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How size matters : Portugal as an EU member

ROSE, Richard; TRECHSEL, Alexander H.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The great majority of EU member states are not big states, and they are further divided into not so small, smaller and smallest states. The European Union’s establishment by a treaty between 27 independent states confers juridical equality on each state regardless of its population. Insofar as population matters, the handful of big states have more votes in EU institutions–but the EU norm is that decisions should be taken by consensus and compromise. Economic size has two contrasting measures, aggregate GDP and GDP per capita and the Eurozone crisis joins a populous creditor country, Germany, with less populous debtor countries. This paper compares Portugal with other EU member states. Since Portugal is just above the median in population and just below in median GDP it can illustrate how the average EU member state can influence the collective policies of a political Union with half a billion citizens.

Common EU policies on authorised immigration : past, present and future

MAVRODI, Georgia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; digital
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Since the early 1990s, one metaphor has dominated the debates on the construction of a common EU immigration policy: ‘Fortress Europe’. The gradual adoption of a set of common rules on the entry, residence and rights of non-EU nationals was depicted as the building of a wall along the external borders of the EU to keep non-EU nationals away coupled with internal, legal boundaries within the welfare systems of EU member states.

The 2008 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard

HERNANDEZ GUEVARA Hector; TUEBKE Alexander; BRANDSMA Andries
Fonte: European Commission Publicador: European Commission
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the results of the 2008 edition of the "EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard" (Scoreboard). It provides information on the 1000 EU companies and 1000 non-EU companies investing the largest sums in R&D. The Scoreboard includes R&D figures along with other economic and financial data from the last four financial years. The report includes a discussion on the key figures of the world¿s top R&D investors. It examines overall levels of R&D, the performance of the EU companies, and the main changes that took place in the last five years. The performance of individual companies among the top R&D investors, in particular those undergoing significant R&D growth is outlined. Moreover, an overview of the company data aggregated by industrial sectors and world regions, with comparisons between the EU companies and their main competitors is included.; JRC.J.3-Knowledge for Growth

Prospective Analysis of the Aquaculture Sector in the EU. PART 2: Characterisation of Emerging Aquaculture Systems

STURROCK Helen; NEWTON Richard; PAFFRATH Susan; BOSTOCK John; MUIR James; YOUNG James; IMMINK Anton; DICKSON Malcolm
Fonte: OPOCE Publicador: OPOCE
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report is based on the outcome of the study on "Prospective analysis of the aquaculture sector in the EU", launched and coordinated by the JRC (IPTS) and carried out by the University of Stirling. The report consists of two parts: 1) "Prospective analysis of the aquaculture sector in the EU ¿ Part 1: Synthesis report", and 2) "Prospective analysis of the aquaculture sector in the EU ¿ Part 2: Characterisation of emerging aquaculture systems." This second report is concerned with the identification and characterisation of emerging aquaculture systems. The overall aim of the study is to provide a detailed analysis of how the EU aquaculture sector may respond to the many challenges and pressures faced with respect to economic, social and environmental issues, technological changes etc. As has been the case in the past, these challenges may lead to the emergence of new approaches, products and in the widest sense, aquaculture systems. The degree and possible directions of development of these "emerging systems" will be influential for the future of the EU aquaculture sector. This report aims therefore to provide greater technical detail on emerging aquaculture systems, and has also fed to the development of the synthesis report (Part 2). It follows a format in which we: ¿ Provide detailed descriptions of the technologies...

