accused of inciting racial hatred by creating a climate in which race discrimination has thrived. Laws on race discrimination presently differ throughout the EU. Discrimination in employment on grounds of race is effectively an obstacle to free movement for "visible minorities " as the individuals may be discouraged from moving to a country where they will receive little or no protection from race discrimination. As immigration laws are often used as a means of combating racism, immigration law will also be examined EU immigration policy including asylum seekers and refugees, has evolved through semi-secret discussions and has been created in a climate of fear and hostility towards foreigners and visible minorities in particular. It has therefore tended to be prohibitive creating further obstacles to free movement. The Treaty of Amsterdam 1997 enables "appropriate action" to combat discrimination based on racial or ethnic origin and also moved competence on asylum and immigration into the Community law arena. The Commission issued a package of proposals for combating discrimination to the social affairs Council in November 1999 and these will form the basis for further discussions. As the proposals require a unanimous vote...