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The European Union as a Federal Polity?

Vila Maior, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade Fernando Pessoa Publicador: Universidade Fernando Pessoa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Federalism is a Trojan horse of European integration: instead of giving way to a consensual characterisation of the European Union (EU), it is profoundly divisive. Some hate the concept (for long, the reverberated ‘f-word’), while for others federalism is clearly within the aims and nature of European integration. Still others neglect federalism in the EU context, as they purport a distinctive pathway for European integration, one that stands outside current, state-centric stereotypes. Left outside the realm of consensual issues of European integration, federalism is though a promising intellectual journey. The goal of the paper is to find out whether the EU currently incorporates federal elements. I am aware of the difficult task ahead, since there is no single theory of federalism. Assuming the existence of several models of federalism, the paper starts from a level playing field of federal features in order to understand whether the EU already matches with federalism. To that purpose, the paper surveys three federal criteria – legislative, teleological and institutional – and examines the EU through them. Nevertheless, additional difficulties arise for it is important to test to which mode of federalism the EU suits better (or...

Is the ‘European Model’ viable in a globalized world?

Bongardt, Annette; Torres, Francisco
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper will presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Portuguese Economic and Social History Association on “Globalization: Long-Term Perspectives” Lisbon, 16-17 November 2007, and is forthcoming in P. Della Posta, A. Verdun and M. Uvalic (eds), Interpreting globalization: a European Perspective, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. We are grateful to Jeff Frieden for a stimulating discussion of this paper and would also like to thank the editors of the above-referred volume as well as Erik Jones, Phil Schmitter, Francesco Farina and other participants in our conference panels at the EUI in Florence in 2006 and at the ECPR meetings in Pisa in 2007 for their useful comments. Any remaining errors and omissions are of course our responsibility.; The issue of whether the ‘European model’ is viable in a globalized world raises the question as to what defines and conditions any European model and its competitiveness in the context of globalization and the new economy. For the sake of sustainability of its model but also to sustain support for globalization the European Union (EU) needs to take economic advantage of globalization and the knowledge-based economy. Challenges in a high-cost, high-productivity economy mean that there is a premium on dynamic efficiency gains from the liberalization and reform of markets and an economic and institutional framework that fosters innovation and flexible adjustment. The paper examines how the EU deals with governance issues and political economy factors from this perspective. The EU model...

From the Lisbon strategy to EU2020: illusion or progress for european economies?

Moniz, António
Fonte: IET Publicador: IET
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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To be published at Krings, Bettina-J. ed. (2011), Brain Drain or Brain Gain? Changes of Work in Knowledge-based Societies, Berlin, Ed. Sigma. The author wants to thanks the comments and suggestions from Bettina Krings and Sylke Wintzer. They are not, however, responsible for the final result.; The majority of papers published in the last decades on European Union policy strongly stress the importance of the so-called Lisbon Strategy approved in the year 2000. The same applies to studies and reports on the shift of the European countries towards modernisation and restructuring policy in recent years. This EU development strategy defines a new direction for the coordination of national policies. But why has it become so important? One of the reasons is the fact that many of the papers are based on the concept of “knowledge society” as the key driver for an increased competitiveness of all political and economic regions of Europe. In this context, the term “knowledge” means the inter-linkage of education (including training, qualification, skills) and innovation (including research, information and communication). The use of the concept represents an important shift in the European strategy: further development would not only be based on investment in material infrastructures...

Regional growth in Europe: The role of European and national policies

Llussá, Fernanda; Lopes, José Mário
Fonte: Nova SBE Publicador: Nova SBE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We conduct a systematic study of the impact of European Union (EU) regional policies on regional economic growth that controls for national policies and geographic characteristics. Special care is taken in distinguishing between the impact of EU policies and of national policies on economic growth. Our empirical study tries to answer two different questions. First, is there convergence across EU regions, and if so, do regions converge to a common European steady-state or to a national one? Second, how do European and national policies affect regional growth? We find evidence of regional convergence at the national level but not at the European level. In addition we find that trade openness at the national level is associated with regional convergence while European regional policies contribute, though weakly, to regional convergence. Our results suggest that policies that foster market integration – and convergence to a common steady-state - such as the promotion of labour and capital movements across countries and common regulatory policies are as important for European-wide regional convergence as regional structural funds.

