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EU-US Differences in the Size of R&D Intensive Firms: Do they explain the overall R&D Intensity Gap?

ORTEGA ARGILES Raquel; BRANDSMA Andries
Fonte: Friedrich Schiller University Jena and Max Planck Institute of Economics Publicador: Friedrich Schiller University Jena and Max Planck Institute of Economics
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
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The average firm size of the top R&D investors among US-based companies is smaller than that of the EU-based firms. Does this help to explain why the US has a greater R&D intensity, or is the higher firm size in the EU, just as its lower R&D intensity, determined by the sectors in which the top R&D investors are operating? Using data on the top-R&D investors from the 2006 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard, the size differential between R&D performers in the EU and US is more closely examined. A first observation is that, despite great differences between sectors, the overall distribution of companies' R&D investments in both economies is remarkably similar, as opposed to the distribution of the R&D/sales ratios of the same two sets of companies. The notion that size plays a role, independent of the sectoral composition of R&D, is then confirmed by regression analysis. In the US as well as in the EU, smaller sized Scoreboard companies tend to spend a larger proportion of their income from sales on R&D. JEL-classification: L11, 030 Keywords: R&D intensity, firm size, panel data; JRC.J.3-Knowledge for Growth

The compatibility of EU biofuel policies with global sustainability and the WTO

BURRELL Alison; GAY Stephan; KAVALLARI Aikaterini
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
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The EU's Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28) requires that by 2020 biofuels should account for at least 10% of transport fuel consumption. EU legislation sets out sustainability criteria for biofuels to qualify for this target and procedures for verifying that they are met. Using the AGLINK-COSIMO model, we investigate the impacts of the biofuel target on global trade flows and land use, both under the current biofuel tariff regime and assuming zero EU tariffs for biofuels. The EU¿s 2020 transport fuel target increases the global area of agricultural crops by 0.9%. With zero tariffs, the extra global land requirement is 21% smaller, but a larger share of it falls outside the EU. This outcome sharpens the issue of how the EU¿s unilateral sustainability criteria can be imposed given current international trade rules.; JRC.J.4-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

Improving Policies in the Field of Asylum and Human Rights Protection in the US and EU

GUILD, Elspeth
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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Improving EU and US Immigration Systems' Capacity for Responding to Global Challenges: Learning from experiences; Providing international protection to people fleeing persecution, torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment is recognised both in the US and EU as an important international obligation. Both the US and the EU have ratified international instruments which require states to provide international protection for an ever wider group of persons. At the same time, non-governmental organisations, academics and even international organisations have decried the reluctance of both the US and EU Member States to afford protection to specific individuals. This policy paper will provide some proposals how to bridge the divide between the US and EU commitments to provide protection and an apparent reluctance actually to accord that protection to individuals.

After the Eastward Enlargement: The institutionalization of the Europarties and the EU party system

BRESSANELLI, Edoardo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defence date: 15 March 2012; Examining Board: Luciano Bardi, Adrienne Heritier, Richard Rose, Alexander H. Trechsel (replacing Peter Mair, supervisor until summer 2011); On 14 June 2013 awarded the Linz Rokkan Prize prize.; In the long debate about the EU constitutional and institutional reform which accompanied the Central and Eastern enlargement of the Union, political parties at the European level – in brief: Europarties – have rarely featured. This research, acknowledging the growing role played by political parties in the EU polity and their importance for its legitimization, addresses the following question: what impact has the mega-enlargement of the Union had upon the process of institutionalization of the Europarties and the EU party system? Theoretically, this work draws from the literature on party and party system institutionalization in the developing polities, and makes these concepts 'travel' to the European Union. More specifically, it identifies two main dimensions in the concept of party institutionalization: a 'structural' dimension, referring to party organizational consolidation, and a 'value' dimension, capturing the party value-system and ideology. By treating enlargement as an 'external shock', and relying on the literatures on partisan formation and development...

