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Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities

Becerra,Janeth Mosquera; Reis,Rodrigo S.; Frank,Lawrence D.; Ramirez-Marrero,Farah A.; Welle,Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero,Eugenio; Mendez Paz,Fabian; Crespo,Carlos; Dujon,Veronica; Jacoby,Enrique; Dill,Jennifer; Weigand,Lynn; Padin,Carlos M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.62%
Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.

Organizational Reform in the Hungarian Hospital Sector : Institutional Analysis of Hungarian Hospitals and the Possibilities of Corporatization

Réthelyi, János M.; Miskovits, Eszter; Szócska, Miklós K.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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25.61%
The organizational reform of public hospitals is part of the health policy agenda worldwide as a reaction to inefficient and low quality performance in public institutions. A central theme of these reforms is the possibility of improving performance in public settings under semiautonomous circumstances. Central and East European countries face the problem of an oversized and hospital-based health care system inherited historically from the former centralized totalitarian political system. The authors analyze the Hungarian Hospital sector in terms of recent changes and the effect of these on organizational modalities shown earlier to play a crucial role in the performance of public hospitals. Organizational theory and the "organizational modality - incentive regime" model is used to describe incongruence and general incoherence in the everyday functioning of Hungarian hospitals. Finally the possibilities and long-term effects of corporatization and marketing changes are examined according to recent political and legislative changes and a corresponding case study.

Global Matrix: A conceptual and organisational framework for researching the future of global governance

EMERSON, Michael; TOCCI, Nathalie; YOUNGS, Richard; CASSARINO, Jean-Pierre; EGENHOFER, Christian; GREVI, Giovanni; GROS, Daniel
Fonte: CEPS Publicador: CEPS
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Conceptually, Global Matrix advances in a systematic and structured inter-disciplinary (matrix) framework a research agenda for examining the stance of major world actors on the key policy dimensions to world politics (political ideologies, economics, migration, climate change, security and world view); drawing out evidence of cross-cutting linkages (between sectors and among major actors); and evaluating the evolution and adequacy of existing multilateral institutions in relation to the emerging multi-polarity, and formulating recommendations. As a matter of organisation, Global Matrix has assembled a network of teams of scholars from think tanks in China, the EU, India, Russia and the US, with participation to be extended to other G20 states (Brazil, South Africa, Korea, Japan). The objective is to create a semi-permanent network as part of the emerging structures of the global civil society. It will serve as a continuing ‘track-2’ initiative to monitor major developments in global governance, including at the G20, and at other global fora as appropriate. It is a capacity-building venture at global level, with the leading think tanks intending to work together for a sustained effort, while precise participation can evolve over time. The network consists initially of the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) in Brussels...

Migrants and Media Newsmaking

GEMI, Eda; ULASIUK, Iryna; TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Anna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This thematic report provides a comprehensive critical discussion about the ways in which the production of migration related news takes place and the special factors that affect it. Drawing on the literature on the subject as well as on the analysis of the sixty-eight interviews conducted with journalists and media professionals from six European countries: Italy, Poland, Ireland, Great Britain, Greece and the Netherlands, we argue in favour of a fair and balanced portrayal of migrants in the media and also highlight the current tendencies in news-making and programme production practices adopted in the outlets in the six European countries under examination pointing to positive features as well as shortcomings.; 1. Introduction 2 2. Definitions 3 3. State of the Art: News Making and Production Practices vis-à-vis Migrants Representation in European Media 5 4. Analysing the Fieldwork Findings in Six E.U Countries 10 4.1 Definition of Migration News 10 4.2 Migrants News: Perspectives of Coverage 12 4.3 Political Agenda and Migrant News. Migration News out of Political Agenda 14 4.4 Migration News and Sources 16 4.5 Migration News and Language 18 5. Concluding Remarks 19 6. Bibliography 21 7. ANNEX 25 List of Interviews 25; MEDIVA project. Media For Diversity and Migrant Integration: Consolidating Knowledge & Assessing Media Practices across the EU; This report was first published in November 2011. This is a revised version...