A new approach in the analysis of european countries convergence: Lessons for the economies of central and eastern europe

Andraz, Jorge Miguel; Rodrigues, Paulo M. M.
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
In this paper, we use the concept of convergence based on the stationarity of cross-country per capita output differences and propose new on the persistence and change of persistence of data, taking into consideration the occurrence of structural changes. We consider data on per capita output of the European Union member states, considering the Western European economies and the Eastern European economies in a total of 23 countries. Our objective is to analyze the convergence process of these economies and, in particular to conclude whether there has been a convergence and/or divergent process between the Western European economies and between those economies and the Eastern European economies over the sample period. By considering different sub-periods, the results suggest that in general the Western European countries have reduced their per capita output gaps, being Ireland the only country reporting divergence until the end of the 80s. Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland and Romania have reported divergence to Western European countries over the period from the 50s to the 90s. Finally, per capita output gaps of other Eastern economies have been reduced since the 1990s, in particular the cases of Latvia and Lithuania.

European food consumption: convergence or persistent difference?

Healy, Amy Erbe
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
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peer-reviewed; This study has analysed food expenditure patterns to determine if consumption is converging both within and across nation states in the European Union. Convergence theory posits that with similar levels of economic development, countries should be becoming similar in other ways as well, such as organisational and political structures and cultural patterns. Food expenditure data from household budget surveys have been analysed from 1985 to 2005 for a sample of countries. Data sets included were: the UK’s Expenditure and Food Survey, Ireland’s Household Budget Survey, Italy’s Indagine sui Consumi delle famiglie and France’s Enquête budget des familles. With the influences of European Union membership specifically and globalisation in general, it could be hypothesised that national differences in expenditure patterns may not be important, with other factors, such as educational attainment, being more discriminating. To assess change within countries, changes in the mean percentage of food expenditures and coefficient of variations for major food groupings were compared over time. To assess change between countries, cluster analysis and fractional logistic and fractional multinomial logistic regression were used as well. This analysis has found that country is still a significant determinant of food expenditure patterns. However...

European Union and Latin America and the Caribbean: investments for growth, social inclusion and environmental sustainability

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Incluye Bibliografía; This document is a contribution by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) to the preparatory process for the Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the European Union, which will be held in Santiago on 26 and 27 January 2013. It seeks to provide a broad and well-informed view of the main dimensions of development in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean and the European Union, as well as an insight into the central theme of the Summit: investments for economic growth, social inclusion and environmental sustainability.

European Integration and Democratic Consolidation: Spain, Poland and Turkey in Comparative Perspective

Erdem, Engin I.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The study explored when, under what conditions, and to what extent did European integration, particularly the European Union’s requirement for democratic conditionality, contribute to democratic consolidation in Spain, Poland, and Turkey? On the basis of a four-part definition, the dissertation examined the democratizing impact of European integration process on each of the following four components of consolidation: (i) holding of fair, free and competitive elections, (ii) protection of fundamental rights, including human and minority rights, (iii) high prospects of regime survival and civilian control of the military, and (iv) legitimacy, elite consensus, and stateness. To assess the relative significance of EU’s democratizing leverage, the thesis also examined domestic and non-EU international dynamics of democratic consolidation in the three countries. By employing two qualitative methods (case study and process-tracing), the study focused on three specific time frames: 1977-1986 for Spain, 1994-2004 for Poland, and 1999-present for Turkey. In addition to official documents, newspapers, and secondary sources, face-to-face interviews made with politicians, academics, experts, bureaucrats, and journalists in the three countries were utilized. The thesis generated several conclusions. First of all...

Legislative Organisation of the European Parliament: The role of committees

YORDANOVA, Nikoleta
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The European Parliament (EP) now acts as an equal co-legislator with the Council of Ministers in adopting many policies that affect 500 million European citizens on a daily basis. However, the parliamentary legislative organisation is under-researched despite its profound consequences for EU policies and policy-making. Addressing this gap, this thesis studies the internal setup and legislative impact of the EP committees. Drawing on congressional literature, I confront distributive, informational and partisan theoretical approaches to answer the research questions of this project, namely whether and why the EP committees and their legislative output are dominated by preference-outlying legislators with special interests, experts serving the informational needs of the plenary, or loyal members of the working majority party group (coalition). Statistical analyses of committee assignments, allocation of legislative tasks, and adoption of committee reports in plenary are conducted using data on the 6th European Parliament (2004-2009). They are complemented with evidence from semi-structured interviews. The results show that legislators’ special interests and expertise account for the formally regulated assignment to committees depending on the predominant character of their legislative output (distributive or regulatory). In contrast...

With, Without or Against You? The interest representation of states and their sub-state entities in the European Union

TATHAM, Michael Robert
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
Much research has highlighted that sub-state entities (SSEs) - such as the German Länder, Spanish autonomous communities or French regions - mobilise at the European level. This literature, however, suffers from a research gap on the question of how this sub-state activity interacts with that of its own member state. In other words, while it is clear that SSEs do represent their interests in Brussels, it is not so clear whether this activity is carried out with their member state (cooperation), without their member state (non-interaction) or against their member state (conflict). This thesis fills such a research gap by 1) identifying what the pattern of interaction between state and sub-state EU interest representation corresponds to and by 2) identifying what the determinants of such a pattern are. To achieve this double task, quantitative and qualitative methods are employed. The quantitative section consists of regression analysis on data collected through a survey addressed to the Heads of regional offices in Brussels (n=104). It highlights that cooperation is the most frequent outcome, followed by noninteraction. Conflicting interest representation is the least frequent outcome. It also indicates that, contrary to expectations...