EU Federalism and Constitutionalism. The Legacy of Altiero Spinelli

Fonte: Lexington Books Publicador: Lexington Books
Tipo: Livro
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This work represents the first book-length study of the travails of the implementation of federalism at the European level from the perspective of Altiero Spinelli's ideas and his political life, which were both devoted to a federally united Europe. It is also a timely publication given the protracted struggle to implement a new EU institutional architecture—the 2009 Lisbon Treaty—that is already being tested by the fallout from the global financial crisis. This fallout has brought into stark relief the tensions within the EU over the question of enhancing solidarity and federal unity or remaining a looser association of sovereign states. Hence by examining the successes and failures of federalism within the EU system, the book seeks to explain not only how the EU has reached its current impasse but also how it may fare in the future. To achieve this objective, the book takes an interdisciplinary approach that covers all three dimensions of the European project: historical, legal, and political. In this fashion, Andrew Glencross and Alexander H. Trechsel's EU Federalism and Constitutionalism: The Legacy of Altiero Spinelli offers a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of the history, evolution, and future of federal principles and institutions in the European integration process.

Creating 'the Self' by Outlawing 'the Other'? EU foreign policy sanctions and the quest for credibility

HELLQUIST, Elin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defence date: 10 December 2012; Examining Board: Professor Stefano Guzzini, Uppsala University and Danish Institute for International Affairs; Professor Friedrich V. Kratochwil, formely EUI (Supervisor); Professor Ulrich Krotz, RSCA/EUI; Professor Antje Wiener, Hamburg University.; The European Union (EU) turns increasingly to negative sanctions - a classical tool of international relations and the sharpest expression of the EU’s common foreign and security policy (CFSP) - in response to a variety of norm violations in world politics. This thesis investigates how the EU positions itself and receives a position on the world scene by using sanctions. Regardless of whether sanctions successfully induce target change or not, they signal distance to some actors and proximity to others. In recognition of sanctions’ deeply relational character beyond the sender-target polarity, the thesis juxtaposes the EU’s self-understandings with the perceptions of a significant bystander: the African Union (AU). The thesis exposes patterns of disagreement and consensus as concerns logics of action, autonomy and volume of the sanctions policy, as well as policy linkages between sanctions and other external actions. It combines qualitative and quantitative analysis of European Parliament debates on sanctions between 1999 and 2012 with scrutiny of official documents and semi-structured interviews at the AU headquarters in Addis Ababa. The analysis reveals that self-oriented justifications dominate EU discourse on sanctions. Policymakers are concerned with how to successfully inflict harm on the targets...

An EU Agenda for Global Governance

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf
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Introduction, Miguel POIARES MADURO 1 European Union and Multilateral Global Governance, José Manuel DURÃO BARROSO 3 Global Governance, Thomas BIERSTEKER 9 Technocratic Temptations and the Global Governance Dilemma of the European Union, Pepper D. CULPEPPER 13 Migration on the Global Governance Agenda, Philippe FARGUES 17 The European Union and the International Liberalisation of Network Industries: The Case of Transatlantic Aviation, Adrienne HÉRITIER and Yannis KARAGIANNIS 23 EU Multilateralism: Rhetoric and Reality in the Context of Global Governance, Christopher HILL, Nadia KLEIN, Wolfgang WESSELS 31 The EU and Global Governance, Harold JAMES 37 Why the 'Second Superpower' Needs a New Discourse, Andrew MORAVCSIK 43 Towards Responsible Interdependence, Kalypso NICOLAÏDIS 47 The European Laboratory for Multilevel Governance of Interdependent Public Goods: EU Leadership for Global Public Goods?, Ernst-Ulrich PETERSMANN 55 EU Governance in the Light of New Regulations Introduced by the Lisbon Treaty, Dusan SIDJANSKI 61 The EU and the Challenge of Global Macroeconomic Governance, David VINES 67

What Makes the EU Viable? European integration in the light of the antebellum US experience

GLENCROSS, Andrew
Fonte: Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Livro
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(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2007.); Drawing on international relations theory, law and historical analysis, this book compares European integration with the antebellum USA to assess what makes the EU viable despite contestation over the rules of the game of integration. It reveals that changing the system of representation is no shortcut solution for the EU's constitutional woes.; --List of Tables --Acknowledgements xi --Introduction: Questioning What Makes the EU Viable 1 (6) --The Problem of Viability in a Compound Polity --Developing an Analogical Comparison between the EU and the Antebellum US Republic --Comparing How the Rules of the Game are Contested --The Struggle to Maintain a Compound System: Creating and Contesting the Rules of the Game in European Integration --Contrasting and Explaining the Viability of Two Compound Systems --The Future Evolution of the EU Compound Polity: The Obstacles to Voluntary Centralization --Conclusion: Implications for EU Studies and the Debate over the Future of Integration 182 (2) --Applying the insights of this study 184 (5) --Notes 189 (17) --Bibliography 206 (18) --Index

