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Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of lactarius sp. mushrooms

Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: ACS Publicador: ACS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The effects of fruiting body maturity on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the wild mushrooms, Lactarius deliciosus and Lactarius piperatus, were evaluated. Immature and mature samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, carbohydrates), nutritional value, and individual composition in fatty acids and sugars. Protein content, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) percentages increased with the fruiting body maturity stage, while carbohydrate and SFA (saturated fatty acids) content decreased. The maturity stage did not significantly affect the individual sugar profile. The antimicrobial activity of the mushrooms was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, and correlated to the amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene present in the immature and mature fruiting bodies. Mature fruiting bodies with mature spores presented lower antimicrobial activity, which was in agreement with the bioactive compound content found in those samples.

Effects of conservation treatment and cooking on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms

Barros, Lillian; Baptista, Paula; Correia, Daniela M.; Morais, Jorge Sá; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: ACS Publicador: ACS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The effects of processing and cooking practices on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Macrolepiota mastoidea, Macrolepiota procera, and Sarcodon imbricatus) were investigated. Dried, frozen, and cooked samples were analyzed for proximate constituents (moisture, fat, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrates) and nutritional value. Fatty acid and sugar profiles were also obtained by gas-liquid chromatography/ flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/refraction index, respectively. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by several biochemical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, inhibition of â-carotene bleaching, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results of this study show that mushroom species and processing and cooking practices are all effective determinants for either chemical composition or antioxidant properties. Cooked samples proved to have lower nutrient concentrations and lower antioxidant activities than either dried or frozen samples. In what concerns fatty acids and sugar individual profiles...

A comparative study of chemical composition of Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. from Portugal and Serbia

Heleno, Sandrina A.; Stojković, Dejan; Barros, Lillian; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Mushrooms contain a huge diversity of biomolecules with bioactive properties that should be explored. Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers. (morel) is one of the most highly prized edible mushrooms in the world. In the present work a comparative study on the chemical composition (nutritional value, primary and secondary metabolites) of the two samples from two countries, Portugal (SP) and Serbia (SS), was performed. Carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients, followed by proteins and ash. Fat contents were low and similar in both samples. The energetic contribution of SS was slightly higher due to the higher contribution of carbohydrates. Regarding the sugars, mannitol and trehalose were found in both samples, but fructose was only found in SP. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated over monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids were abundant in both samples, but only SS gave considerable amounts of α- linolenic acid. Concerning the tocopherols, the α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were also quantified in both samples; - and -tocopherols were observed in higher levels in SS. Oxalic and fumaric acids were in both samples; malic acid was found in SP, while quinic and citric acids were observed in SS. Finally...

Effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Lactarius deliciosus L. wild edible mushroom

Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barreira, João C.M.; Botelho, M. Luísa; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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TThe short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation and a particular interest arises for wild species. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. Herein, the effects of gamma irradiation on Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray chemical composition and antioxidant activity were evaluated in samples submitted to different storage periods (0, 4 and 8 days) at 4 °C. The irradiation treatments were performed in a Co-60 experimental equipment. Nutritional value was accessed by macronutrients analysis and determination of energetic value; fatty acid, sugar and tocopherol profiles were determined by gas chromatography– flame ionization detector, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) refractive index and HPLC fluorescence, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through radical scavenging activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and phenolics content. The obtained data show that, until 1 kGy, gamma irradiation might provide a useful alternative to ensure the quality and extend the life of mushrooms...

Composição química de aguardentes de cana-de-açúcar fermentadas por diferentes cepas de levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Chemical composition of sugar cane spirits fermented by different Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains

Alcarde, André Ricardo; Monteiro, Bruno Miguel dos Santos; Belluco, André Eduardo de Souza
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Química Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Química
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of sugar cane spirits, fermented by different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and double distilled by pot still. Sugar cane juices were separately fermented by yeasts CA-11, Y-904, BG-1, PE-2, SA-1 and CAT-1 and distilled by pot still according to the methodology used for whisky production. The alcoholic liquids from first and second distillations were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, furfural, higher alcohols and methanol. The sugar cane spirits derived from fermentation by the different yeast strains presented distinct chemical compositions.