Information and Communication Technologies, Market Rigidities and Growth: Implications for EU Policies

BARRIOS SALVADOR; BURGELMAN JEAN-CLAUDE
Fonte: OPOCE Publicador: OPOCE
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The renewed Lisbon strategy puts special emphasis on the potential role that Information and Communication Technologies can play in meeting the challenges of boosting growth, competitiveness and cohesion throughout the EU. There is also a general understanding among policy makers that investment of this kind and its related economic benefits can only materialize if labour, capital, product and service markets are flexible enough to facilitate ICT investment and the re-organisation of economic activities. This paper provides evidence of the influence of market rigidities on the propensity to invest in ICT and on the economic return of ICT investment in a number of EU countries, and in the US and Japan. We provide evidence that indicates that market rigidities deter ICT investment and lower the impact of ICT on GDP growth by considering a number of indicators reflecting barriers to business creation and the degree of market regulation in labour and capital markets. These results are invariant, even when other potential determinants of ICT investments and ICT contribution to GDP growth such as the degree of specialisation in ICT-producing industries, past ICT investment, business cycles conditions and a measure of trade openness are controlled for. The paper provides a number of policy implications...

EU Policies on Indoor Air Quality

DE OLIVEIRA FERNANDES Eduardo; CARRER Paolo; SEPPÄNEN Olli; KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; JANTUNEN Matii
Fonte: International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate Publicador: International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
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Indoor air quality (IAQ) in non working spaces has being deserved a growing attention in EU, particularly, since the 80´s. Nevertheless quite some time was needed before IAQ could be recognized as a public health issue. It was only recently that EU adopted several initiatives to the improvement of IAQ under Action 12 of the EU Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2012. This Action contains two key elements: addressing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); and developing ways and means to respond to other factors affecting IAQ (dampness, mould, building materials, consumer products, activities indoors, etc.). As far as the exposure to ETS is concerned, two main policy actions were put in place. Activities on ETS are now taken forward, mostly ETS banning in an increasing number of Member States. If the more general issue is how to best deal with the indoor environment as a whole, successive new EU policies on construction products, consumer products, energy performance of buildings and on chemicals refer to IAQ issues suggesting that they could, and probably should, contribute to the IAQ policy development and reinforcement. This integrated vision and approach was one of the conclusions of EnVIE, a project on the formulation of IAQ Policies...

Update of a Quantitative Tool for Farm Systems Level Analysis of Agricultural Policies (EU-FARMS)

GOCHT Alexander
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The main objective of the study was to develop and refine the farm type component of the agricultural sector model CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regionalised Impact System) in order to obtain an operational system able to assess policy induced changes for different farming types across the Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) before 1 January 2007 (EU-25). The first task is to update and complete the current farm module database of CAPRI. For that the most recent available databases should be utilised to cover at least the EU-25. This updated farm type database should include detailed information on farm structure for all Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) II regions across the EU-25. Task two aims to develop a typology and identify important associated typical farm types for each NUTS II region. Task three comprises the incorporation of the farm types into the existing EU-wide agricultural sector modelling framework CAPRI. Task four discusses the current advantages and shortcomings of the developed module and proposes further developments needed to refine it. Task five enhances the graphical exploitation tool for users, enabling the deployment of farm and spatial typologies for presentation and interpretation of results. Hence...

Development and Optimisation of a Dopant Assisted Liquid Chromatographic-Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionisation-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of 15 + 1 EU Priority PAHs in Edible Oils

HOLLOSI Laszlo; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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European food legislation defines a set of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as of high concern for human health. The EU set contains structurally very similar PAHs with ring numbers between 4 and 6, and so raises some separation aspects and problems, which were not experienced with traditionally analysed PAHs. Many of the currently applied gas chromatographic mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods suffer from separation problems, while high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is neither capable of detecting the whole set of EU priority PAHs nor does it (compared to GC-MS) allow structural identification. In addition HPLC-FLD shows limitations with difficult matrices due to interferences. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by describing a liquid chromatographic dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photo ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (LCDA-APPI-MS/MS) method for the determination of 15 + 1 EU priority PAHs in edible oil, which complies with the requirements set by European food legislation. Measurements were performed in positive ion mode. Anisole at a flow rate of 30 microl/min was used as dopant. Sample preparation was performed offline by donor-acceptor complex chromatography (DACC). Compared to HPLC-FLD methods the presented method enables the determination of all 15 + 1 EU priority PAHs at the low microg/kg concentration range including less fluorescence active compounds like benzo[j]fluoranthene and indeno[1...

