Página 15 dos resultados de 1311 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

A Single Sensisitizer for the Excitation of Visible and NIR Lanthanide Emitters (Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Ho) in Water with High Quantum Yields

Law, Ga-Lai; Pham, Tiffany A.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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35.91%
The versatile octadentate TIAM ligand forms lanthanide (Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho) complexes with high quantum yields in water. This ligand is an efficient sensitizer, and also shields the metal center from solvent quenching, as shown by an X-ray diffraction study of the Ho complex.

"Is the Copy Better than the Original? The Regulation of Orphan Drugs: a US-EU Comparative Perspective"

Garcia, Anton Leis
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
Português
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The US Orphan Drug Act of 1983 pioneered the regulation of this type of medicines, and its success encouraged other countries to enact similar legislation. Among these new orphan drug laws is the one that was drafted in the European Union in 2000. This paper attempts to scrutinize some of the key points of the initial American regulatory framework as well as the main criticisms that it received and to subsequently take a look at the responses that European authorities have devised to address such attacks to the American text. The overwhelming satisfaction surrounding US law may explain the great similarity with its European younger brother, even though the “copy†has tried to make some modest contributions from its own, for instance while addressing what perhaps is the most serious caveat of the law: the abuses by the industry that lead to high prices and “blockbuster orphansâ€. However, both jurisdictions still have some more aspects to ameliorate in order to create a more perfect set of incentives that may assure the availability of remedies for rare diseases striking a better balance between competition and innovation. Besides, some newly raised issues, like the necessity of international cooperation to address the challenges posed by a global pharmaceutical market and the need for extending the benefits of orphan drug legislation to so-called “third-world diseasesâ€...

Croatia - Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report provides an updated assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Croatia. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire). Croatia has made considerable progress in developing its regulatory framework for corporate sector financial reporting and auditing since the publication of the first Accounting and Auditing (A&A) report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) in 2002. The alignment of the revised regulatory framework with the acquis communautaire has been significantly improved and lays the basis for reinforcing the institutional capacity for financial reporting and auditing. However, not all requirements of the relevant acquis have been introduced and further work is needed to achieve full compliance. The Croatian institutional framework has undergone several important changes. However...

Hungary : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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35.98%
This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Hungary using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS),International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks. It also draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation.

The integration of cultural considerations in EU law and policies

PSYCHOGIOPOULOU, Evangelia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Defence date: 26 January 2007; Supervisor: Bruno De Witte

Structural versus Behavioral Measures in the Deregulation of Electricity Markets: An Experimental Investigation Guided by Theory and Policy Concerns

VAN KOTEN, Silvester; ORTMANN, Andreas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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35.91%
We try to better understand the comparative advantages of structural and behavioral measures of deregulation in electricity markets, an eminent policy issue for which the experimental evidence is scant and problematic. In the present paper we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of the introduction of a forward market on competition in electricity markets. We compare this scenario with the best alternative, reducing concentration by adding one more competitor by divestiture. Our work contributes to the literature by introducing more realistic cost configurations, teasing apart number and asset effect, and studying numbers of competitors that reflect better the market concentration in the European electricity industries. Our experimental data suggest that introducing a forward market has a positive effect on the aggregate supply in markets with two or three major competitors, configurations typical for both the newly accessed and the old European Union member states. Introducing a forward market also increases efficiency. Our data furthermore suggest, in contrast to previous findings, that the effects of introducing a forward market is stronger than adding one more competitor both in markets with two, and particularly three...

Landscape as Public Space: The role of international and EU law in the protection of landscape in Europe

STRECKER, Amy
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis deals with the protection of landscape in international law. It focuses mainly on Europe. Landscape has gained increasing importance on the international stage since the inclusion of ‘cultural landscapes’ within the scope of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention in 1992. ‘Cultural landscapes’ were to give recognition to the intangible and associative values attached to certain landscapes, to sustainable agricultural practices and to ‘people and communities’ – essentially the human dimension of landscape. This shift has come full circle with the adoption of the European Landscape Convention in 2000. The European Landscape Convention conceives of landscape above all as a people’s landscape and accordingly, provides for the active participation of the public in the formulation of plans and polices. It not only focuses on outstanding landscapes, but also on the everyday and degraded landscapes where most people live and work. This brings landscape back to its early etymological origins and has a number of implications for human rights, democracy and access to justice. With this in mind, the thesis then explores the interplay between landscape and human rights from cultural, environmental and procedural rights perspectives. It demonstrates that outside the indigenous context...

To say what the law of the EU is : methods of interpretation and the European Court of Justice

LENAERTS, Koen; GUTIÉRREZ-FONS, José A.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Distinguished Lecture delivered on the occasion of the XXIV Law of the European Union course of the Academy of European Law, on 6 July 2013.

Choice of Law and Overriding Mandatory Rules after Rome I

S??nchez Lorenzo, Sixto A.
Fonte: Sellier Publicador: Sellier
Tipo: Outros
Português
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Estudio de la elecci??n de la ley aplicable a los contratos internacionales en relaci??n con las normas de orden p??blico internacional, incluyendo un tratamiento particular en el ??mbito de la Uni??n Europea.; Analysis of the choice of law in international contracts in relation with overriding mandatory rules, including a particular reference to this problem within the EU framework.

