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The EU Legislation on GMOs - An Overview

PLAN DAMIEN; VAN DEN EEDE Guy
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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Genetic modification, also known as "genetic engineering¿ or ¿recombinant-DNA technology¿ was first applied in the 1970¿s. As an application of modern biotechnology, this technique allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species. It is therefore one of the methods to introduce novel traits or characteristics into micro-organisms, plants and animals. The products obtained from this technology are commonly called "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are officially defined in the EU legislation as "organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural recombination". The most common types of GMOs that have been developed and commercialised so far are genetically modified crop plant species, such as genetically modified maize, soybean, oilseed rape and cotton varieties. Such varieties have, in the main, been genetically modified to provide resistance to certain insect pests and/or tolerance to herbicides. The application of this technology is strictly regulated and the European Union has established an extensive legal framework on GMOs since the early 1990s. This specific legislation has two main objectives: - To protect health and the environment : a genetically modified organism (GMO) or a food product derived from a GMO can only be put on the market in the EU after it has been authorised on the basis of a detailed EU procedure based on a scientific assessment of the risks to health and the environment. - To ensure the free movement of safe and healthy genetically modified products in the European Union: once authorised on the basis of the strict EU GMO authorisation procedure...

Price volatility and price leadership in the EU beef and pork meat market

PIOT LEPETIT ISABELLE
Fonte: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC Publicador: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
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This chapter investigates price dynamics of bovine and porcine production for the European Union (EU) as a whole and for each Member States (MS). The variability of production price series and the correlation between Member States price and the EU price are analysed. Furthermore, several time series models are tested in order to identify the stochastic process generated these prices. Results show a higher dispersion of prices at the MS level. Correlation between MS prices and the EU price have increased since 2003 for bovine production and decreased for porcine production. The existence of a common price process between the EU and MS prices cannot be supported as the leadership of the EU price in the bovine and porcine EU meat market.; JRC.DDG.J.5-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

Landslide inventories in Europe and policy recommendations for their interoperability and harmonisation - A JRC contribution to the EU-FP7 SafeLand project

VAN DEN EECKHAUT Miet; HERVAS DE DIEGO Francisco
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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Landslides are a major natural hazard in most mountainous and hilly regions as well as in steep river banks and coastlines. In the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection landslides are mainly recognized as a soil threat for which areas where they are likely to occur in the future have to be delineated, and measures to reduce their impact have to be designed. Thus the Strategy implies that landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments are needed for appropriate risk management in Europe. To enable such assessments landslide databases, usually including landslide inventory maps and linked alphanumeric information, are a key infrastructure. They should contain information on the location of landslide phenomena, types, history, state of activity, magnitude or size, lithology involved, failure mechanisms, causal factors and the damage caused. Yet, it was not known which national (or regional) landslide databases contain all this information, and thus allow risk assessment. Therefore, this report makes a detailed review of national landslide databases in EU member states, EU official candidate and potential candidate countries and EFTA countries together with a number of regional databases, and proposes improvements for delineating areas at risk in agreement with the EU Soil Thematic Strategy and its associated Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive...

EU enlargement to Turkey: Potential impacts on agricultural markets and how they are shaped by changes in macroeconomic conditions

FELLMANN THOMAS; VAN LEEUWEN Myrna; SALAMON Petra
Fonte: Landwirtschaftsverlag Münster Publicador: Landwirtschaftsverlag Münster
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
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The potential accession of Turkey to the EU, and the related adoption of the CAP by Turkey, is expected to influence agricultural markets in both the EU and Turkey. The extent of the accession impacts depends on the one hand on the way the CAP will be implemented in Turkey, while on the other hand impacts are expected to be also shaped by macroeconomic conditions (like exchange rates, GDP growth and inflation levels). In this paper we provide a comprehensive model-based assessment of the potential impacts on agricultural markets of a Turkish accession to the EU. We first assess the impacts under the assumption of standard macroeconomic projections, then we analyse how a different TL/Euro exchange rate, a doubling of the Turkish inflation rate or a doubling of the Turkish GDP growth rate would influence the accession impacts. Results of the Turkish EU-membership simulation show that the impacts on agricultural markets in Turkey are significant, while effects on EU markets are rather limited. The main impact on Turkish agriculture is a reduction of producer prices. With market prices and produced quantities declining, and as the coupled Turkish direct payments and the input subsidies will be replaced by lower payments of the CAP, agricultural income is expected to be reduced especially for Turkish crop producers (except for tobacco). In contrast...