Potential Iimpacts of a Turkish EU-membership on Agri-food Markets

SALAMON Petra; VAN LEEUWEN Myrna; TABEAU Andrzej; KOÇ Ali; BÖLÜK Gülden; FELLMANN THOMAS
Fonte: FORSCHUNGSANSTALT FUR LANDWIRT BRAUNSCHWEIG VOLKENRODE Publicador: FORSCHUNGSANSTALT FUR LANDWIRT BRAUNSCHWEIG VOLKENRODE
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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This paper examines possible impacts of a Turkish accession to the EU on the agricultural markets in Turkey and the EU. AGMEMOD, an econometric, dynamic, multi-market, partial equilibrium economic model for EU agriculture at Member State level, has been extended with a model for the Turkish agricultural sector and afterwards applied to gain quantitative insights into Turkish accession effects. To establish a model for Turkey, the implementation of the model equations required parameter estimates, or the specification of synthetic model parameters. A database with time series on Turkish agricultural production, market balances and prices, macroeconomic variables and policy variables was developed in order to estimate such model parameters and to build an operational Turkish agriculture sector model. Most results show that the dominant impact of the Turkish accession on Turkish agriculture is a reduction of domestic producer prices, which induces further market effects. The ¿ mostly decoupled ¿ CAP support payments will induce smaller incentives to increase production than those which Turkish farmers receive prior to the EU accession. In Turkey effects of accession to the EU will be mostly negative for crop producers (except for tobacco)...

SUPPLY OF AND DEMAND FOR NUCLEAR EXPERTS IN THE EU BY 2020: EHRO-N REPORT (2012)

SIMONOVSKA VERONIKA; VON ESTORFF Ulrik
Fonte: European Nuclear Society Publicador: European Nuclear Society
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
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A report from EHRO-N (European Human Resource Observatory of the Nuclear Energy Sector) published in 2012: 1. Determines that the supply of employees with specific educational background and competences, called nuclear experts, does not correspond to the demand for the same employees in the EU by 2020, and that 2. It is useful to put the data on the supply of and demand for nuclear experts in the EU in perspective, using available statistical data on supply of STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) graduates in EU and data on the employed HRST (human resources in science and technology) in the EU labour market. For more refined and accurate data that can determine policy directions, the most effective way would be to conduct regular nuclear human resource monitoring exercises in the EU in the future. This paper is a summary of the first findings as well as of the lessons learnt.; JRC.F.4-Nuclear Reactor Integrity Assessment and Knowledge Management

Common Noise Assessment Methods in EU: CNOSSOS-EU (Part IV: Aircraft noise prediction for the purpose of strategic noise mapping)

KEPHALOPOULOS Stylianos; GERGELY Balazs; ANFOSSO Fabienne; PAVIOTTI Marco; DE VOS Paul
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Acustica
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: CD-ROM
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In the context of the European Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (END), the European Commission decided to prepare Common NOise aSSessment methOdS (CNOSSOS-EU) for road, railway, aircraft and industrial noise in order to improve the reliability and the comparability of results across the EU Member States. This paper will present the rationale behind the selection of ECAC Doc. 29 3rd Ed to form the basis for the aircraft module of CNOSSOS-EU provided that a list of modifications/amendments of ECAC Doc. 29 3rd Ed. will be performed. This has been suggested by European aircraft noise experts participated in the Workshop on ¿Aircraft Noise Prediction¿ organised by DG Joint Research Centre jointly with DG Environment of the European Commission on 19-20 January 2010 in Brussels. The modifications/amendments mainly concern the ICAO ANP Database, methodological aspects of the ECAC doc 29 3rd Ed. and the future of ECAC doc 29. 3rd Ed., Vol. 3. It was recommended and strongly desired to reach agreement at international level which could best be achieved through the ICAO environmental committee, CAEP part of which will be all relevant stakeholders including the European Forum (DG ENV, DG TREN, DG JRC, EU MS, EASA, EEA) associated to the implementation of the END.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

The Economic Performance of the EU Aquaculture Sector – 2012 exercise (STECF-13-03).