Immigration to the European Union : the EU, Estonia and Malta providing access for third country nationals to the EU

ROOTS, Lehte
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
For some time now, the EU has been regulating the field of immigration. Several years ago, immigration control was considered a pure sovereign right and it was the obligation of the state to protect its borders from unwanted immigrants. Therefore, it is interesting to show how the step by step development of European immigration control has led to common EU immigration and asylum legislation. This thesis looks at the different access possibilities for third country nationals entering the EU. It considers the different ways people immigrate to Europe, both legally and illegally. The access possibilities for family reunification, students, researchers and workers are examined. Applying for asylum is one way third country nationals can access EU member states, and will be discussed throughout the thesis. This study examines how EU immigration law is applied in two small EU Member States that joined the EU in 2004, Estonia and Malta. The aim is to evaluate whether the access of third country nationals to Europe through these member states has been simplified since joining the EU. Are the rules of access to the EU clear? What kind of problems has the implementation of EU law created for small new member states? In the course of this research...

The new model of a business-to-consumer arbitration for the European Union

NOVÝ, Zdeněk
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.13%
The suitability of arbitration as a dispute resolution mechanism for B2C disputes has aroused much interest in the recent academic literature. The relationship between arbitration and consumer protection is a complex one. On the one hand, arbitration has proved to be an effective alternative to court proceedings in business disputes. On the other hand, it has been acknowledged that arbitration might not be a viable option for the disputes involving weaker parties hence consumers. The aim of this thesis to examine what should the role of arbitration be for B2C disputes within the EU. It seeks to demonstrate that arbitration should be an ADR mechanism for B2C disputes provided that it meets certain requirements. Thus, the institutional design as well as the essential principles for the new model of B2C arbitration will be proposed.; Supervisor: Professor Hans Wolfgang Micklitz, the European University Institute.; Award date: 27 June 2013

Harmonized Methods for Assessing Carbon Sequestration in European Forests

CIENCIALA Emil; SEUFERT Guenther; BLUJDEA Viorel; GRASSI Giacomo; EXNEROVA Zuzana
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
Português
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The MASCAREF (Study under EEC 2152/2003 Forest Focus regulation on developing harmonized methods for assessing carbon sequestration in European forests) project was conducted by a consortium of 10 European institutions coordinated by IFER ¿ Institute of Forest Ecosystem Research, Czech Republic. The overall objective of this project was to contribute to the development of a monitoring scheme for carbon sequestration in forests of the European Union (EU). Specifically, the project aimed at i) strengthening and harmonizing the existing national systems to better meet the requirements of international monitoring and reporting of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions and sinks and ii) improving the comparability, transparency and accuracy of the GHG inventory reports of the Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector of the EU Member States, as implemented in the EC Monitoring Mechanism. This project represents a step towards addressing the challenges of GHG inventories and the reporting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto protocol related to forest land and forest activities. Reflecting the heterogeneity in land use, natural conditions and monitoring data availability, there is a wide variety in greenhouse gas reporting practices within the European Community...

Driving and parking patterns of European car drivers – a mobility survey

PASAOGLU KILANC GUZAY; FIORELLO Davide; MARTINO Angelo; SCARCELLA Gabriella; ALEMANNO Andrea; ZUBARYEVA ALYONA; THIEL CHRISTIAN
Fonte: European Commission; European Commission,European Commission,Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: European Commission; European Commission,European Commission,Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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The development of innovative vehicles such as electric driven cars is an important potential option for improving the sustainability of the transport sector. A significant penetration of electric vehicles in the market is possible only if their use is compatible with mobility patterns of individuals. For instance, the driven distance should be compatible with the batteries range or parking patterns should enable re-charging. The JRC-IET together with TRT and IPSOS analyzed car mobility patterns derived from direct surveys in six European Union Member States (France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and United Kingdom). The report aims at providing some insights on how electric vehicles could fit mobility habits of European car drivers. The analysis is based on the data collected within six European countries by means of a sample survey. A web-based car trips diary was filled in by on average 600 individuals in each country. The individuals logged for 7 consecutive days their driving and parking patterns in 5 minute intervals. For each trip several details such as departure and arrival time, distance and parking place were registered. Socioeconomic characteristics of individuals were also collected. The same questionnaire format was used in all countries allowing for comparability of responses. Representativeness of the derived data was ensured by weighting and aligning the received sample to the socio-demographic reference universe of each member state. Survey results are statistically analyzed to describe mobility patterns. In particular...