EU market access for agricultural products in the Doha Development Round: A sensitive issue

BURRELL Alison; FERRARI EMANUELE; GONZALEZ MELLADO Aida; MICHALEK Jerzy
Fonte: International Association of Agricultural Economists Publicador: International Association of Agricultural Economists
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
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This paper examines how EU trade flows and production values are affected by introducing special treatment for developed countries’ sensitive products into a potential DDA agreement. In particular, it explores how the EU’s decisions regarding the size of the tariff cut (1/3, ½ or 2/3 of the cut according to the tiered formula of the Revised Draft Modalities (WTO, 2008a)) and the corresponding size of TRQ expansion affect its levels of protection for individual products, as well as its own GDP and that of other countries and regions. It is assumed that the EU’s management of its sensitive product regime is motivated by the objective of maintaining farm incomes and production values, rather than that of minimising import access per se. A novelty of the paper is that it explores the extent to which optimal decisions by the EU depend on similar decisions taken by other developed countries, and aims to identify dominant strategies that are independent of other countries’ choice of market access parameters for their sensitive products. The simulation tool used to analyse thirteen scenarios, with a time horizon of 2020, is the global Computable General Equilibrium model GLOBE. The model incorporates various important developments in CGE trade modelling from the last 15 years (e.g. inclusion of preferential agreements...

EU Privacy seals project: Challenges and Possible Scope of an EU Privacy Seal Scheme. Final Report Study Deliverable 3.4

DE HERT Paul; PAPAKONSTANTINOU Vagelis; RODRIGUES Rowena; BARNARD-WILLS David; WRIGHT David; REMOTTI Luca; DAMVAKERAKI Tonia
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The objective of this report is focus on the challenges of implementing an effective EU privacy seal and its possible scope. It returns the focus to privacy and data protection, and presents further groundwork to feed into Task 4 of the Study (Proposals and evaluation of options for an EU-wide privacy seals scheme). Where relevant, research results and analyses of Tasks 1 and 2 are used. First, the report assesses the gaps in current privacy seal sector. Next, it highlights the advantages of, priorities for and possible scope of an EU privacy seal scheme. Eventually, four case studies (CCTV systems, cloud services, smart metering systems and biometric systems) illustrate the possible scope of an EU privacy seal scheme and demonstrate whether an EU privacy seals scheme would bring any added value to privacy and data protection.; JRC.G.6-Digital Citizen Security

The 2013 PREDICT REPORT: An Analysis of ICT R&D in the EU and Beyond

MAS Matilde; FERNÁNDEZ DE GUEVARA RADOSELOVICS Juan
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The 2013 PREDICT report provides an overview of the importance of the EU ICT sector and its R&D performance. The report gives detailed information on the progress made by the ICT sector in both ICT manufacturing and ICT services. The analysis has been carried out by comparing EU Member States with non-EU economies that are currently leading the world economy, including both developed and emerging economies. The report found that the share of the EU ICT sector e in total value added, business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD), R&D personnel and R&D researchers had reduced over the period 2006-2010, while its share in terms of employment remained stable. The EU ICT services sector performed better than the ICT manufacturing sector since the former showed more positive results in the observed variables than the economy as a whole. Finally, the US kept the lead in all variables —but especially in labour productivity and BERD intensity— widening the gap with the EU.; JRC.J.3-Information Society