Efeitos de doses de sódio e nitrogênio na composição bromatológica, química e digestibilidade in vitro do capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon ( L ) Pers.), em duas idades de corte.; Effects of different levels of sodium and nitrogen on nutritional and chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of Coastcross forrage (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), in two cutting ages.

Brennecke, Käthery
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/02/2003 Português
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O trabalho, realizado na FZEA/USP/Pirassununga, visou avaliar doses de NaCl e de N, em idades de corte, em coastcross (Cynodon dactylon), em relação à sua composição bromatológica e química e digestibilidade "in vitro". O delineamento foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados, num fatorial de 4x2x2 (doses NaCl x doses N x idades de cortes), em canteiros de 3x3m, com 4 repetições, cortados a 5cm, de 30 e 60d para primavera, verão e outono e 45 e 90d para o inverno. A adubação foi: 0, 20, 40 e 60 Kg NaCl/ha/corte e 20 e 40 Kg N/ha/corte (uréia). Realizaram-se análises de MS, FDN, FDA, PB, DIVMS, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na e de fertilidade do solo inicial e final (0-20 e 20-40cm). Sem considerar as interações, o sal não foi significativo para as variáveis MS, FDN, FDA e PB, porém observou-se uma melhor atuação de jan/maio/2002, para todas as variáveis consideradas. Foi observada uma pequena redução nos teores de Ca e Mg, de acordo com o aumento nos tratamentos com NaCl, de set-dez/2001. A utilização do sal variou em função da época de corte para o Mg (jan/maio/2002), para o P (jul/2002) e para a DIVMS (inverno/2001, verão 2001/02 e outono/2002), e variou em função do N apenas no inverno/2002, para a DIVMS. A época de corte influenciou quase todas as variáveis...

Composição química e atividade biológica de resíduos agroindustriais; Chemical composition and biological activity of agroindustrial residues

Melo, Priscilla Siqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/09/2010 Português
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A agroindústria tem se expandido para atender a crescente demanda populacional por alimentos. Dentro deste contexto, o Brasil com sua economia fortemente baseada no agronegócio contribui para a geração de grande quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais resultantes das atividades de processamento. Estes resíduos, por sua vez, representam um grave problema, pois aparentemente sem aplicação viável, são descartados diretamente ao meio ambiente. Muitos deles são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras de saúde e aplicações tecnológicas, tais como antioxidantes e antimicrobianos, representando, portanto, potenciais fontes naturais destas substâncias. Neste trabalho, foram analisados 15 resíduos agroindustriais coletados em Bento Gonçalves, RS, Petrolina, PE, Monte Alto e Jacareí, SP. São eles: bagaços de uva Pinot Noir, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabel (tintas), Moscato, Verdejo (brancas); engaços de uva Cabernet Sauvignon; Syrah (tintas), Moscato, Verdejo (brancas); borras de vinho tinto e branco; bagaço de tomate; bagaço de goiaba e bagaço de malte. As amostras foram extraídas com solventes de diferentes polaridades (hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila...

Nutritional and chemical composition of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (the Himematsutake mushroom) Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (agaricomycetideae)

Menezes, Milena C.; Eira, Augusto Ferreira da; Silva, Giovanni Faria; Martins, Otavio A.; Meira, Dirceu R.; Caramori, Carlos A.
Fonte: Begell House Inc Publicador: Begell House Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 189-194
Português
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The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional and chemical composition (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, calcium, and iron), water and ash content, and the caloric value of powdered fruiting bodies from six strains and from a mixture of strains of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric and multiple comparisons tests and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used, with a 5% significance level. First, the results showed that strain 99/30 had a similar nutritional composition to the mixed sample. Second, when comparing strain nutrients to the mixture nutrients, the highest levels of carbohydrates, proteins, and calcium were in strain 99/25, and the highest levels of lipids were in strains 97/11, 99/28, and 99/30. Strain 99/30 was highest both in caloric value and moisture content. Finally, the mixture was established as a good source of macronutrients and micronutrients, and strain 99/30 was the closest to the mixture in nutritional composition.

