A judicious change in the selected transition used for circular polarization excitation will overcome the low oscillator strength limitation of the currently allowed magnetic-dipole 5D1 ← 7F2 (Eu(III)) transition chosen for circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) measurement. The proposed allowed magnetic-dipole 5D1 ← 7F0 (Eu(III)) transition will facilitate the detection of CPL from the Eu(III) systems of interest. CPL on the acetonitrile solution of the chiral tris complex of Eu(III) with (R,R)-N,N′-bis(1-phenylethyl)-2,6-pyridinedi-carboxamide ([Eu((R,R)-1)3]3+), recently suggested as an effective and reliable CPL calibrating agent, confirms the feasibility of the proposed experimental procedure. A comparable CPL activity exhibited by the acetonitrile solution of [Eu((R,R)-1)3]3+ following direct excitation in the spectral range of the 5D1 ← 7F0 transition and upon indirect excitation through the ligand absorption bands (λexc = 308 nm) was observed. This confirms that the recommended magnetic-dipole allowed absorption transition, 5D1 ← 7F0, is the transition to be considered in the measurement of CPL. This work provides critical direction for the continued instrumental improvements that can be done for developing CPL into a biomolecular structural probe.
The luminescence properties of lanthanoid ions can be dramatically enhanced by coupling them to antenna ligands that absorb light in the UV/visible and then efficiently transfer the energy to the lanthanoid center. The synthesis and the complexation of Ln(III) cations (Ln=Eu; Gd) for a ligand based on four 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelators appended to a ligand backbone derived by linking two L-lysine units (3LI-bis-LYS) is described. This octadentate Eu(III) complex ([Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]−) has been evaluated in terms of its thermodynamic stability, UV/visible absorption and luminescence properties. For this complex the conditional stability constant (pM) is 19.9, which is an order of magnitude higher than diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) at pH= 7.4. This Eu(III) complex also shows an almost two-fold increase in its luminescence quantum yield in aqueous solution (pH= 7.4) when compared to other octadentate ligands. Hence, despite a slight decrease of the molar absorption coefficient, a much higher brightness is obtained for [Eu(3LI-bis-LYS-1,2-HOPO)]−. This overall improvement was achieved by saturating the coordination sphere of the Eu(III) cation, yielding an increased metal centered efficiency by excluding solvent water molecules from the metal’s inner sphere.
The efficiency of Eu3+ luminescence by energy transfer from an antenna ligand can be strongly dependent on the metal ion coordination geometry. The geometric component of the Eu(III) sensitization has been probed using series of tetradentate 1,2-HOPO derivatives that are connected by bridges of varying length and geometry. The ligands are N,N’-(1,2-phenylene)bis(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide) for the ligand (L1), 1-hydroxy-N-(2-(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamido)benzyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide (L2) and N,N’-(1,2-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(1-hydroxy-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carboxamide) (L3). Spectroscopic characterization of both the Gd(III) and Eu(III) metal complexes, TD-DFT analysis of model compounds and evaluation of the kinetic parameters for the europium emission were completed. Some striking differences were observed in the luminescence quantum yield by altering the bridging unit. The [Eu(L2)2]− derivative shows efficient sensitization coupled with good metal centered emission. For [Eu(L3)2]−, the large quenching of the luminescence quantum yield compared to [Eu(L2)2]− is primarily a result of one inner sphere water molecule bound to the europium cation while for [Eu(L1)2]−...
We synthesized Gd2O3 and Gd2O3 doped by europium (Eu) (2% to 10%) nanoplatelets using the polyol chemical method. The synthesized nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FESEM, TEM, and EDX techniques. The optical properties of the synthesized nanoplatelets were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy. We also studied the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement of T1 relaxivity using 3 T MRI. The XRD for Gd2O3 revealed a cubic crystalline structure. The XRD of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanoplatelets were highly consistent with Gd2O3 indicating the total incorporation of the Eu3+ ions in the Gd2O3 matrix. The Eu doping of Gd2O3 produced red luminescence around 612 nm corresponding to the radiative transitions from the Eu-excited state 5D0 to the 7F2. The photoluminescence was maximal at 5% Eu doping concentration. The stimulated CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated. Judd-Ofelt analysis was used to obtain the radiative properties of the sample from the emission spectra. The MRI contrast enhancement due to Gd2O3 was compared to DOTAREM commercial contrast agent at similar concentration of gadolinium oxide and provided similar contrast enhancement. The incorporation of Eu, however, decreased the MRI contrast due to replacement of gadolinium by Eu.