An EU-Wide Individual Farm Model for Common Agricultural Policy Analysis (IFM-CAP)

ELOUHICHI KAMEL; CIAIAN PAVEL; ESPINOSA GODED MARIA; COLEN LIESBETH; PERNI LLORENTE ANGEL; GOMEZ Y PALOMA Sergio
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the first EU-wide individual farm-level model (IFM-CAP) aiming to assess the impacts of CAP on farm economic and environmental performance. The rationale for such a farm-level model is based on the increasing demand for a micro-simulation tool able to model farm-specific policies and to capture farm heterogeneity across the EU in terms of policy representation and impacts. Based on positive mathematical programming, IFM-CAP seeks to improve the quality of policy assessment upon existing aggregate and aggregated farm-group models and to assess distributional effects over the EU farm population. To guarantee the highest representativeness of the EU agricultural sector, the model is applied to every EU-FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network) individual farm (around 60 500 farms). The report provides a detailed description of the IFM-CAP model prototype in terms of design, mathematical structure, data preparation, modelling livestock activities, allocation of input costs and the calibration process. The theoretical background, the technical specification and the outputs that can be generated from this prototype are also briefly presented and discussed. The report also presents an application of the model to the assessment of the effects of the crop diversification measure. The results show that most non-compliant farms (80 %) chose to reduce their level of non-compliance following the introduction of the diversification measure owing to the sizable subsidy reduction imposed. However...

Female Employment and Occupational Changes in the 1990s: How is the EU Performing Relative to the US?

Dolado, Juan José; Felgueroso, Florentino; Jimeno, Juan F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; text/plain
Publicado em /05/2001 Português
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This paper provides a comparison of the incidence and composition of female employment both in the EU and in the US. Despite a significant increase in female labour market participation in the EU, about 50% of the difference between the employment rates in the US and the EU can still be attributed to differences in the educational attainments and the employment rates of women aged 25?54. We highlight the main features of female employment in both areas, paying particular attention to the differences across age cohorts and educational levels. Our main findings are as follows: (i) the educational level of the EU female population is slowly converging to that of the US across age cohorts, (ii) the employment rates of less educated women are much lower in the EU than in the US (with the exceptions of the Scandinavian countries) even for women aged 25?34, and (iii) occupational segregation is lower for the younger highly educated women who seem to be entering more typically male occupations and less typically female occupations, although at a higher rate in the US than in the EU.

"Eu Sou, Eu Quero, Eu Posso"

Pedro, João Gomes
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Pediatria Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Pediatria
Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2014 Português
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É a capacidade que identifico com o sentido de competência, com esta auto-imagem tão positiva de que vale a pena, de que há sempre alguma coisa em nós e ã nossa volta que transforma a vida em belo, é esta procura de infinito através de cada finito do nosso quotidiano, é a este mistério que eu chamo resiliência.Associo profundamente a origem dos vínculos a este substracto fundamental da resiliência. As primeiras relações da criança que insisto deverem ser o ponto de viragem do desenvolvimento a merecer uma atenção primordial da Pediatria, as primeiras relações, dizia, são como na teia de aranha, os pilares sobre os quais se alicerça toda a estrutura futura do equilíbrio qual molde que vai dar ? tom e, sobretudo, a esperança» nas relações futuras. Uma relação de confiança, transaccionalmente positiva e gratificante entre mãe e bebé gera autoconfiança e sentido de competência em cada nova relação no espectro progressivamente mais largo dos vínculos e das transacções.Resiliência é, assim, algo que também se ajuda a construir num dos seus pólos através dos condicionantes estruturais que geram o contexto da vida e que, no espírito da nossa reflexão representam, afinal, a grande convergência das forças do desenvolvimento.Os três pilares fundamentais da resiliência podem ser estilizadamente resumidos em três auto-sentimentos...