Seasonal vatiations of the chemical composition of Brazilian propolis

Bankova, Vassya; Boudourova-Krasteva, Gergana; Popov, Simeon; Sforcin, Jose M.; Cunha Funari, Silvia R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 361-367
Português
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The seasonal variations in the chemical composition of Brazilian propolis, collected by two bee subspecies, Africanized Apis mellifera and European Apis mellifera ligustica, have been investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the samples were phenolic compounds, especially cinnamic acid derivatives, the only exception being the autumn sample from Apis mellifera ligustica, where diterpenes predominated. In propolis from both subspecies, diterpenes appeared in summer and reached maximum percentage in autumn, but were absent during the other seasons. The results obtained indicated that both bee subspecies collect propolis from among the same group of plants, and that there are at least two important plant sources, but these remain unidentified.

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dried powder formulations of Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes

Carneiro, Andreia A.J.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Barros, Lillian; Da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Santos-Buelga, Celestino
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2168-2173
Português
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Several mushroom species have been pointed out as sources of antioxidant compounds, in addition to their important nutritional value. Agaricus blazei and Lentinus edodes are among the most studied species all over the world, but those studies focused on their fruiting bodies instead of other presentations, such as powdered preparations, used as supplements. In the present work the chemical composition (nutrients and bioactive compounds) and antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) of dried powder formulations of the mentioned mushroom species (APF and LPF, respectively) were evaluated. Powder formulations of both species revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, they present a low fat content (<2 g/100 g) and can be used in low-calorie diets, just like the mushrooms fruiting bodies. APF showed higher antioxidant activity and higher content of tocopherols and phenolic compounds (124 and 770 μg/100 g, respectively) than LPF (32 and 690 μg/100 g). Both formulations could be used as antioxidant sources to prevent diseases related to oxidative stress. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Processing yield and chemical composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with regard to body weight

Souza, Maria Luiza Rodrigues de; Macedo-viegas, Elisabete Maria; Zuanon, Jener Alexandre Sampaio; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri de; Goes, Elenice Souza dos Reis
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 103-108
Português
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The influence of weight (W) category of the rainbow trout on processing yield and chemical composition of the entire eviscerated fish and fish fillet was analyzed. A completely randomized design was employed for processing variables (W1 = 300 to 370 g and W2 = 371 to 440) coupled to a 2 x 2 factorial scheme for the chemical composition (W1 and W2 and forms of presentation: fillet and whole eviscerated fish). W1 showed higher yield for entire eviscerated fish (83.00%) and head (13.27%), but a lower yield for the viscera (17.00%), when compared to W2. We did not affect abdominal muscle yield, fillet with or without skin, skin percentage and residues. There were significant differences between W for moisture (W1 = 72.30% and W2 = 71.15%) and lipids (CP1 = 7.96% and CP2 = 9.04%) rates. Fillet moisture contents (73.74%) and crude protein (19.05%) were higher (p < 0.01) than for entire eviscerated fish (69.71% and 17.81%, respectively). Ash (2.15%) and lipid (10.48%) rates were higher (p < 0.01) for entire fish when compared to those of fillets (1.16% and 6.52%, respectively). The slaughter of fish weighing between 300 and 370 g and their fillets are more adequate for the market.; O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a influência da categoria de peso (CP) da truta arco-íris sobre o rendimento do processamento e a composição centesimal do peixe inteiro eviscerado e do filé. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado para as variáveis do processamento (CP1 = 300 a 370 g e CP2 = 371 a 440 g) e em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 para composição centesimal (CP1 e CP2 e formas de apresentação (filé e peixe inteiro eviscerado). CP1 apresentou superior rendimento do peixe inteiro eviscerado (83...

