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The competitiveness of the China and India in the European Union

Coutinho, Ana Luísa Paulino
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Master in International Economics and European Studies; This paper aims to examine the Competitiveness of China and India in the European Union based on the international trade values, during the time period 2001- 2009. It firstly reflects about the ambiguous definition of Competitiveness as well as the diversity of methods that exist to measure this concept. Subsequently, the following work seeks to analyse the exports growth of China and India in particular to the European market. Therefore, some methodologies were used in this paper: the Revealed Comparative Advantage analysis, which seeks to capture the products where China and India present Comparative advantage at world’s level; the Constant Market Share analysis, which pretends to verify if the Competitiveness explain the export growth to the European market; and the analysis based on the combination of the Trade Complementarity Index with the Geographical Orientation Index, which permits to identity the products where there is room, for China and India, to expand their exports to the European Union, under certain circumstances. The empirical analysis suggests that China’s and India’s exports are competitive in products identified by the three methodologies...

The foreign policy behaviour of the European Union towards the Latin American Southern Cone States (1980-2000): has it become more cooperative? The cases of foreign direct investment and agricultural trade; Die Aussenpolitik der Europäischen Union gegenüber den Lateinamerikanischen Cone Sur Staaten (1980-2000): ist sie kooperativer geworden? Fallstudien zu Auslandsinvestitionen und Agrarhandel

Ribeiro Hoffmann, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
The present study seeks to answer two questions in particular: whether, or not, EU foreign policy behaviour towards the Southern Cone States has become more cooperative since the mid-to-end 1980s, and why the change, if any, occurred. Among the explanatory factors usually pointed out in the literature and in the general media, three are the most recurrent: the EU intention to balance the US hegemony, the accession of Portugal and Spain to the EU, and the processes of democratisation, economic liberalisation, and regional integration which took place in the Southern Cone States. Most of the explanations for this rapprochement have, however, not been treated in a methodologically systematic fashion. This study attempts to fill this gap, and to develop an in-depth empirical analysis with a conceptual framework based on current IR literature. Two case studies were selected, both for their representativeness of the most conflictuous aspects of the bi-regional relationship, as well as for methodological considerations, namely, foreign direct investment and agricultural trade. The analysis developed for the first question was based on a descriptive inference of the level of the EU foreign policy behaviour towards the Southern Cone States. This level was analysed on the basis of a number of indicators of the relevant EU policies...

Current Legal Issues in the External Relations of the European Union

PETITE, Michel
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 144825 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This paper is based on a lecture delivered during the Academy of European Law Summer School 2006. It provides an examination from a legal perspective of three current themes in the external relations of the European Union. First, the legal implications of the pillar structure for external relations, including recent case law and practical issues arising from the application of Article 47 TEU, the borderline between Community external policies and the Union’s common foreign and security policy, and practical interpillar cooperation. It concludes that it is easier to combine the pillars by means of pragmatic solutions, whereas it is much more difficult in the case of a strictly legal construction which takes into account the requirements of Union coherence and the separate character of each pillar. Second, the paper turns to the balance between Member States and the European Union/Community in external policy and in particular the application of the “AETR test” in recent case law including the “Open Skies” cases, the Lugano Convention Opinion and the “Mox Plant” case. It concludes that a proper application of the AETR remains a practical challenge that transcends the narrow issue of pure legal deduction as to whether Community competence is “affected” or not. And third...

European Worldviews: Ideas and the European Union in World Politics

VENNESSON, Pascal
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 287779 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
In international politics, what do the leaders of the European Union (EU) want? How do they understand international relations and how do they see the EU in world politics? The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the collective research on ‘European Worldviews’. This research applies first-image thinking, in particular Nathan Leites’ operational code analysis, to five key figures and office holders of the European Union: Javier Solana, Robert Cooper, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Peter Mandelson and Joseph Borg. We explore these EU officials’ worldviews, the set of ideas and values about history and politics which shape their political strategies and their action. First, the paper puts the analysis of European worldviews in a wider theoretical context: the revival of idea-based explanation in International Relations and the rise of realist theories of foreign policy taking policymakers’ strategic assessments and problem-solving styles seriously. Second, the paper presents the operational code approach, and explain its added value to analyze European worldviews. Third, it focuses on the relations between worldviews and the EU in world politics. Finally, this paper argues that European worldviews matter because they are deeply embedded in political action and provide identity and power to the EU in world politics. They interact with the individual characteristics of policy-makers...