The European Union (EU) sets the policy
framework for municipal solid waste management that drives
reform initiatives in new EU member states and candidate
countries. The EU policies, implementation targets, and
grant funding establish the enabling environment that
transforms the solid waste management sector in Bulgaria,
Croatia, Poland, and Romania. The EU directives guide member
states towards agreed targets without prescribing in detail
how specific measures should be implemented. Various
directives establish the legal framework for solid waste
management; provide specifics, and an implementation
timetable: these include the waste framework directive, the
landfill directive, and the waste incineration directive.
This study analyzes progress in Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland,
and Romania; and identifies important shortcomings towards
meeting the requirements of the EU acquis communautaire. All
four countries have had access to large amounts of
assistance from EU programs and European financial
Introduction: European enlargement generally refers to the inclusion of new states into the European Union’s Treaty area. This article considers instead the enlargement of Economic and Monetary Union into Africa. We know that no part of Africa is in the EU, though Morocco has sought to join, and the island of Mayotte belongs to an EU member state (France) and uses the euro. But the EU’s single currency area is not identical with its monetary area. This article is about EMU beyond the EU itself, and in particular about the monetary shadow European colonial history has cast over western and central Africa. Here as well as in the Comoros islands three local currencies were long in the monetary area of France, and are now but local expressions of the euro. That was why in the late 1990s the impending introduction of the single European currency aroused considerable interest and some anxiety in those African countries that faced possible inclusion in the EU’s monetary union. The question was whether the EC institutions should take over responsibly for monetary policy in the former French African overseas territories, although they are not in the EU now, and were never part of the EEC before independence. Alternatively, experts in Europe and in Africa considered whether France should maintain its monetary guarantee...
Concluding remarks: Both sides have to overcome their misperceptions and distrust towards the each other, and to understand the new dynamics of globalisation and regionalism. For Turkey, The reconciliation with its own history, region and identity is necessary. Turkey has to redefine its identity as a Eurasian and Euro-Mediterranean country as well as Middle Eastern.25 As a matter of identity and interests, Turkey has to have a more orientation between East and West. As a Muslim country, Turkey has to ensure that the war on terrorism after 9/11 does not become a ‘civilizational’ struggle between Islam and West. As a European country, Turkey should carefully consider its interest in supporting US-led actions in the Middle East with its own and European counterparts’ interests. For Europe, If the EU wants to puruse an active policy towards the Middle East it needs Turkey’s assistance in understanding the Muslim societies of this region. “Oil supplies and markets for its products are the key elements in Europe’s relationship with the Middle East. Both of these depend on stability in the region, which is one of the reasons that the EU has committed substantial sums in assistance, in particular to support the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians.” The EU itself knows that it has a very important and economic role to play in the Middle East...
Conclusion: The trend toward EU autonomy in defense matters may not be so ineluctable as it appeared in 1999-2000. The Kosovo war produced widespread political support for the French-British desire for a stronger European pillar, born out of frustrations with the US in the former Yugoslavia and also NATO’s inability to incite capability reform in Europe. From a convergence of state preferences followed the ESDP with a policy focused on Petersberg tasks, new institutions within the EU, and a separate force planning mechanism. However, the events of September 11, 2001 have exposed underlying tensions among European state preferences and the trajectory is likely to change, no longer moving toward autonomy but a new type of dependency. The US will offer little support for a security and defense policy that does not reinforce its new global strategy, and in this respect its revisionist stance vis-à-vis the European pillar will harden. The strategic design for European autonomy will suffer and reside mainly in a military design that French policy-makers support rhetorically or a more broadly based design for the EU as a “civilian power.” Military operations will occur in ad hoc coalitions that rely on both NATO and EU means, thus resulting in a type of institutional interdependence...