The integration of the migrants : a comparative study of EU and Russian legislation

VOINIKOV, Vadim
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.87%
The European Union and Russia are strategic partners, cooperating on a wide range of issues. One of the areas of cooperation is the Migration Dialogue, which is the part of the Common Space of Freedom, Security and Justice. The Migration Dialogue covers different aspects of migration policy, which are of mutual interest to the parties. One of these fields is the integration of migrants. The Integration of migrants is not at the top of the EU-Russia cooperation Agenda. Indeed, the effectiveness of EU-Russia cooperation in migration depends on how the national systems for the adaptation and integration of migrants is developed. The aim of this article is to examine EU and Russian legislation, concerning the legal status of migrants and their integration into host societies. On the basis of this analysis ways forward for EU-Russian cooperation in this field might be identified. A separate question is how Russia could use EU legislation and the EU’s experience in integration matters in order to improve internal legislation.; CARIM-East: Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe; CARIM-East is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

International Trade in Health Services and the GATS : Current Issues and Debates

Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Smith, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.63%
Health ministries around the world face a new challenge: to assess the risks and respond to the opportunities of the increasing openness in health services under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This publication addresses this challenge head-on by providing analytical tools to policymakers in health and trade ministries alike who are involved in the liberalization agenda and, specifically, in the GATS negotiations. This book informs and assists policymakers in formulating trade policy and negotiating internationally. There is ongoing and animated international debate about the impact of GATS on public services in general and health in particular. In response, the book offers different perspectives from more than 15 leading experts. Some of the authors stress opportunities linked to trade in health services, others focus more on the risks. The book offers: Detailed legal analysis of the impact of the agreement on health policy; an overview of trade commitments in health-related services; new empirical evidence from nine country studies; and a simple 10-step explanation on how to deal with GATS negotiations.

South East Europe : Regular Economic Report; Jugoistocna Evropa - Redovni ekonomski izvestaj

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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After they achieved 2.2 percent growth in 2011, early indications are that the economies of the six countries in South East Europe (the SEE6: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia) are slowing drastically and can expect just 1.1 percent growth in 2012. Economic conditions in the Euro zone are holding back economic activity and depressing government revenues in SEE6 countries. With both public debt and financing pressures high, most countries in the region need to embark on major fiscal consolidation programs if they are to reverse their adverse debt dynamics and avoid financing problems down the road. The good news is that in general the SEE6 financial sectors are still relatively well placed, despite elevated risks and vulnerability to adverse shocks, especially the possibility of contagion if the Greek crisis should intensify. The bad news is social: SEE6 countries have the highest unemployment and poverty rates in Europe. Yet even with the difficult short-term situation...

Trade, Doha, and Development : A Window into the Issues

Newfarmer, Richard
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.63%
This book traces the development of world trade from the era when the global trading system had been stacked against growth in developing countries to the present time when the membership of the WTO has grown to include most developing countries. It is for this reason that the Doha Round is important: It has given all countries of the world the opportunity to work collectively on barriers of interest to developing countries and to the world's poor. Although the choice is simple, it is not easy. The underlying details of the issues are notoriously complex. Observers have a difficult time penetrating the veil of legal and economic opacity that envelops the negotiations. The details are sufficiently technical and multifarious that experts in one area are often unaware of technical details in another. And details make the difference between opening markets and merely appearing to do so through a vacuous agreement that looks good on the surface but does little or nothing to widen opportunities for poor traders in the global market place. This book provides succinct analyses of the most critical issues facing negotiators...

Breaking Down the Far Southern Border of Europe: Immigration and Politics in the Canary Islands

Esteban, Valeriano; López Sala, Ana María
Fonte: Colegio de la Frontera Norte (Tijuana, Baja California, México) Publicador: Colegio de la Frontera Norte (Tijuana, Baja California, México)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 163552 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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[EN] Irregular immigration arriving on small boats from the African continent has placed the Canary Islands at the center of the national and European political agenda regarding immigration. It has also converted the archipelago into an observatory where the connections between migration policies and human rights can be analyzed. One of the main arguments of this article is that despite the archipelago’s long history of receiving immigrants and the presence of other groups of irregular migrants, what triggered the incorporation of immigration into the regional political agenda and political rhetoric was the fl ow of clandestine African immigrants at the end of the 1990s. The increased frequency with which these boats began to arrive on its shores in the fi rst half of 2006 has reignited and intensifi ed the debate on population, territory and identity in the archipelago.; [ES] La llegada de inmigración irregular en embarcaciones procedentes del cercano continente africano a las Islas Canarias ha situado a este archipiélago en el centro de la agenda política española y europea sobre inmigración. También ha convertido a esta región en un buen observatorio para entender los vínculos entre políticas migratorias y derechos humanos. El propósito de este artículo es estudiar los vínculos entre la inmigración y la dinámica política en este contexto geográfi co. Uno de los principales argumentos será que...