Trust, local governance and quality of public service in EU regions and cities

WEZIAK-BIALOWOLSKA DOROTA MARIA; DIJKSTRA Lewis
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The aim of this report is to present the within-country variability in the EU citizens’ perceptions of the generalised and institutional trust, quality of public service and local governance based on their experiences and opinions expressed in three surveys. By within-country variability we understand differences in citizens’ perceptions between cities or between (1) cities and (2) towns, suburbs and rural areas. We deal with the citizens’ opinions expressed in the surveys we used. The within-country variability in EU citizens’ perceptions of the trust, corruption, local governance and quality of public service and governance are investigated using several composites presenting the differences in citizens’ perceptions from three different perspectives and using three different data sets. First, with the European quality of life survey, we explore the level of (1) general trust, (2) institutional trust and (3) quality of public service in different with respect to degree of urbanisation areas in the EU countries. Second, with the Social Diagnosis survey, we examine the level of general trust and attitude towards free riding in 27 of the largest Polish cities. Finally, using data from the World Justice Project we investigate perceptions of law enforcement...

Measuring the internationalisation of EU corporate R&D: a novel complementary use of statistical sources

COZZA Claudio
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The report summarises the main results of a research activity aimed at testing a novel approach for the measurement of EU business R&D internationalisation. Such approach is based on the complementary use of two different sources of data: on the one hand, statistical data from private R&D expenditure taken from national surveys (BERD); on the other hand, data collected from companies' annual reports and accounts (as in the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard). The main objectives of the study were: i) to explore the methodological rationale for comparing the two sets of data; ii) to test the robustness of the novel methodology through an analysis applied to four EU countries (Belgium, Finland, Germany and Italy); iii) to provide indications of possible further research and follow up activities. The main results from the project are as follows: - BERD and Scoreboard values, though addressing slightly different concepts, are comparable and can be used in a complementary way. - Data regarding top EU R&D performers (that is, companies included in Scoreboard rankings who are the active part of the R&D internationalisation process) have to be considered from the starting point of such complementary use, instead of as final data at the country level resulting from official statistics. - Using top R&D performers¿ global values and adding aggregate values from national R&D statistics allows novel insights on the R&D internationalisation process to be given...

Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU)

KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; PAVIOTTI Marco; ANFOSSO-LÉDÉE Fabienne
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: JRC Reference Reports Formato: Printed
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In accordance with Art. 6.2 of the Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END), the European Commission developed Common NOise aSSessment methOdS (CNOSSOS-EU) for road, railway, aircraft and industrial noise to be used after adoption by the Member States for the purpose of strategic noise mapping as required by Article 7 of the END. The development of CNOSSOS-EU was co-ordinated by the Joint Research Centre's Institute of Health and Consumer Protection and performed in close liaison with the CNOSSOS-EU Technical Committee, which was composed from experts nominated by the Member States and setup under the DG ENV’s Noise Regulatory Committee. The overall work was performed in the context of two consecutive administrative arrangements stipulated between the Joint Research Centre and the Directorate General for Environment (DG ENV), namely NOISE-II (contract no. 070307/2008/511090) and NOISE-III (contract no. 070307/2009/549280). The CNOSSOS-EU methodological framework described in this report forms the basis for amending Annex II of Directive 2002/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the assessment and management of environmental noise in Europe. CNOSSOS-EU aims at improving the consistency and comparability of noise assessment results across the EU Member States which are performed on the basis of the data becoming available through the consecutive rounds of strategic noise mapping in Europe.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