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This EWG‐12‐13 report, on the Economic Performance of the European Union (EU) Aquaculture sector, is the second report of this type produced for the sector. It provides a comprehensive overview of the latest information available on the structure, social, economic and competitive performance of the aquaculture sector at both national and EU level. The data used in this publication was collected under the Data Collection Framework (DCF). In 2010, the aquaculture sector production in the EU‐27 accounted for 1.36 million tonnes, with an estimated turnover of 3.58 billion Euros. In the EU there are about 15,000 companies, whose main activity is the aquaculture production, producing a Gross Value Added of about 1.5 billion Euros. Available data confirms the profitability improvement in 2010, after two years of suffering losses. Profitability based on the Return On Investment calculated from the EBIT was 5.7 %. The EU aquaculture sector gave direct employment to more than 85,000 people in Europe, with an annual average wage of around 19,400 Euro. Women accounted for 29 % of these jobs. The large percentage of part‐time work in the sector should be highlighted, as can be seen through comparison of the total employment numbers with employment expressed in Full Time Equivalents (FTE is 47 % of the total number of employees). Part‐time employment is important in the shellfish and freshwater aquaculture subsectors. The economic performance and the productivity differ enormously by subsector and segment. The cost structures of the different subsectors (i.e. shellfish...

The Economic Performance of the EU Aquaculture Sector (STECF 13-29) - Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF)

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This EWG‐13‐10 report, on the Economic Performance of the European Union (EU) Aquaculture sector, is the third report of this type produced for the sector. It provides a comprehensive overview of the latest information available on the structure, social, economic and competitive performance of the aquaculture sector at both national and EU level. The data used in this publication was collected under the Data Collection Framework (DCF). In 2011, the aquaculture sector production in the EU‐28 accounted for 1.28 million tonnes, with an estimated value of 3.51 billion Euros. In the EU there are about 14 to 15 thousand companies whose main activity is the aquaculture production, producing a Gross Value Added of more than 1.5 billion Euros. Available data confirms the profitability improvement in 2011 following 2010, after suffering losses in 2008‐9. Profitability based on the Return On Investment calculated from the EBIT was 10%. The EU aquaculture sector gave direct employment to more than 80,000 people in Europe, with an annual average wage of around 23 thousand Euros. Women accounted for 27% of these jobs. The large percentage of part‐time work in the sector should be highlighted, as can be seen through comparison of the total employment numbers with employment expressed in Full Time Equivalents (FTE is 45% of the total number of employees). Part‐time employment is important in the shellfish and freshwater aquaculture subsectors. The economic performance and the productivity differ enormously by subsector and segment. The cost structures of the different subsectors (i.e. shellfish...

Summary of the 2013 Economic Performance Report on the EU Aquaculture Sector (STECF 13-30) - Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF)

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
Português
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26.58%
This EWG‐13‐10 report, on the Economic Performance of the European Union (EU) Aquaculture sector, is the third report of this type produced for the sector. It provides a comprehensive overview of the latest information available on the structure, social, economic and competitive performance of the aquaculture sector at both national and EU level. This summary report serves to highlight some of the key findings of the 2013 Aquaculture report. The data used in this publication was collected under the Data Collection Framework (DCF). In 2011, the aquaculture sector production in the EU‐28 accounted for 1.28 million tonnes, with an estimated value of 3.51 billion Euros. In the EU there are about 14 to 15 thousand companies whose main activity is the aquaculture production, producing a Gross Value Added of more than 1.5 billion Euros. Available data confirms the profitability improvement in 2011 following 2010, after suffering losses in 2008‐9. Profitability based on the Return On Investment calculated from the EBIT was 10%. The EU aquaculture sector gave direct employment to more than 80,000 people in Europe, with an annual average wage of around 23 thousand Euros. Women accounted for 27% of these jobs. The large percentage of part‐time work in the sector should be highlighted...