Fonte: Siyaset Ekonomi ve ToplumPublicador: Siyaset Ekonomi ve Toplum
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005Português
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This paper investigates how the news media of the two Australasian countries – Australia and New Zealand (NZ) – frame the images of Turkey against the images of the European Union (EU) in the context of an ongoing EU integration. Due to its newsworthy attributes (drama and conflict), news about Turkey in the context of EU integration successfully competed for attention among journalists and audiences in the two countries in 2004. The images created by news media have arguably brought the distant Turkey and EU closer to the interpersonal worlds of Australians and New Zealanders, informing and educating them on the latest developments in these remote foreign counterparts. The study derives its importance from the assumption that the revealed string of representations (analyzed using the cognitive semantics tool of conceptual metaphor) are likely to influence NZ and Australian public and elite opinions about the EU (as an important international counterpart to both NZ and Australia), and of Turkey (as a possible member of the EU).; http://www.insightturkey.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=81&Itemid=59; Natalia Chaban, Katrina Stats, Jessica Bain, and Fiona Machin
Chaban, N.; Holland, M.; Bain, J.; Stats, K.; Sutthisripok, P.; Na, K.
Fonte: University of Canterbury; New ZealandPublicador: University of Canterbury; New Zealand
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2005Português
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The media plays a crucial role in civil society and public education and has the power to direct both elite and public perceptions and opinions. News media is argued to be a principal source of information on foreign events and central to informing public opinion on international affairs. This section looks at the media’s role in informing understandings of the European Union in Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and Thailand by analyzing the representations of the EU as an economic, political and social actor in national print and broadcast media. For the news items to be included in the sample they had to deal with events or situations in the EU outside the home country, or events in the home country in which EU takes part, or which are presented as having relevance to the EU situations. News on the EU is defined as stories mentioning the EU at least once, even marginally.; http://www.europe.canterbury.ac.nz/appp/publications/; Natalia Chaban, Martin Holland, Jessica Bain, Katrina Stats, Paveena Sutthisripok and Kim Se Na
Die Masterthesis befasst sich mit der Frage, ob es Europäisierung im europäischen Profifußball gibt. Hintergrund der Arbeit ist, dass der Europäische Gerichtshof 1995 im Fall Bosman u.a. auf Arbeitnehmerfreizügigkeit für Profi-Fußballspieler entschieden hat, die FIFA aber nach wie vor auf Selbstregulierung setzt und eine Regel einführen will, welche die Anzahl der nicht für die Nationalmannschaft des jeweiligen Verbandes spielberechtigten Profispieler begrenzt („6+5-Regel“). Das Ziel der Arbeit ist es nicht, die Europarechtskonformität dieses Regulierungsvorschlages zu bewerten, sondern das Fallbeispiel in erster Linie für eine Untersuchung der Interessenvermittlungsstrukturen im europäischen Fußball zu verwenden.
Als theoretischer Bezugsrahmen dient ein noch recht junger politikwissenschaftlicher Forschungsansatz – das Konzept der Europäisierung. Dieses Konzept richtet den Fokus hauptsächlich auf die direkten Rückwirkungseffekte europäischer Regulierungsversuche im europäischen Fußball, wenngleich die Europäische Kommission als "policy entrepreneur" im Sportsektor starke Berücksichtigung findet. Das Innovative an der Masterthesis: Der Europäisierungsansatz wird mit dem verbandlich organisierten Fußball entgegen üblicher Untersuchungsfelder auf einen Politikbereich übertragen...
The 2005 World Summit was announced as a “once-in-a-generation” opportunity to reform the
United Nations so as to provide it with the institutional and policy tools needed to meet the
challenges and threats to peace and security in contemporary world. But the Summit was also
meant to be a crucial test for the EU common foreign policy and for the state of transatlantic
relations. As a matter of fact the success of any UN Reform could be hardly envisaged without
the capacity of EU Member States to advance common and consensus-gathering positions and
without bridging the gap between US and EU strategic visions on multilateralism and global
governance. In order to discuss whether in New York an historic occasion has been seized or
rather lost, a group of distinguished scholars and high level diplomats was convened in Florence
at the joint invitation of IAI, EUI and UNICRI in the aftermath of the World Summit. This
Working Paper reports the debate held at the international conference and offers a first
assessment of the main outcomes of the Summit while drawing the future perspectives of the
UN reform process. It is submitted that the Summit has fallen short of the historical UN reform
the Secretary General had hoped for, but nonetheless it records some positive advancements.