Estudo da composição quimica de oleos essenciais de plantas aromaticas da Amazonia; Chemical composition of the essential oils from Amazonian aromatic plants

Fernanda Avila Lupe
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2007 Português
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O presente trabalho envolveu o estudo da composição química dos óleos essenciais de cinco plantas aromáticas Aeollanthus suaveolens, Aniba canelilla, Aniba rosaeodora, Lippia alba e Ocimum basilicum por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-EM). Amostras destas plantas - óleo essencial, planta fresca, seca e resíduo da extração do óleo essencial - foram extraídas por Microextração em Fase Sólida em Espaço confinado (HS-SPME) e analisadas por CG-EM. Os óleos foram extraídos por arraste a vapor. Os óleos essenciais ricos em linalol de A. rosaeodora (madeira e folhas), L. alba e O. basilicum foram avaliados por CG-EM com coluna HP-5 e a composição dos enantiômeros de linalol determinada usando coluna quiral. Com o resultado dessa comparação, foi avaliada a substituição do óleo essencial da madeira de A. rosaeodora pelos óleos essenciais estudados. Um estudo sazonal de L. alba para definir as concentrações e quiralidade do linalol encontrado foi feito com seis coletas. As principais moléculas dos óleos essenciais e/ou extratos de A. canelilla (1-nitro-2-feniletano e metileugenol) e A. suaveolens (massoia lactona) foram isoladas utilizando técnicas de fracionamento como: destilação...

Influence of chemical composition and volume fraction of phases on the dezincification resistance of brasses

Vilarinho, Cândida; Castro, F.; Soares, Delfim
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2001 Português
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Although brasses are resistant to several forms of corrosion, they are susceptible to dezincification – selective dissolution of zinc – which may be responsible for failures in service of casting brass products. The effect of the chemical composition on dezincification resistance of brasses has been investigated. This study includes both commercial alloys and alloys prepared in laboratory in order to evaluate the specific effect of alloying elements such as lead, silicon, aluminium, iron, tin, nickel and arsenic upon the dezincification resistance. The effect of the volume fraction of α phase in the dezincification behaviour has also been studied. Dezincification tests have been carried out according to the ISO 6509 standard. The influence of the various alloying elements in the depth of the dezincificated layer, has been evaluated. The statistic treatment of results enable to the establishment of correlationship between the studied properties and the contents of some elements present in the chemical composition of brasses.

Influence of the chemical composition on the machinability of brasses

Vilarinho, Cândida; Soares, Delfim; Davim, J.P.; Barbosa, J.; Castro, F.
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Although brasses are essentially copper and zinc alloys, they also contain other alloying elements such as lead, silicon, aluminium, iron, tin, manganese, nickel or arsenic whose presence and content are responsible for the wide variety of properties inherent to these materials. In this article, the effect of the chemical composition of brasses, considering each alloying element and the effective copper content, upon the machinability has been investigated. For that purpose, machinability tests have been carried out on a CNC lathe under lubricated conditions. The study includes both commercial alloys and samples prepared in laboratory. The experimental procedure consists on turning operations, during which cutting forces and surface roughness obtained in brass workpieces are measured. The chip class is accordingly evaluated. The statistic treatment of the results enables the establishment of correlations between the studied machinability parameters and the chemical composition of different kinds of brasses.