EU R&D Survey. The 2014 EU Survey on Industrial R&D Investment Trends

TUEBKE Alexander; HERVAS SORIANO FERNANDO; ZIMMERMANN JÖRG; GRASSANO NICOLA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the findings of the ninth survey on trends in industrial R&D investment. It analyses the 186 responses of mainly large firms from a subsample of 1000 EU-based companies in the 2013 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. These 186 companies are responsible for R&D investment worth almost €60 billion, constituting around 36% of the total R&D investment by the 1000 EU Scoreboard companies. The main conclusion is that, between 2014-16, the responding companies expect to increase their R&D investments by 4.2% on average per year. This is about 50% higher than in the previous survey and mainly reflects the shift of expectations in the automobiles and parts sector, which come back to normal (4.6%) after last years' declared stagnation (-0.4%). The responding companies carry out one fifth of their R&D outside the EU. Their expectations for R&D investment for the next three years show continued participation of European companies in the global economy, in particular growth opportunities in emerging economies, while maintaining an R&D focus in the EU. Two thirds of the European companies in the sample chose their home country as the most attractive location for R&D, and identified the US, Germany, China and India as the most attractive locations outside their home country.; JRC.J.2-Knowledge for Growth

Modelling the effects of Croatia's accession to the EU: Trade and Agricultural Policies

BOULANGER PIERRE; FERRARI Emanuele; MICHALEK Jerzy; PHILIPPIDIS GEORGE; VINYES PINTO CRISTINA
Fonte: EAAE Publicador: EAAE
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
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Croatia joined the European Union (EU) on July 1st, 2013. This paper assesses the likely effects of this accession on the agricultural and food sectors, and analyses the impact on the EU, Croatia and their main trading partners. It considers both the harmonization of Croatia's trade instruments with those applied in the EU, and the adoption of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The analysis is carried out using MAGNET, a global recursive dynamic CGE model. Results show that Croatia slightly benefits from its accession to the EU with an increase in GDP, whereas the impact on the EU-27's GDP is insignificant. Total exports of Croatian agricultural products increase by 7.4% and those of food products decrease by 2%. Croatia will face some changes in its production structure. At constant prices, agricultural production benefits (increasing by 1.1%), whereas food production contracts (decreasing by 5.5%). This result sheds some light on competitiveness limitations of the Croatian food processing industry. The scope of this paper is to model both European trade and agricultural policies. It is worth mentioning that other EU policies such as the structural or cohesion policies, and additional gains resulting from the accession such as a less risky investment environment or a more efficient regulatory framework...

The Irregular Migration Corridor between the EU and Turkey: Is it Possible to Block it with a Readmission Agreement?

İÇDUYGU, Ahmet
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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Improving EU and US Immigration Systems' Capacity for Responding to Global Challenges: Learning from experiences; Over the last decade while a shift from migrantion control to migration management has become an integral part of the EU-based political discources and policy practices relating to irregular migration, the issues of transit migration and readmission agreements seem to be high on the agenda. Within this context, the debate over irregular transit migration from Turkey to the EU is a perfect case study for analyzing how the phenomenon of irregular migration is affecting the European migration and border regimes. It is also an interesting case for analyzing the interplay between the migration-related issues and the EU-Turkey membership negotiations in which the whole notion of “migration management” turns into a type of conditionality measure for the progress and completion of the membership talks. This essay aims at elaborating the recent status of irregular migratory flows from Turkey to Europe referring to their changing volumes, trends and patterns. It also aims at relating the irregular migration through Turkey to the recently negotiated Readmission Agreement between the EU and Turkey which targets the return of apprehended irregular transit migrants in the EU member states to Turkey. In doing so...

Supremacy of EU law and the jurisprudence of constitutional reservations in Central Eastern Europe and the Western Balkans: Towards a holistic constitutionalism

PIQANI, Darinka
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defense date: 11/06/2010; Examining Board: Monica CLAES (University of Tilburg), Bruno DE WITTE (EUI), Wojciech SADURSKI (Supervisor, former EUI and University of Sydney), Marek SAFJAN (European Court of Justice, Luxembourg); The thesis explores how the principle of supremacy of EU law has been construed by the case law of constitutional courts of new member states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The thesis analyzes the jurisprudence of constitutional reservations against the background of CEE countries as political entities with a regained sense of nationhood, ethnos and sovereignty and, in the light of a pattern of powerful and activist constitutional courts which have appeared willing to engage in domestic sensitive issues. Then, the interaction between national (constitutional) law and EU is transferred in the context of pre-accession adaptations in the Western Balkans, by analyzing the path towards Europe of Croatia and Albania. The thesis suggests that the jurisprudence of constitutional reservations in CEE often replicates that of other powerful constitutional courts in old member states, although it appears to be more receptive and less sceptical towards the unconditional supremacy of EU law. The thesis puts forward the idea of 'holistic constitutionalism' understood as the full commitment of national and EU institutions in achieving the aims of European integration on the basis of the treaty mechanisms...