This is especially the case of those issues where a transatlantic agreement was reached...
This paper takes a closer look at one of the EU’s foundational values, the rule of law, and relates it to the external dimension of the EU’s migration policy. It examines how the EU’s powers in migration management have been put to use in order to project EU migration policies beyond the EU legal order, or more precisely to locate the physical control of migration outside EU territory. It categorises different types of extra-territorialisation, ranging from autonomous action by the Community, including Community action which requires third country cooperation, to action by way of international agreements and cases where third countries undertake to align their domestic law with the Community acquis. Starting from the prominence accorded to the rule of law in the EU’s external policy, this paper examines an external dimension of the rule of law which goes beyond the desire to promote this value outside EU territory, and its application to the external dimension of the EU’s migration policy. It highlights challenges for the rule of law posed by the increasing phenomenon of extraterritorialisation in EU migration policy. Practical examples taken from the EU’s visa policy and operational cooperation in the field of external border control serve to support the argument that if the EU is to continue the use of extra-territorialisation as an instrument of its migration policy it must address seriously the issue of ensuring a concomitant extra-territorialisation of the rule of law...
This thesis examines the uses of legitimacy in debates on European integration. It treats the issue at a normative and empirical level. The normative part is an analysis of four theoretical contributions to the discourse on EU democracy: the standard version of the democratic deficit, the regulatory state, multi-level governance and integration through deliberation. The empirical part explores the political use of the theories’ legitimacy claims in two cases: the European Parliament’s inquiry into BSE and its debates relating to the Convention on the Future of Europe. The analysis reveals certain problems in theoretical and political discourse. Whereas the critique of the standard version has some merit, the positions formulating non-majoritarian notions of EU democracy are equally, if not more, problematic. The regulatory state, multilevel governance and integration through deliberation dress up old ideas – technocracy, interest group pluralism and constitutionalism respectively – and attempt to reinvest them with democratic legitimacy. The cases further illustrate the problem. For one thing, they indicate that the assumptions of the positions do not hold. What is more, non-majoritarian approaches to EU democracy, while allowing political actors to use the language of democracy...
The literature on the policy-making of the European Union (EU) has trouble understanding the long-term evolution of EU policies. While numerous accounts exist that analyze EU policies from a historical, analytical-descriptive and normative perspective, no existing account has studied the evolution of EU policy output from a positive perspective. This thesis wants to start filling this gap in the literature by studying the patterns of policy evolution in the European Union’s research and technology development (RTD) policy. This policy is studied at three different levels of analysis. The first level is that of budgetary dynamics; here I test two alternative hypotheses on the pattern of budgetary change, both derived from the American literature: the classical incrementalist hypothesis, and the punctuated-equilibrium hypothesis of Bryan Jones and Frank Baumgartner. The second level of analysis is that of agenda dynamics, where I study the pattern of issue expansion/contraction on the fragmented agenda of the EU, and test two alternative hypotheses on the allocation of agenda space to RTD policy. The third level of analysis is that of institutional dynamics; here I test the hypothesis that institutional stability is associated with phases of incremental changes...
The European Union (EU) has set the objective to achieve a secure, sustainable and competitive energy. The development of a European energy policy is constantly emphasised in the declarations of EU political leaders. This thesis provides an assessment of the legal feasibility of an EU energy policy in the areas of industrial restructuring, institutional reform and security of supply. The first chapter looks into the Endesa saga, which offers a paradigmatic case concerning the tensions between energy champions and energy markets. Successive national and ‘foreign’ takeover bids for Endesa are examined at national and EU level by different authorities according to different legal regimes, which show the ambivalent contribution of the merger control to the development of an energy policy. The persistence of monopolistic structures despite energy liberalisation requires the reinforcement of the role of regulatory authorities, as analysed in chapter two. However, one cannot expect that national regulatory authorities and the newly created European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators enjoy the same powers and level of independence as their integration within Member States and the EU operates on the basis of different legal and institutional principles. Chapter three addresses security of energy supply...