Chemical composition and antitumor activity of different wild varieties of Moroccan thyme

Jaafari,Abdeslam; Mouse,Hassan Ait; Rakib,El Mostapha; M’barek,Lahcen Ait; Tilaoui,Mounir; Benbakhta,Chouaib; Boulli,Abdelali; Abbad,Aziz; Zyad,Abdelmajid
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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Many species of Thyme have been widely used in Moroccan folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antinociceptive agents. This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and the in vitro antitumor activity of the essential oils and various extracts of thyme species collected in different regions of Morocco. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, and the various extracts, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, using solvents of varying polarity, were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both major and trace components were analysed. Overall, the major constituents in the chemical composition of Moroccan thyme populations were carvacrol, thymol, borneol and p-cymene. The rate of these components can hit respectively to 85%, 42%, 59%, and 23%. Furthermore, the essential oils as well as two pure products (carvacrol and thymol) were tested for their antitumoral activity against P815 mastocytoma cell line. While all these products showed a dose dependent cytotoxic effect, the carvacrol was the most cytotoxic one compared to the others. Interestingly, when these products were tested against the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, they show a proliferative effect instead of a cytotoxic one.

Chemical composition of Ulvaria oxysperma (Kützing) bliding, Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus) and Ulva fascita (Delile)

Pádua,Márcia de; Fontoura,Paulo Sérgio Growoski; Mathias,Alvaro Luiz
Fonte: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar Publicador: Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - Tecpar
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2004 Português
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Chemical composition of three species of Chlorophyta, Ulva lactuca, Ulva fasciata and Ulvaria oxysperma, was determined. Ulvaria oxysperma showed humidity (16-20%), ash (17-31% dry-base), proteins (6-10%db), lipids (0.5-3.2%db), fibers (3-12%db) and carbohydrates (46-72%db) which corresponded to 192-270 kcal.100g-1 (wet-base). U lactuca (15-18%db) and U fasciata (13-16%db) revealed grades slightly higher for proteins, but with similar energetic contents (250-272 and 225-239 kcal.100g-1), respectively. Natural blades of U lactuca and of U fasciata were more rigid than blades of U oxysperma. Other native algae showed higher protein levels. Ulvaria sp could be cultivated on the cotton-nylon net without having significance competition from other algae or predators degradation. On the other hand, it was essential choose a place without destructive tide action. Cultivated Ulvaria sp showed similar chemical composition as that grown on natural substrates.

Changes in biomass, chemical composition and nutritive value of Spartina alterniflora due to organic pollution in the Itanhaém River Basin (SP, Brazil)

Biudes,J. F. V.; Camargo,A. F. M.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
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We compared the values of the biomass, chemical composition and nutritive value of the emergent aquatic macrophyte S. alterniflora in a river affected by the discharge of domestic sewage (Guaú River) and in an unpolluted river (Itanhaém River). S. alterniflora, water and sediment samples were obtained in the two rivers in November, 2001. The Guaú River presented the highest levels of Total-N and Total-P in the water (415 and 674 µg.L-1, respectively) and in the sediment (0.25 e 0.20% of the Dry Mass, respectively), when compared to the water (TN = 105 µg.L-1; TP = 20 µg.L-1) and the sediment (NT = 0.12% DM; PT = 0.05% DM) of the Itanhaém River. Aerial (316 g DM.m-2) and subterraneous (425 g DM.m-2) biomass of S. alterniflora were significantly higher in the Guaú River than in the Itanhaém River (146 and 115 g DM.m-2, respectively). In addition, the values of TN, protein, TP, lipids and soluble carbohydrates were significantly higher in S. alterniflora biomass from the Guaú River. On the other hand, the values of the polyphenols and the cell wall fraction were significantly higher in the biomass of S. alterniflora from the Itanhaém River. We concluded that domestic sewage discharge in water bodies may increase the biomass and change the chemical composition of S. alterniflora. The high N and P availability in the water of the Guaú River is probably the cause of the higher biomass...