The Constituent and Instrumental Role of Human Rights in Development Policy: A case study of European Union (EU) relations with the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states

SHEEHY, Orla
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 24064 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
This thesis explores the impact of international human rights law on the changing trends in international development policy and practice. The subject matter is analysed through a case study of European Union development cooperation policy and its relations with the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states.1 Whilst there is a burgeoning literature on this subject, known as the nexus between human rights and development?,2 the discovery of the convergence or union between human rights and development may have come of some surprise to non-jurists and to those within in the field of development. According to professionals engaged in this domain, development is usually defined and identified with economic growth, trade, capital flows and the transfer of technology.3 As Johan Galtung argues, both concepts (human rights? and development?) have evolved in distinct historical contexts, therefore, any connection or compatibility has more to do with Western history and culture than anything else.4 Furthermore, as Sano states, whilst both human rights and development were institutionalised in the global system in the post-World War II climate, both have different roots and have emerged in different contexts.5 In light of these claims...

The European Union and Organized Crime: The securitization of organized crime and its embedment in the construction of a risk-based security policy

CARRAPIÇO, Helena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
In its current discourse, the European Union depicts organized crime as a growing threat to democracy, to the functioning of markets and to the safety of its citizens. The EU’s discourse presents this phenomenon as an external aggressor that is taking advantage of the free circulation and establishment entailed by the Single Market, of the globalization in general and of technological advances in particular. European societies, on the other hand, are understood as helpless victims, as their traditional responses are no longer able to cope with the recently acquired transnational dimension of organized crime. Following this reasoning, the EU has been developing protection mechanisms- in order to safeguard the citizens and the society in general against organized crime-, based on a so- called common understanding of this phenomenon. Because of this effort, it has been possible to witness the strengthening of police and judicial cooperation, the development of comprehensive strategies and programmes, and the creation of new bodies and working groups to face this problem, all in the name of a greater efficiency. This trend has gradually been accentuated through the introduction of new legislation and the pressure of particular events such as the Falcone and Borsellino assassinations in 1992 and the high- profile terrorist attacks of 2001...

Liability for Environmental Harm: Towards the mutual supportiveness of international law and European Union law

ORLANDO, Emanuela
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
The present study examines how the question of reparation for environmental damage that occurred during the operation of economic and industrial activities has been dealt with in international law and within the European Union legal system. In particular, the thesis endeavours to provide a comparative analysis of the Directive 35/2004/EC on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage with relevant developments on the international level, and tries to define a conceptual framework with which to examine the relationship between the two legal systems. The need to find concrete and effective responses to the problem of environmental degradation has prompted the recourse to a plethora of legal instruments and determined the emergence of different approaches to the question of environmental liability. More specifically, the integration of environmental concerns into liability systems has determined a revision of the ultimate goals traditionally assigned to liability and an adjustment of its classic structures to new realities. Therefore, the overall legal framework on environmental liability in Europe and on the international level is gradually evolving towards the coexistence of traditional schemes of civil liability with new regulatory models for prevention and reparation of environmental damage. The starting point for the analysis is the recognition that appropriate and effective responses to the problem of environmental harm require a coherent and coordinated application of different legal tools...

Research for growth? : the contested origins of European Union research policy (1963–1974)

MITZNER, Veera
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This thesis examines the difficult creation of a common European research policy as part of the process of the emergence of the European Community (EC)/European Union (EU) as an increasingly powerful global political and economic actor. It shows that strong discursive continuity and institutional path-dependency, together with the ability of the promoters of the common research policy to adapt their claims to a broader ideational framework, were the key factors that enabled the EC to enlarge its role in a field in which it originally lacked policy competence, and in which states have traditionally been reluctant to pool national sovereignty in supranational institutions. Moreover, the concept of EC/EU research policy, and the concrete steps towards its realisation, would not have been possible without three fundamental ideational and political transformations: the changing relationship between science and the state and the subsequent establishment of national institutions and practices to promote and orient scientific activity the emergence of economic growth as an ubiquitous political objective in all industrialised countries and the increasing conceptualisation of science in economic terms the rapid liberalisation of the world markets...