EU democracy assistance : an analysis of theory and practice 1991-2011

OGERTSCHNIG, Larissa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Defence date: 25 January 2013.; Examining Board: Professor Gráinne de Búrca, NYU, formerly EUI (Supervisor); Professor Philippe C. Schmitter, EUI; Professor Dimitry Kochenov, University of Groningen; Professor Erwan Lannon, University of Ghent.; In the late 1980s/early 1990s the EU started to purse a new policy: that of democracy promotion. It quickly put in place a whole range of instruments that would facilitate the transition to democracy and its consolidation in new democracies. Democracy assistance has over the last two decades, due to its 'positive' features, increasingly emerged as one of the EU's preferred instruments of that policy, expressed in particular in increasing budgets for democracy assistance programmes, new democracy assistance facilities, and explicit policy declarations on the topic. This thesis outlines and analyses the EU's strategy of democracy promotion through the use of democracy assistance from its inception in the early 1990s until 2011, focusing on all major world regions except the enlargement dimension. While revealing numerous details on the strategy, it attempts to also answer the following three more fundamental questions: What is the EU's underlying conception of democracy? What is its preferred model of democratization? And what is its preferred approach to democracy assistance? In looking for answers...

Differentiated Integration Revisited: EU energy policy as experimental ground for a Schengen successor?

AHNER, Nicole; DE HAUTECLOCQUE, Adrien; GLACHANT, Jean-Michel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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For the EU-27 the accommodation of national diversity and conflicting preferences with regard to the pace and scope of the development of the EU energy policy remains a major problem. The resulting institutional paralysis, low reactivity to events and changes as well as systematic political horse-trading call for an alternative framework that allows some pioneering Member States to promote ad hoc common policies while escaping the formal and procedural requirements of EU law. The ‘Schengen agreement’ is a successful example of such differentiation. Following this example, this article argues that a 'Schengen-ing' of some areas of EU energy policy might move beyond the realm of theory. The possibility to move forwards by means of intergovernmental agreements between a number of Member States in certain areas of EU energy policy will be exemplified by two areas that are predestined for a Schengen successor: nuclear and gas security of supply policy.

Competence creep via the duty of loyalty? : article 4 (3) TEU and its changing role in EU external relations

REUTER, Kristin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Examining Board: Professor Marise Cremona, European University Institute (Supervisor) Professor Bruno De Witte, European University Institute Professor Sara Poli, Università di Pisa Dr Anne Thies, University of Reading.; Defence date: 5 September 2013; With the growing awareness in EU external relations that the existence of Member States' competence does not necessarily allow them to freely exercise such competence, the duty of sincere cooperation laid down in Article 4 (3) TEU is increasingly becoming the focus of academic attention. In light of the vast potential of the duty to encroach on Member State prerogatives, in combination with a number of striking developments in the Court's case law in the field of external relations, particularly in recent years, the question arises whether Article 4 (3) TEU is slowly turning into an instrument for the Union institutions to achieve a loss of national competence, disguised as restrictions on the Member States' freedom to exercise their powers. This thesis investigates which role Article 4 (3) TEU has really played in governing the relationship between the EU and the Member States in external relations. It sets out to answer the positive question of which concept of federalism dominates the exercise of external powers. Building on this foundation...

A duty free Europe? : what’s wrong with Kochenov's account of EU citizenship rights

BELLAMY, Richard (Richard Paul)
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Article first published online: 2 JUN 2015; This article disputes the recent argument of Dimitry Kochenov advocating an ‘EU Citizenship without Duties’. His thesis rests on an untenable form of philosophical anarchism that overlooks the role played by our political obligations to state structures in securing rights. At best, his argument suggests a ‘thin’ form of EU citizenship that allows European citizens to choose which of the Member States they wish to become morally obliged to. A ‘thicker’ form of EU level citizenship could only arise by creating civic obligations at the EU level, the position he rejects. To the extent certain Court of Justice judgments in this area reflect parallel reasoning to Kochenov's, they too suffer from a similar failure to appreciate the role of civic duties to particular Member States (or, eventually, the EU) in creating and securing the status of citizens as equal rights bearers.

Representation and democracy in the EU : does one come at the expense of the other?