Consideraciones en torno a la introducción del test cultural en la normativa española de regulación del cine

Beltrán Martínez, Marina
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/book
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Se conoce como «test cultural» en el lenguaje jurídico de la Unión Europea a los requisitos o criterios culturales exigidos por el marco de regulación del derecho europeo, los cuales, de acuerdo con el principio de subsidiariedad, son definidos por cada uno de los Estados miembros y adaptados a sus propios sistemas nacionales de ayudas públicas a la cinematografía. El punto de partida de este trabajo será el estudio de caso de la introducción del test cultural (certificado cultural) en la normativa española de regulación del cine, el cual nos conducirá a analizar desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar (humanística y jurídica, principalmente) el significado del concepto de cultura en un texto jurídico concreto a saber, el texto que introduce los criterios para obtener el «certificado cultural» español definidos por resolución del Instituto de la Cinematografía y de las Artes Audiovisuales (ICAA) de 2 de julio de 2010.; The term "cultural test" is known in the legal language of the European Union as the cultural criteria required by the EU Law. They are defined, in compliance with the application of the subsidiary principle, by each member state according to verifiable national criteria and adapted to their own state aid system for film making. The gist of this paper is to case study the introduction of the cultural test of the Spanish Film Law...

'Integration-through-Law.' Contribution to a Socio-history of EU Political Commonsense

VAUCHEZ, Antoine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This article tracks the genesis of one of the EU's most established meta-narratives, that of Europeanization-through-case-law. Instead of studying this theory of European integration as an explanatory frame, I consider it here as the phenomenon to be explained and accounted for. Thereby, the paper does not try to assess how heuristic and explicative it may be, but rather analyzes what is at stake in its genesis as a dominant theory of Europeanization. I trace its emergence in the conflicting theorizations of the relationship between Law and the European Communities that come along with the European Court of Justice's 'landmark' decisions (Van Gend en Loos and Costa v. ENEL). This approach helps seizing the genesis of a specific and - at the time - rather unlikely political model for Europe in which a judge (the ECJ) is regarded as the very locus of European integration's dynamics as well as the best mediator and moderator of both Member States' "conservatism" and individuals' "potential excesses". It also allows to grasp the emergence of Euro-implicated lawyers as a group endowed with a set of critical functions (integration) and missions (protecting the EC treaties) the theory assigned them.

Between competitiveness and pluralism : concentration in the broadcasting industry in the EU

KREMMYDA, Peristera
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Paper
Português
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Defence date: 17 May 2004; Examining board: Prof. Giuliano Amato (Supervisor, European University Institute) ; Prof. Enzo Cheli (Presidente dell'Autorità per le Garanzie delle Comunicazioni) ; Prof. Petros Mavroidis (Columbia Law School and University of Neuchatel) ; Prof. Hanns Ullrich (European University Institute)

Determining the status of non-transferred embryos in Ireland: a conspectus of case law and implications for clinical IVF practice

Sills, Eric Scott; Murphy, Sarah Ellen
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/07/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
The development of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as a treatment for human infertilty was among the most controversial medical achievements of the modern era. In Ireland, the fate and status of supranumary (non-transferred) embryos derived from IVF brings challenges both for clinical practice and public health policy because there is no judicial or legislative framework in place to address the medical, scientific, or ethical uncertainties. Complex legal issues exist regarding informed consent and ownership of embryos, particularly the use of non-transferred embryos if a couple separates or divorces. But since case law is only beginning to emerge from outside Ireland and because legislation on IVF and human embryo status is entirely absent here, this matter is poised to raise contractual, constitutional and property law issues at the highest level. Our analysis examines this medico-legal challenge in an Irish context, and summarises key decisions on this issue rendered from other jurisdictions. The contractual issues raised by the Roche case regarding informed consent and the implications the initial judgment may have for future disputes over embryos are also discussed. Our research also considers a putative Constitutional 'right to procreate' and the implications EU law may have for an Irish case concerning the fate of frozen embryos. Since current Medical Council guidelines are insufficient to ensure appropriate regulation of the advanced reproductive technologies in Ireland...

Book review: Minorities and nationalism in Turkish law

Zarali, Kally
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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"Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law." Derya Bayir. Ashgate. 2013. --- Since the early 2000s, Turkey has been obliged to fulfill important requirements in the field of human rights as part of the Europeanization process. A historically nationalist and repressive state, the country has recently been making progress in this field. However, according to EU progress reports, a lot more is required especially in regards to anti-discrimination and minority rights laws. Kally Zarali highly recommends Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law as an interesting and in-depth historical overview of the case of minority rights and diversity.