The European Union and global financial regulation

QUAGLIA, Lucia
Fonte: OUP Publicador: OUP
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This book examines the influence of the European Union (EU) in regulating global finance, addressing several interrelated questions. Why does the EU ‘upload’ international financial regulation in some (few) cases, ‘download’ it in (many) other cases, and ‘cross-load’ it either actively or passively in other instances? Has this changed over time? Under what conditions is the EU more or less likely to upload, download, or cross-load rules? Overall, does the EU act as a pace setter in regulating global finance, or is it mainly a follower? Why? The key explanatory variable used in this research is the concept of ‘regulatory capacity’, applied to the EU and the US, distinguishing between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ regulatory capacity. The influence of the EU in global financial regulation depends on the combinations of EU and US regulatory capacities. When EU regulatory capacity is weak and US regulatory capacity is strong, the EU mainly downloads international rules or passively cross-loads them from the US. When the EU regulatory capacity is strong and US regulatory capacity is weak, the EU is able to upload its rules internationally and/or actively cross-loads them to third countries. When the EU and the US regulatory capacities are weak...

Centripetal democracy : democratic legitimacy and regional integration in Belgium, Switzerland and the European Union

LACEY, Joseph
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This dissertation aims to arrive at a model of democratic legitimacy for the European Union. There is, however, a strain of thought pre-dominant in political theory since the nineteenth century that doubts the capacity of political systems constituted by multiple public spheres to have sustainable democratic systems. This view is referred to here as the lingua franca thesis on sustainable democratic systems (LFT). It states that, in the absence of a common language for political debate, democracy cannot function well in the long-term as citizens existing in distinctive public spheres will inevitably come to have diverging preferences that cannot be satisfactorily resolved by a collective democratic process. Poor quality democratic institutions, as well as acute demands to divide the political system (through devolution or secession) so that state and society become more congruent, are predicted by this thesis. To arrive at a model of democratic legitimacy for the EU, in light of the challenge presented by the LFT, three major steps are taken. Part One attempts to arrive at an account of democratic legitimacy as a realistic ideal for modern political systems. Understanding democracy as a system which strives to maximise citizens’ equal opportunities for control over the decisions to which they are subject...

La Unión Europea y su política para la promoción de la ciberadministración en la sociedad de la información; European Union and its policy for the promotion of e-government in information society

Martín González, Yolanda
Fonte: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Murcia, Universidad de Murcia, Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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66.24%
Este trabajo pretende ofrecer una visión general del proceso de implanta-ción y desarrollo de la administración electrónica en la Unión Europea. Tomando como referente la política eurocomunitaria para la Sociedad de la Información, se analizan los diversos planes de acción articulados entorno a la iniciativa eEurope así como los programas que apoyan el desarrollo de dichos planes. Asimismo, se des-criben los principales servicios europeos de administración electrónica que, a modo de ventanillas únicas, ofrecen prestaciones transfronterizas e interactivas a ciudada-nos y empresas y que son fruto de la colaboración entre las diferentes administracio-nes nacionales y europea.; ABSTRACT: This work tries to offer a general vision of the process of implantation and development of the electronic administration in the European Union. Taking the eurocommunity policy as a modal for the Society of the Information, the diverse ar-ticulated plans of action analyze environment to the initiative eEurope as well as the programs that support the development of the above mentioned plans. Likewise, there are described the principal European services of electronic administration that, like the only windows, offer cross-border and interactive services to citizens and companies and that are a fruit of the collaboration among the different national ad-ministrations and European.

La política fiscal de la Unión Europea ante la crisis económica; The Fiscal Policy response to the crisis in the European Union

Cerón, Juan A.; Fuente del Moral, Fátima de la
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/submittedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject Formato: text/plain; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Cuando en el verano de 2007 se percibieron los primeros síntomas de la crisis económica que se avecinaba, pocos eran los que aventuraban el papel central que adquiriría la política fiscal en la gestión de la misma. La Unión Europea, que a partir del Tratado de Maastricht había fijado unas reglas cuantitativas de actuación para las cuentas públicas -en consonancia con los postulados del Consenso de Washington-, las reformó en 2005, justo un par de años antes de que se desencadenara la crisis, imprimiéndoles un sesgo menos rígido y permitiendo un mayor margen de maniobra para la política fiscal. En este contexto marcado por la crisis económica y la existencia de unas pautas de actuación para sector público, se desarrolla la respuesta planteada por la Unión Europea para luchar contra la recesión. Al análisis de la vertiente fiscal de dicha respuesta va destinado este trabajo. --------------------------------------------------; When in the summer of 2007 the current crisis began, very few analysts thought about the relevance of fiscal policy to its solution. The European Union which had fixed rules for Public Budget and Debt after Maastricht Treaty – following the spirit of Washington Consensus – decided to reform them in 2005...