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
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Is version of the Special Issue of Journal of European Integration, 2013, Vol. 35, No. 5; This book explores the various ways in which citizens are represented in EU policy-making. Most accounts naturally focus on the European Parliament as the prime source of democratic representation. This collection focuses instead on four other channels that are as and often more important: namely, representation via governments, national parliaments, civil society organisations and directly, via referenda. Based on original research, the book combines democratic theory with detailed empirical analysis to provide an innovative, timely and up-to-date evaluation of the nature of representation in the EU.; -- 1 Representation Deficits and Surpluses in EU Policy-making, Richard Bellamy, Sandra Kroger -- 2 'An Ever Closer Union Among the Peoples of Europe': Republican Intergovernmentalism and Demoicratic Representation within the EU, Richard Bellamy -- 3 The Pitfalls of Representation as Claims-Making in the European Union, Christopher Lord, Johannes Pollak -- 4 Bicameral or Tricameral? National Parliaments and Representative Democracy in the European Union, Ian Cooper -- 5 A New Type of Representative Democracy? Reconsidering the Role of National Parliaments in the European Union...

Bite the bullet : trade retaliation, EU jurisprudence and the law and economics of 'taking one for the team'

HOEKMAN, Bernard M.; MAVROIDIS, Petros C.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Article first published online: 17 SEP 2013. Based on EUI RSCAS WP; 2013/32; Global Governance Programme-48.; This paper discusses the Fedon case-law of the European Court of Justice (Court of Justice), which involved a claim for compensation by Fedon (an Italian producer of eyeglass cases) from the EU for the imposition of World Trade Organization (WTO)-authorised retaliatory trade barriers by the USA following the failure by the EU to comply with an adverse ruling by the WTO regarding its import regime for bananas. As a result of the EU non-compliance, European banana distributors and some bananas producers benefited from WTO-illegal protection, at the expense of a set of EU exporters, including Fedon, that were hit by US countermeasures. Fedon contested the non-compliance by the EU before the Court of Justice and sought compensation. This paper assesses the ruling of the Court of Justice against Fedon and argues that the Court got it wrong, both in terms of legal principle and as a matter of legal technicalities.

Proceedings of the final conference of the project on Developing a knowledge base for policy making on India-EU migration' (February 2011 – October 2013) - 'India – EU migration and mobility: prospects and challenges' - New Delhi, 17 and 18 October 2013

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
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CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration; The project on 'Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration' co-funded by the European Commission, implemented at the India Centre for Migration during February 2011 – October 2013 has been culminated with the final conference of the project organised on the theme, 'India-EU Migration and Mobility: Prospects and Challenges' on 17th and 18th October 2013 at the Ashok Hotel, New Delhi. The project envisaged that a final conference to be organized in Delhi in order to disseminate the outputs of the project and recommend a durable framework of discussion and institutional exchange between India and the EU on migration and mobility.; CARIM-India is co-financed by the European University Institute and the European Union.

Governance of migration in the EU : home affairs or foreign policy?

Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Livro
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This issue is the outcome of a workshop on "Governance of Migration in the EU: Home Affairs or External Policy?" organised at the European University Institute on 19 October 2012.; Article 79 TFEU contains competences of the European Union to regulate immigration as an integral part of the area of freedom, security and justice. Under this purely internal competence, the Union should establish a common immigration policy aimed at the efficient management of migration flows, fair treatment of third-country nationals and fight against illegal immigration. Over the past decade, the Union has adopted a number of directives under this internal competence. Yet, both prior to the introduction of an explicit Union power to regulate immigration and currently in parallel with this power, the Union and Member States implement immigration policy externally via international agreements with third states and more subtle policy tools. The purpose of this workshop is to break with the conventional understanding of immigration as an internal policy of the Union and to look at EU’s immigration policy form the outside, discussing immigration as an external, as opposed to internal, policy of the Union. The contributors test the external component of immigration as a tool in market integration...

The EU Financial Supervision in the Aftermath of the 2008 Crisis: An Appraisal

CARAVELIS, Georges
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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We appraise the new EU supervisory architecture presented by the Commission in a package of five ‘draft legislative acts’. Two would establish a European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB) to undertake macro-prudential issues. Three would establish the system of European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs): Banking, Securities and Insurance. The theoretical case for this package of draft legislative acts has been made by the High-Level Group on Financial Supervision in the EU. The package has been examined by the ECOFIN of 2 December 2009, which has introduced changes to the Commission's three draft legislative acts concerning the ESAs. We examine the theoretical approach underlying the draft legislative acts, which is based on the State theory of money. We find it incomplete in the case of the ESRB because the mission of ECB in 'mitigating system risks within the financial system' cannot be attained without real powers and tools; it is in essence a macro-economic phenomenon. We also arrive at another conclusion relating to the three proposals on the ESAs. The theoretical underpinning of the three is based on the premise of the school of regulation. Today's evolution of the EU cannot allow ESAs to go beyond their Treaty competence. Nor could the ESAs attain their objective of 'setting the common rules for supervising national entities'. Thus...