Potential use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of chemical composition of oxen meat samples

Prieto, Nuria; Andrés, Sonia; Giráldez, Francisco Javier; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Lavín, Paz
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 94510 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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10 pages, 7 figures.-- Available online June 21, 2006.; Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was evaluated as a tool to estimate several chemical parameters of oxen meat protected by a quality mark. Fifty-three samples of longissimus thoracis muscle corresponding to oxen reared in extensive conditions were homogenized and scanned over the NIR spectral range (1100–2500 nm). Immediately after scanning, the samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), myoglobin, collagen, ether extract (EE), gross energy (GE), dry matter (DM) and ash content, according to the official methods. Best NIR calibrations for chemical composition tested by cross-validation showed R^2 and SE(CV) of 0.874 and 20.33 g kg-1 DM (CP), 0.924 and 16.22 g kg-1 DM (EE), 0.941 and 0.293 MJ kg-1 DM (GE) and 0.874 and 6.75 g kg-1 FM (DM). Calibrations for myoglobin, collagen and ash content showed a poor predictability, probably as a consequence of the lack of correlation between these parameters and EE content. However, NIRS technology could be an useful tool for estimating the main chemical parameters of oxen meat samples, thus guaranteeing the standards of quality marks.; N. Prieto is grateful to the Spanish National Research Council and Ministry of Education and Science (CSIC-MEC) for financial assistance under a predoctoral grant. We thank Dr. Ian Murray for his contribution to the final result of this work.; Peer reviewed

Composição química das águas de chuva em áreas tropicais continentais, Cuibá-MT: aplicação do sistema clima urbano (S.C.U.); RAINWATER CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN CONTINENTAL TROPICAL AREAS, CUIABÁ-MT: CONSIDERING URBAN CLIMATE SYSTEM (U.C.S.)

Marques, Rodrigo; Zamparoni, Cleusa A. G. P.; Silva, Edinaldo de Castro e; Magalhães, Aparecida de; Guedes, Sumaya Ferreira; Fornaro, Adalgiza
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2011 Português
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It is intended, in this paper, to discuss rainwater chemical composition in Cuiabá City, using the Urban Climate System (U.C.S.) perspective, considering sources emissions, topographical and geographic characteristics, and Man-Nature relationship. The samples were collected between 02/21 and 07/02/2006, which represent the end of the wet season and the beginning of the dry season. Acidity (pH measure), electric conductivity, nitrate, sulphate, chloride, nitrite and phosphate anions concentration were determined from 38 samples in which low anions concentrations were observed. These results indicate that Cuiabá City, being a continental area, has not been impacted with the acid rain phenomenon. The influence of the number of previous days without rain in the chemical composition variability was also evaluated.; Avaliou-se a composição química de águas da chuva em Cuiabá-MT sob a perspectiva do Sistema Clima Urbano (S.C.U.), considerando-se as fontes emissoras, as características geográficas/topográficas da cidade, e a relação entre o homem e a natureza. O período de amostragem foi entre os dias 21/02 e 02/07 de 2006, representando o final da estação chuvosa e início da estação seca da região. No total de 38 amostras determinaram-se a acidez (medidas de pH)...

Use of Pleurotus Pulmonarius to change the nutritional quality of wheat straw. I: Effect on chemical composition

Montañez Valdez,Oziel Dante; García Flores,Enrique Octavio; Martínez García,José Antonio; Salinas Chavira,Jaime; Rojo Rubio,Rolando; Germán Peralta Ortiz,J. Jesús
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 Português
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The effect of Pleurotus pulmonarius on the chemical composition of wheat straw was evaluated. Wheat straw, treated and untreated with P. pulmonarius, was obtained from a commercial facility. Ten samples plastic bags of wheat straw used previously as substrate to culture edible fungus were collected at random. The negative control group consisted of the pasteurized wheat straw untreated with P. pulmonarius. All samples were analyzed to determine dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and hemicellulose of each wheat straw. Data were analyzed by mean comparison using a t-Student test. No differences (P>0.05) between treatments were found for dry matter, crude protein and hemicellulose; however, straw treated with P. pulmonarius showed higher percentages (P<0.05) of organic matter, neutral and acid detergent fiber. It is concluded that growing P. pulmonarius in wheat straw improves the chemical composition of the straw by increasing its organic matter content and modifies the fiber structure, which increases the soluble carbohydrates content.