Threats to the Soil Resource Base of Food Security in China and Europe. A report from the Sino-EU Panel on Land and Soil

AKHTAR-SCHUSTER Mariam; E.H. BLUM Winfried; HE Chunyuan; JONES Arwyn; KISMÁNYOKY Tamás; KONG Xiangbin; LIU Guobin; MONTANARELLA Luca; NORTCLIFF S.; SHEN Renfrang; WEI Jianbing; WU Zhifeng; YANG Qingyuan; ZANG Bo; ZHANG Ganling
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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To secure adequate food supply is the major challenge for humanity in the 21st century. Growing world population and its urbanization put pressure on this basic need, which is further threatened by the constant loss of fertile land. The assessment of sustainability of food supply under increasing pressure on land resources has been selected as one of the most important priority topics of the activities of Sino-EU Panel on Land and Soil (SEPLS). The Panel has performed a number of related researches and discussed the results on a scientific seminar in January 2012 in Nanjing, China. This report is an output of this seminar with a summary of the structured discussions on the below issues. 1. Urban and peri-urban development (soil sealing and loss of land functions) Urbanization and the linked spread of infrastructural development mean sealing of soil surfaces. Soil sealing is the most rapidly growing limitation for soil functions (including biomass production function) both in China and Europe. Soil sealing in China has been taking dramatic degree in the last two decades and the process is estimated to continue in the coming period as well. While urban and peri-urban development is looked as a necessity for social development, its negative effect on natural resources are inevitable. 2. Land degradation Despite the widely recognized importance of land degradation in the unsustainability of economic development and implementation of various policies to halt degradation (e.g. green for grain programme in China; cross-compliance measures in the EU)...

Supply of and Demand for Nuclear Experts in the EU BY 2020: EHRO-N Report (2012)

SIMONOVSKA Veronika; VON ESTORFF Ulrik
Fonte: INFORUM VERLAGS-VERWALTUNGSGESELLSCHAFT MBH Publicador: INFORUM VERLAGS-VERWALTUNGSGESELLSCHAFT MBH
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
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A report from EHRO-N (European Human Resource Observatory of the Nuclear Energy Sector) published in 2012: 1. Determines that the supply of employees with specific educational background and competences, called nuclear experts, does not correspond to the demand for the same employees in the EU by 2020, and that 2. It is useful to put the data on the supply of and demand for nuclear experts in the EU in perspective, using available statistical data on supply of STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) graduates in EU and data on the employed HRST (human resources in science and technology) in the EU labour market. For more refined and accurate data that can determine policy directions, the most effective way would be to conduct regular nuclear human resource monitoring exercises in the EU in the future. This paper is a summary of the first findings as well as of the lessons learnt.; JRC.F.4-Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Reactor Safety

Sharing Lessons Learned Between Industries in EU

STRUCIC MIODRAG
Fonte: Croatian Nuclear Society Publicador: Croatian Nuclear Society
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
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Recent events in nuclear industry remind us on importance of continuous sharing of the knowledge and experience gained through evaluations of incidents and accidents. We frequently use experience from our daily life activities to improve our performance and avoid some mistakes or unwanted events. In the similar way we can use other industries experience. These experiences can be applied to improve nuclear safety. For example, Safety Culture, which has a great influence on the level of nuclear power plants safety, is similarly presented in other industries. Mechanisms which led to accidents from weak safety culture in one branch of other industry could be comparable to those in nuclear industry. Some other industries have many more cumulative years of experience than nuclear industry. Aviation and Oil industries are typical representatives. Part of their experience can be used in nuclear industry too. Number of reports from nuclear power plants showed us that not only specific equipment related causes lay behind accidents; there are also other causes and contributors which are more common for all industries. Hence lessons learned in other industry should be assessed and used in nuclear industry too. In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities...