Potential impact of European decisions and reports in pharmacy planning in Spain

Moreno Plantada, Javier; Garrigues, T.M.; Mart??n Villodre, A.M.; Muelas, J.A.
Fonte: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia Publicador: Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Currently there are several cases in the field of the European Union regarding Spanish legislation on private pharmacy planning. The first of these cases was initiated by issuing a reasoned opinion by the European Commission on 28 June 2006. The second approach has taken place through the various preliminary questions raised before the Court of Justice of the European Communities by certain Spanish courts. Although not all of the above procedures have been completed, certain European pronouncements do provide what might be the consequences that they may have on the Spanish legislation on the subject. It is very likely that the binomial property-ownership in favor of pharmacists and planning criteria established in the Spanish regulations is considered compatible with European law. On the contrary, it is feasible that certain aspects of the merit scales applied by the Autonomous Communities for awarding newly authorized community pharmacies must be changed.

Electronic warfare a critical military and technological asset for the improvement of the Common European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

Panagopoulos, Ilias
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 145 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ;
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Since the Maastricht Treaty, the European Union (EU) operates under three key pillars. The second pillar, known as the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), introduced the need among Member States to develop a common European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP). Aimed at providing police and military capabilities to the CFSP, this idea represented a new important element in the European integration progress. ESDP was launched formally in June 1999, establishing ESDP's mission roots on what it is known as the three "Petersberg Tasks," (1) Humanitarian and Evacuation Missions, (2) Peace Keeping Missions, and (3) Combat Missions for Crisis Management. The aim of EU was to upgrade its role and influence in the international arena, with no intention of overcoming NATO's role and capabilities in the field of collective defense. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate the perspectives for the development of the European Security and Defense Policy and to stress the need to consider Electronic Warfare a critical asset in the military and technological capability options. The need for common operational concepts, doctrines and training, especially in the field of EW, becomes a necessity as Joint EU Armed Forces report active and ready to manage regional and international crisis. However...

Central and Eastern European Labor Mobility to the EU15 Countries Before and After European Union Accession

Ortsey, Craig
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
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Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, Political Science, 2010; Despite the fact that European Union member-state politicians are committed by Treaty of Rome obligations to make intra-EU freedom of production factor movement a central goal of their economic development plans, many of those same politicians have reacted negatively in the past to the anticipated waves of poorer-country workers who they believe would shift residences once their economies have joined the EU. During the enlargement round of the 2000s, many EU15 governments insisted upon and took advantage of derogations in the new member-states' accession treaties that allowed the older members to delay the free movement of CEEC10 workers for up to seven years. This action was taken despite several reputable studies sponsored by the European Commission and various think tanks that indicated that the size of CEEC10 worker movement would be modest at most. The goal of this analysis is to test the plausibility of these forecasts and to determine whether the EU15 governments should have expended the political capital necessary to negotiate and implement this derogation. Using the generalized least squares statistical technique, this research establishes that while economic factors and certain policies do influence migration rates...

La cooperación internacional de la Unión Europea en Sudáfrica y el fútbol como herramienta de desarrollo de la política externa. Periodo : 2006 – 2009

Rojas Alzate, Jaime Andrés
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/08/2010 Português
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La Unión Europea mantiene una dinámica de cooperación con Sudáfrica que incluye al fútbol como herramienta que contribuye a su desarrollo económico a partir de la realización de proyectos de infraestructura concernientes al Mundial de Fútbol de 2010.; The European Union maintains a relationship of cooperation with South Africa which includes football as a tool that contributes to its economic development with infrastructure projects related to the FIFA World Cup of 2010.

Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teimur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA’ commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Methods: We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. Results: In 2010, of the 73 996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. Conclusion: This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants’ vulnerability is needed to plan...

From heterogeneity to harmonization? Recent trends in European health policy

Gerlinger,Thomas; Urban,Hans-Jürgen
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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In the European Union (EU), health policy and the institutional reform of health systems have been treated primarily as national affairs, and health care systems within the EU thus differ considerably. However, the health policy field is undergoing a dynamic process of Europeanization. This process is stimulated by the orientation towards a more competitive economy, recently inaugurated and known as the Lisbon Strategy, while the regulatory requirements of the European Economic and Monetary Union are stimulating the Europeanization of health policy. In addition, the so-called open method of coordination, representing a new mode of regulation within the European multi-level system, is applied increasingly to the health policy area. Diverse trends are thus emerging. While the Lisbon Strategy goes along with a strategic upgrading of health policy more generally, health policy is increasingly used to strengthen economic competitiveness. Pressure on Member States is expected to increase to contain costs and promote market-based health care provision.