The Janus Face of EU Migration Governance: Impairing democratic governance at home – improving it abroad?

FREYBURG, Tina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In the field of European Union (EU) migration policies, a large number of legal, administrative, and institutional tightening measures have been established in the name of domestic security since the early 1990s. These measures have been criticized because they allegedly lower the democratic quality of EU migration governance. Yet, the EU seeks to export its rules and regulations beyond its borders to neighbouring third states through its association policies. This article argues that what may be seen as a step back in terms of democratic governance inside the EU may present a step forward in its authoritarian Southern neighbourhood. It explores whether the rules of EU migration can constitute a step toward democratization of migration governance in neighbouring countries, where provisions of transparent, participatory, or accountable decision-making cannot be taken for granted. Taking the example of the Moroccan 2003 law on migration, the paper demonstrates that the EU was fairly successful in inducing the adoption of legislation in line with provisions of democratic governance. The contribution concludes with a discussion of the prospect of implementation of these provisions, in particular, against the background of the EU's extended external competences under the Lisbon Treaty.

EU peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan : legality and accountability

SPERNBAUER, Martina
Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
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(Published version of EUI LAW PhD thesis, 2012.); In EU Peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Legality and Accountability Martina Spernbauer offers a comprehensive account of the EU's peacebuilding toolbox in light of the Union's constitutional architecture under the Treaty of Lisbon. A detailed analysis of EU peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan, with a focus on the security and justice sectors, demonstrates that the Union's continuous dichotomy between the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and other Union policies is difficult to maintain for this multi-faceted, comprehensive policy framework, which lies at the interface of security, justice and development. Within this analysis, the central questions of compliance of EU external action with international law and international human rights law in particular under CFSP, as well as accountability towards third countries and their nationals are addressed.; -- Peacebuilding as a policy framework at the interface of security, justice, and development -- The legislative and institutional framework in Kosovo -- The legislative and institutional framework in Afghanistan -- Non-CFSP assistance to the law enforcement institutions -- CFSP assistance to the law enforcement institutions : CSDP operations -- Constitutional requirements for EU peacebuilding -- EU peacebuilding under a "legality" test -- EU peacebuilding under an "accountability" test

Abuse of EU law and regulation of the internal market

SAYDÉ, Alexandre
Fonte: Hart Publishing Publicador: Hart Publishing
Tipo: Livro
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(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2012.); How can the concept of abuse of European Union law - which can be defined as undesirable choice of law artificially made by a private citizen - generate so much disagreement among equally intelligent individuals? Seeking to transcend the classical debate between its supporters and adversaries, the present study submits that the concept of abuse of EU law is located on three major fault-lines of EU law, which accounts for the well-established controversies in the field. The first fault-line, which is common to all legal orders, opposes legal congruence (the tendency to yield equitable legal outcomes) to legal certainty (the tendency to yield predictable legal outcomes). Partisans of legal congruence tend to advocate the prohibition of abuses of law, whereas partisans of legal certainty tend to oppose it. The second fault-line is specific to EU law and divides two conceptions of the regulation of the internal market. If economic integration is conceived as the promotion of cross-border competition among private businesses (the paradigm of 'regulatory neutrality'), choices of law must be proscribed as abusive, for they distort business competition. But if economic integration is intended to promote competition among Member States (the paradigm of 'regulatory competition')...