The EU Regional Human Development Index

HARDEMAN SJOERD; DIJKSTRA Lewis
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report follows from a project entitled “Regional Human Development” on request of the Directorate-General Regional and Urban Policy (DG REGIO) of the European Commission. The objective of the project was to develop indicators that are capable of measuring patterns and trends in human development across the regions of the EU member states. The main contribution of this report lies in a proposal for conceptualizing and measuring human development at the European regional level across multiple years using. The results of the EU-RHDI show a clear north-west/south-east divide across EU regions when it comes to the overall index. Within countries differences exist as to regional performance in human development. In general, capital city regions seem to outperform non-capital city regions within countries. This is readily seen across regions in eastern EU member states where the large intra-country differences in scores are largely driven by the capital city outperforming other regions by a length. Zooming in on the results of the individual dimensions, we find in general that the EU is especially characterized by a west/east divide. In health, southern regions are often outperforming northern regions. However, southern regions’ relative good performance in health contrasts sharply with their underperformance in income and especially knowledge.; JRC.DDG.01-Econometrics and applied statistics

Short Food Supply Chains and Local Food Systems in the EU. A State of Play of their Socio-Economic Characteristics.

KNEAFSEY Moya; VENN Laura; SCHMUTZ Ulrich; BALASZ Balint; TRENCHARD Liz; EYDEN-WOOD Trish; BOS Elizabeth; SUTTON Gemma; BLACKETT Mathew
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The present study aims at describing the state-of-play of short food supply chains (SFSC) in the EU understood as being the chains in which foods involved are identified by, and traceable to a farmer and for which the number of intermediaries between farmer and consumer should be minimal or ideally nil. Several types of SFSCs can be identified, for example CSAs (Community-Supported Agriculture), on-farm sales, off-farm schemes (farmers markets, delivery schemes), collective sales in particular towards public institutions, being mostly local / proximity sales and in some cases distance sales. Such type of food chain has specific social impacts, economic impacts at regional and farm level as well as environmental impacts translating themselves into a clear interest of consumers. SFSCs are present throughout the EU, although there are some differences in the different MS in terms of dominating types of SFSCs. In general, they are dominantly small or micro-enterprises, composed of small-scale producers, often coupled to organic farming practices. Social values (quality products to consumers and direct contact with the producer) are the values usually highlighted by SFSCs before environmental or economic values. In terms of policy tools...

Use of forest based biomass for bioenergy in EU-28

SIKKEMA RICHARD; FIORESE GIULIA
Fonte: Latvia University of Agriculture Publicador: Latvia University of Agriculture
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Online
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Europe’s future wood demand for energy is expected to increase by 10 million to 200 million m3 in the period 2010-2030. This will be supplied by both domestic sources (forests, industrial residues post-consumer wood waste), but also from sources outside Europe. The EU-28 predicts a near future (2020) gap between solid biomass supply and demand for renewable energy: 21.4 million tonnes of oil equivalents (MTOE). This is estimated via preliminary renewable energy action plans (NREAP’s) per country. The EU-28 expects wood pellet import will merely complete this gap of 21.4 MTOE, with more than 50 million tonnes of pellets. This implies a feedstock need of 125 million m3 of wood from forests and other sources outside the EU-28. A practical approach to include bioenergy in wood sector models should start with the input of wood pellets. Ideally, three types of bioenergy markets should be considered, in which pellets and the other major woody feedstock are included: 1. Large scale power production (UK, Belgium, the Netherlands, all importing pellets from outside the EU-28); 2. Medium scale combined heat and power (CHP’s) including those in the forest sector (Nordic countries use pellets and chips for energy, merely imported from the EU-28); 3. Small scale residential heating (Germany...