The Russian-European Union competition in Ukraine

Sullivan, Kyle A.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Ukraine crisis underway since November 2013 is a significant occurrence in a greater debate over what norms will prevail in the European—and global—security environment. The roots of the crisis lie in two-and-a-half decades of competition for influence in Ukraine by the European Union and the Russian Federation. The competition between Russia and the EU over Ukraine has evolved significantly since Ukraine became independent in 1991. This thesis shows that the European Union’s level of awareness of and competition with Russia for influence in Ukraine has significantly grown. Ukraine’s position in EU diplomacy has grown from secondary status to being regarded as a critical interest across EU institutions and member state governments. While Russian efforts to establish dominant influence in Ukraine have also intensified, Moscow’s interest in Ukraine has been consistently high. The findings of this thesis indicate that the European Union has not given up on Ukraine nor accepted the legitimacy of a Russian sphere of influence in post-Soviet states. Competition between Russia and the European Union over Ukraine is likely to intensify and remain at a high level for the foreseeable future.; Outstanding Thesis; Outstanding Thesis; Lieutenant...

Developing the modalities of cooperation between NATO and the European Union; Developing the modalities of cooperation between North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union

Nowak, Rafal Artur
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 87 p. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; In December 1998 France and the United Kingdom called for the European Union (EU) to develop "the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so." This was the beginning of the EU's European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), because this goal was endorsed by the EU as a whole at Cologne in June 1999. The EU's ESDP immediately ignited controversy in relations between the EU and NATO. However, it was soon discovered that the development of the ESDP could not be easily accomplished without recourse to NATO assets and expertise. The EU has accordingly established various mechanisms for consultation facilitating the development of the ESDP not as an entirely independent policy, but rather one pursued in cooperation with NATO. Furthermore, in its current form the underlying principles of the ESDP have not been driven primarily by the need for independent defense capabilities, which seem remote at the present time as far as the most demanding contingencies are concerned, but rather by the need to be able to act when and if the United States and NATO decide to step aside. The success of the ESDP may well be influenced by the progress in cooperation between the EU and NATO...

Areas of Application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union: Fields of conflict?

SAFJAN, Marek
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Although the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union has already became a fully binding act of primary EU law, the controversies concerning the area of Charter's application do not seem to cease. Nevertheless, this phenomenon should not surprise since the core of this discussion rests upon the fundamental rules of the functioning of the European Union. While the uniform stand concerning the scope of application of the Charter vis-à-vis national legislation has not yet been elaborated upon, an analysis of the trends emerging in the ECJ case-law seems to be useful. The discussion is still open and two approaches - strict (formal) and flexible (liberal) - compete. Recent case-law of the ECJ proves the existence of specific "gear mechanisms" or "legal connectors" which serve the purpose of determination of the field of the Charter's application on the areas traditionally not covered by the EU law. The case-law at hand also determines the framework in which the existing jurisprudence concerning the general principles of EU law can be applied for delineating the field of the Charter's application. The questions mentioned above are being explored in light of the prospective ratification of the European Convention of Human Rights by the European Union and discussion about the degree of influence of a Member State's constitutional traditions on interpretation and application of the Charter.

Contested competences in the European Union

FARRELL, Henry; HERITIER, Adrienne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
In this article, we set out an approach to European Union politics that seeks to explain its development using theories of institutional change. In contrast to dominant theories which assume that the Treaties, the governing texts of the European Union, faithfully ensure that the desires of member states are respected, we argue that these theories are incomplete contracts, rife with ambiguities. This means that during periods between Treaty negotiations, we may expect that collective actors in the European Union policy process - the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council - will each seek to bargain over these ambiguities so that their effective competences are maximised. Their ability to negotiate successfully will depend on their bargaining strength. These 'conflicts over competences' may lead to the creation of informal institutions. They may also in the longer term lead to formal institutional change, if they become folded into Treaty texts, or otherwise influence them, in subsequent rounds of negotiation.