Immigration in Europe: realities and policies; La inmigración en Europa: realidades y políticas

Delgado, Leticia
Fonte: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas Publicador: Conselho Superior de Investigações Científicas
Tipo: Documento de trabajo
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.75%
In Western Europe, the attention of both the public opinion and politicians is being increasingly drawn to questions of immigration and asylum. Since 1973, immigration has been considered a problem to which the state should offer solutions. Since 1985, however, the European Commission has been considering the need to formulate a community immigration policy, but it was not included on the European Union agenda until the beginning of the following decade. Nowadays, there seems to be some agreement among the Member States’ governments in order to jointly deal with questions concerning immigration and asylum: the impossibility of tackling this problem independently and the interdependencies generated by the creation of an unified European market are becoming more and more obvious. At the same time, the peculiarities of each State in relation to this phenomenon and the perceptions and national normative references regarding the content of the immigration process complicate the attainment of clear and binding agreements. In this report some of the more relevant aspects of this phenomenon will be highlighted. In the first place, a brief description of European immigration patterns and some questions related to the political debate on this issue will be discussed: the aging of the population and the social cohesion around values considered to be important in Europe. Secondly...

European Bulletin of Himalayan Research (EBHR) Volume 24, Spring 2003

South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany; (CNRS) Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France; (SOAS) School of Oriental and African Studies, UK
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Imagem
Português
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25.62%
Remarks on Revolutionary Songs and Iconography by Anne de Sales; The Social Context of Nature Conservation in Nepal by Michael Kollmair, Ulrike Muller-Boker and Reto Soliva; Dhol Sagar: Aspects of Drum Knowledge amongst Musicians in Garhwal, North India by Andrew Alter; Conference Report on the Agenda of Transformation: Inclusion in Nepali Democracy, Kathmandu, 24-26 April 2003 by Sara Shneiderman and Mark Turin; Report on the Conference Nepal - Current State of Research and Perspectives held in Memory of Prof. Bernhard Kolver in June 2003 in Leipzig by Alexander von Rospatt; Research Report: Labour Migration from Far West Nepal to Delhi, India by Susan Thieme, Michael Kollmair, Ulrike Muller-Boker; The Categories of Nature and Culture in the Himalayas. A Workshop organizaed by M. Lecomte-Tilouine; CNAS Alumni of Foreign Scholars

The Doha round: Freer and Fairer trade?

Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Center of Economic Performance Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Center of Economic Performance
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.72%
Given the limited ambition that has been set for the Doha Round since the setback at Cancún in 2003, optimistic estimates of the likely gains from a successful agreement on world trade are around $182 billion, of which $90 billion may accrue to the developing countries. • More than 60% of these gains will come from reform to agriculture, including a substantial cut in tariffs and subsidies. The European Union (EU) and the United States persist with agricultural tariffs, which account for almost 40% of the value of total agricultural output, and high tariffs remain on some products. • The benefits of agricultural reform will not accrue uniformly to developing countries, with large agricultural exporters – notably the G20 group, which includes Brazil, China, India and South Africa – receiving a disproportionate share of the gains, and less developed countries (particularly the net food-importing countries) actually worse off as a result of the reduced subsidies on imported commodities. These adverse consumption effects will have particularly harsh effects on the urban poor. Although agriculture has dominated the Round, there is potential for large gains in other areas of the agenda. Tariffs on industrial goods are persistently high in some areas. Reform to labourintensive services...

Breaking down the Far Southern Border of Europe: Immigration and Politics in the Canary Islands

Esteban,Valeriano; López Sala,Ana María
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.71%
Irregular immigration arriving on small boats from the African continent has placed the Canary Islands at the center of the national and European political agenda regarding immigration. It has also converted the archipelago into an observatory where the connections between migration policies and human rights can be analyzed. One of the main arguments of this article is that despite the archipelago's long history of receiving immigrants and the presence of other groups of irregular migrants, what triggered the incorporation of immigration into the regional political agenda and political rhetoric was the flow of clandestine African immigrants at the end of the 1990s. The increased frequency with which these boats began to arrive on its shores in the first half of 2006 has reignited and intensified the debate on population, territory and identity in the archipelago.

Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities

Becerra,Janeth Mosquera; Reis,Rodrigo S.; Frank,Lawrence D.; Ramirez-Marrero,Farah A.; Welle,Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero,Eugenio; Mendez Paz,Fabian; Crespo,Carlos; Dujon,Veronica; Jacoby,Enrique; Dill,Jennifer; Weigand,Lynn; Padin,Carlos M.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.62%
Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America.