Domestic judicial non-compliance in the European Union: a political economic approach

Dyevre, Arthur
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
In a multi-level, non-hierarchical court system, where courts at the upper echelon do not have the power to reverse the decisions of courts at the lower level, judicial cooperation appears crucial to the effectiveness of the higher. level law. For this reason, the recent judgment of the Czech Constitutional Court, which declared the decision of the Court of Justice in the Landtová case ultra vires, would seem to deal a terrible blow to the authority of European Union law. As doomsayers will be quick to point out, the Czech decision could set a dangerous precedent that may well one day bring down the entire edifice of EU law. However, borrowing insights from game theory and international relations, the present article argues that this judgment is more likely to remain an isolated episode than to be remembered as the tipping point when tensions between the CJEU and domestic courts escalated into the judicial equivalent of nuclear Armageddon. The author shows that many aspects of the jurisprudence of constitutional conflict can be represented as a simple Hawk.Dove game. A modified, slightly more sophisticated model then helps cast a wider light on the use of non.compliance threats by domestic high courts, notably the German Federal Constitutional Court.

Claims that 80 per cent of laws adopted in the EU Member States originate in Brussels actually tell us very little about the impact of EU policy-making

Toeller, Annette Elisabeth
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2012 Português
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How many national laws originate in Brussels? Does the European Union (EU) significantly shape the policy agenda of its Member States? Annette Elisabeth Toeller assesses current research on the Europeanization of public policies. She argues that such findings must be handled with great care because they have always been used for political purposes.

Judicial lawmaking and precedent in Supreme Courts

Komárek, Jan
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.98%
What does it mean for a supreme court to ‘make law?’ When is it possible to say that its decisions are ‘precedents?’ To what extent should a supreme court’s pronouncements be taken into account by others – lower courts and political branches? And how should these other actors reason with such precedents? This article shows how a particular approach to judicial lawmaking and precedent shapes answers to these questions and examines them in relation to the US Supreme Court and the French Cour de cassation. The findings are then used for a critical analysis of the European Court of Justice’s case law. It is suggested that while the US and French systems have found some ways of reconciling judicial lawmaking with the basic premises of their constitutional and political systems (although they are not entirely satisfactory), the EU system is still waiting for an account of the Court’s lawmaking and precedent. The conclusion indicates directions of possible further research relevant for all courts examined.

Who is the new European refugee?

El-Enany, Nadine
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
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This paper highlights the unforeseen or unintended effects of the European Union’s refugee law on the world’s most vulnerable refugees, those forgotten by the law. The paper focuses on those refugees automatically denied protection in Europe by being impliedly defined out of the EU’s refugee definition. Not only must refugees seeking protection in Europe meet the legal definition, but they are also assumed to have the means to reach Europe. Due to the limitations on legal access routes, often only those who can afford to pay a smuggler have the chance to reach Europe. The great majority of the world’s refugees remain outside Europe. Therefore, an exploration of the external policies of the EU institutions which are designed to counter the limiting affects of its restrictive migration policy is required. The paper examines the move towards the establishment of Regional Protection Programmes, Protected Entry Procedures and Resettlement Schemes as providing possible hope for enduring protection for those refugees trapped outside Europe.

Limitations on religion in a liberal democratic polity: Christianity and Islam in the public order of the European Union

McCrea, Ronan
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
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This paper examines aspects of the European Union’s approach to the accession of new member states and the integration of immigrants to show how the Union has viewed religion as a potential threat to the autonomy of the public sphere and to individual autonomy in the private sphere and has required acceptance of limitations on religious influence over law and law-making from both applicant states and individual migrants. It notes how, in common with the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, the EU has been willing to interfere with privacy and individual autonomy in order to protect such principles from the consequences of unlimited religious influence on law and society. Finally the paper considers how the Union’s attempts to uphold limitations on religion in the public sphere have been complicated by the partial and contested nature of the secularity of its existing members. It shows how an Islamic presence in the public sphere has been identified by the Union as particularly threatening to the liberal democracy in contrast to its ready acceptance of the public roles of culturally and historically entrenched Christian denominations in many member states.

The codetermination bargains: the history of German corporate and labour law

McGaughey, Ewan
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Why does codetermination exist in Germany? Law and economics theories have contended that if there were no legal compulsion, worker participation in corporate governance would be ‘virtually nonexistent’. This positive analysis, which flows from the ‘nexus of contracts’ conception of the corporation, supports a normative argument that codetermination is inefficient because it is supposed that it will seldom happen voluntarily. After discussing competing conceptions of the corporation, as a ‘thing in itself’, and as an ‘institution’, this article explores the development of German codetermination from the mid-19th century to the present. It finds the inefficiency argument sits at odds with the historical evidence. In its very inception, the right of workers to vote for a company board of directors, or in work councils with a voice in dismissals, came from collective agreements. It was not compelled by law, but was collectively bargained between business and labour representatives. These ‘codetermination bargains’ were widespread. Laws then codified these models. This was true at the foundation of the Weimar Republic from 1918 to 1922 and, after abolition in 1933, again from 1945 to 1951. The foundational codetermination bargains were made because of two ‘Goldilocks’ conditions (conditions that were ‘just right’) which were not always seen in countries like the UK or US. First...