The Economic Community of West African States : Fiscal Revenue Implications of the Prospective Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union

Zouhon-Bi, Simplice G.; Nielsen, Lynge
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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66.24%
This paper applies a partial equilibrium model to analyze the fiscal revenue implications of the prospective economic partnership agreement between the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union. The authors find that, under standard import price and substitution elasticity assumptions, eliminating tariffs on all imports from the European Union would increase ECOWAS' imports from the European Union by 10.5-11.5 percent for selected ECOWAS countries, namely Cape Verde, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. This increase in imports would be accompanied by a 2.4-5.6 percent decrease in total government revenues, owing mainly to lower fiscal revenues. Tariff revenue losses should represent 1 percent of GDP in Nigeria, 1.7 percent in Ghana, 2 percent in Senegal, and 3.6 percent in Cape Verde. However, the revenue losses may be manageable because of several mitigating factors, in particular the likelihood of product exclusions, the length of the agreement's implementation period, and the scope for reform of exemption regimes. The large country-by-country differences in fiscal revenue loss suggest that domestic tax reforms and fiscal transfers within ECOWAS could be important complements to the agreement's implementation.

Os programas de álcool como combustível nos EUA, no Japão e na União Européia e as possibilidades de exportação do Brasil; The ethanol fuel programs in the United States, Japan and European Union and Brazil's exportation possibilities

Figueira, Sérgio Rangel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/11/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo delinear cenários para o consumo de etanol utilizado como combustível em países identificados como fundamentais no desenvolvimento do mercado internacional de etanol, como é o caso dos Estados Unidos, Japão, União Européia e Brasil, considerando-se um horizonte até o ano de 2012, ano pelo qual os países ratificaram, pelo Protocolo de Quioto, o compromisso de reduzir a emissão de gases causadores do efeito estufa. Para cumprir tal objetivo, utilizou-se do modelo Box-Jenkins de séries temporais para se efetuar as projeções do consumo de gasolina nestes países, no caso da União Européia projetou-se o consumo da Alemanha, isoladamente, e do conjunto das quatro maiores economias européias: Alemanha, França, Itália e Reino Unido. Após a realização das projeções, utilizaram-se as metas de mistura de etanol, em processo de discussão nos países em questão, obtendo-se os cenários de consumo de etanol. No caso brasileiro, projetou-se o consumo de álcool anidro, misturado na gasolina, e o consumo de álcool hidratado. Para os Estados Unidos, construi-se três cenários alternativos: no primeiro estimou-se um consumo de aproximadamente 7,2 bilhões de litros de etanol no ano de 2012; no segundo...

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: The Potential Decrease in Food Quality in the European Union

Coulson-Drasner, Amanda
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 16/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) is a free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between the governments of the United States and the European Union. While certain regulations in other areas will likely be harmonized through convergence, the food and agriculture-related parts of T-TIP will be likely be a mutual recognition agreement (MRA). Significant problems with the National Organic Program (NOP) and the structure of the U.S. food production system itself are two issues within the food production chain in the United States that could lead to a decrease in the quality of food in the European Union after the implementation of the T-TIP, even if standards are maintained under an MRA. In this research, production to import ratios for 11 FTAs in combination with changes in domestic production and imports are analyzed. The analysis aims to determine the existence, or lack thereof, of a trend of imports of lower quality and cheaper food to countries with higher quality production systems. Findings include that ‘high quality’ countries entering into agreements with ‘low quality’ countries have the general effect of decreasing their domestic production to foreign import ratios over time, leading to less high quality food available in the domestic market. This trend is strongest for FTAs with the United States...

The 2011 PHARMINE report on pharmacy and pharmacy education in the European Union

Atkinson,J.; Rombaut,B.
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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66.24%
The PHARMINE consortium consists of 50 universities from European Union member states or other European countries that are members of the European Association of Faculties of Pharmacy (EAFP). EU partner associations representing community (PGEU), hospital (EAHP) and industrial pharmacy (EIPG), together with the European Pharmacy Students' Association (EPSA) are also part of the consortium. The consortium surveyed pharmacies and pharmacists in different settings: community, hospital, industry and other sectors. The consortium also looked at how European Union higher education institutions and courses are organised. The PHARMINE survey of pharmacy and pharmacy education in Europe produced country profiles with extensive information for EU member states and several other European countries. These data are available at: http://www.pharmine.org/losse_paginas/Country_Profiles/. This 2011 PHARMINE report presents the project and data, and some preliminary analysis on the basic question of how pharmacy education is adapted to pharmacy practice in the EU.