The achievement of the internal market for energy is going ahead in the EU 15 since a model is
emerging for “coupling the national markets for electricity”.
For about 15 years the EU 15 was made up of national markets open to each other through rules of
access to the grids while organized market pricing was kept national. The main exception was in the
Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland and Denmark plus Norway –not a member of the EU). In this
region the coupling of national markets is obtained through a single Power Exchange being a common
subsidiary of the Nordic transmission system operators (TSOs). This single PX runs a single Day
Ahead market pricing zone when the grid is not constrained and splits itself into different pricing areas
when structural constraints arise. This model is known as “market splitting”.
The Netherlands, Belgium and France did later create a less centralized single pricing mechanism by
“coupling” their three national PXs with a common pricing algorithm coordinating the price formation
among the three national exchanges. The empirical success of this new model has validated it as an
EU model for other regional markets.
A counter-model has been experimented between Germany and Denmark. It consisted of a coupling of
“volumes” linking the quantities offered and demanded in the two exchanges while keeping the price
formation in these two markets separated. That experiment failed and started to work again only when
elements of price coupling have been introduced.
Having now three workable models of market coupling...
This working paper examines the legal nature, interpretation and scope of application of fundamental rights in the European Union in light of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. The authors review the sources of fundamental rights protection and confirm that this protection, as applied prior to the Charter coming into force, remains in effect. In spite of the Charter, due regard should continue to be given to the shared constitutional traditions and the case-law of the Strasbourg Court, in particular when it comes to the interpretation of the Charter. The paper also addresses issues that arise with regard to the future accession of the Union to the European Convention of Human Rights. Additionally, close examination of the position of EU fundamental rights in the legal order of the Union reveals that Member States are bound by these rights only when they act within the scope of application of EU law. The Charter does not alter this system either. Finally, following discussion of the opt-outs from the Charter, it is concluded that the overall impact of the Charter is likely to be anything but revolutionary. Moreover, the paper offers a special perspective on EU fundamental rights: it suggests that the Kücükdeveci case reaches beyond the Charter in that it introduces direct horizontal application of an EU fundamental right in cases of age discrimination. However...
Fonte: Instituto Universitário EuropeuPublicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: application/pdf; digital
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This paper discusses the topic of ‘Comparing Laws’ in the specific context of the decentralised enforcement of EU competition law and the parallel application of national competition laws. More specifically, it deals with the harmonisation process between the Member States’ and the EU competition laws. This is a unique process as at first sight it accommodates regulatory competition between the Member States and the Commission, resulting in the emergence of voluntary harmonisation. However, in fact the decentralised enforcement regime has preserved the Commission’s dominance and Europeanised national competition laws to the model of EU law. Still, this process involves active comparative exercises by both the European Commission and the 27 Member States. The paper addresses the question why and how the Commission and the Member States compare competition rules. What makes these comparative exercises worth analysing is, on the one hand, that they are of recent origin and take place against a new decentralised enforcement system which has recently been transformed from a supranational EU policy into one which is subject to similar problems of multi-level governance as other substantive parts of EU law; on the other hand, that the creation of the European Competition Network (ECN) opened the way for spontaneous harmonisation between national and EU competition laws...
Fonte: Instituto Universitário EuropeuPublicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em AndamentoFormato: application/pdf; digital
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This edited Working Paper addresses three fundamental questions concerning EU External Action after the Lisbon Treaty: the institutional position and allegiance of the newly-established European External Action Service, the future of the ‘left out’ Directorate-General for Trade and the Common Commercial Policy, and the protection of EU citizens abroad. These enquires are prompted by both an institutional innovation – the launch of the EEAS – as well as by a number of substantive changes to the legal framework of EU External Action. An ambitious agenda has been inserted into the primary law, around which the Union institutions and Member States are to rally. It is in turn the raison d’être of the EEAS to foster the ensuing need for consistency, as well as to provide impetus to the EU’s external action. Structurally, it is in itself a sui generis institution composed of officials from the Commission, the Council and the Member States. This raises a number of fundamental questions that go well beyond those concerning which person is going to be the new EU ambassador in Washington or Beijing. Above all, can these substantive and institutional innovations live up to the grand ambitions of the peculiar entity that is the EU? What old problems does it purport to solve...