Defining borders and people in the borderlands : EU policies, Israeli prerogatives and the Palestinians

DEL SARTO, Raffaella A.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013.; This article investigates the rules and practices pertaining to visa regimes and the crossing of borders across the European Union, Israel and the Palestinian territories. Their consideration as three interlinked entities rests on the high degree of EU–Israeli interdependence, the EU's deep involvement in the Palestinian territories and Israel's control over the latter. The article evidences the existence of variegated borders regimes applying to different categories of Israelis, Palestinians and EU citizens, together with Israel's outstanding prerogatives in defining these practices. The analysis suggests conceptualizing the space comprising the EU and Israel/Palestine as overlapping borderlands, with Israel and the territories emerging as a single, yet highly fragmented, space in which borders are alternative expressions of power relations in protracted conflicts. With the EU being drawn into prevailing conflict dynamics, the type and extent of EU–Israeli–Palestinian interconnectedness thus undermine the coherent implementation of Brussels’ mainly bilateral policies towards Israel and the territories.; Research for this article was carried out in the framework of the BORDERLANDS Project...

E se eu fosse s/Surda? Implicações para a Educação Básica

Silva, Ana Isabel
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 26/03/2015 Português
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E se eu fosse s/Surda? é um espaço mental que permite um olhar sobre o que é ser s/Surdo e como se processa a categorização do mundo pela pessoa s/Surda. Descrevemos este matizado, revelando as conceções de surdez e da pessoa s/Surda a partir da dicotomia diferença – deficiência, atualizada pelos paradigmas sócio-antropológico e médico-terapêutico. Para tal, propomos uma viagem ao longo do friso cronológico, a partir do qual fazemos uma visita à educação de s/Surdos, às conceções, representações e estereótipos formados ao longo da História, da qual decorrem estigmas. Redimensionaremos uma reflexão sobre a educação s/Surda, promotora do bilinguismo fundado na mestria de duas línguas: a Língua Gestual Portuguesa (LGP) e a Língua Portuguesa (LP) na modalidade escrita. Esta educação, sustentada em evidências das neurociências, pretende capacitar o aluno s/Surdo para a literacia. A mediação para estes alunos não exige apenas o adulto, mas também a língua gestual em interação com a leitura e a escrita. As aprendizagens são feitas, maioritariamente, pela escrita, via secundária, sem aceder a via comum e primária, a expressão e compreensão oral. Recuperamos, neste contexto, que a literacia e a surdez se constroem na educação bilingue em curso para a educação de cidadãos s/Surdos...

Parceria especial Cabo Verde/União Europeia-UE: uma mudança de paradigma nas relações entre Cabo Verde e UE?

Monteiro, Maria Isabel Gomes
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Mestrado em Desenvolvimento e Cooperação Internacional; Esta dissertação de mestrado tem como principal objectivo desenvolver uma análise crítica da parceria especial Cabo Verde/União Europeia (UE), no contexto das relações externas da União Europeia, procurando desmistificar os novos e renovados contornos deste relacionamento. Reflexo da parceria entre a UE e o Grupo ACP (África, Caraíbas e Pacífico) e consequentemente da cooperação entre a Europa e África, a relação entre Cabo Verde e a União Europeia é afectada pela hegemonia europeia em relação à África que influencia e é influenciada pela recente intensificação da globalização neoliberal, que trespassa as relações internacionais e a economia política internacional. Este trabalho argumenta que, não obstante as potencialidades intrínsecas desta parceria especial - que propõe ultrapassar os meandros do tradicional relacionamento entre o doador/recipiendário -, se a mesma não for bem estudada e negociada por parte de Cabo Verde, as proclamadas "novidades" poderão não passar de retóricas falaciosas, podendo ter um efeito contrário do desejado para o país. Para se atingir o desiderato proposto, além de se apoiar na literatura especializada a nível da conceptualização - tendo como suporte teórico a perspectiva neogramsciana das relações internacionais para explicitar a hegemonia europeia -...