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Three-dimensional structure of human basic fibroblast growth factor, a structural homolog of interleukin 1 beta.

Zhang, J D; Cousens, L S; Barr, P J; Sprang, S R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1991 Português
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65.92%
The three-dimensional structure of the 146-residue form of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), expressed as a recombinant protein in yeast, has been determined by x-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.8 A. bFGF is composed entirely of beta-sheet structure, comprising a three-fold repeat of a four-stranded antiparallel beta-meander. The topology of bFGF is identical to that of interleukin 1 beta, showing that although the two proteins share only 10% sequence identity, bFGF, interleukin 1, and their homologs comprise a family of structurally related mitogenic factors. Analysis of the three-dimensional structure in light of functional studies of bFGF suggests that the receptor binding site and the positively charged heparin binding site correspond to adjacent but separate loci on the beta-barrel.

Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta in Q fever endocarditis.

Capo, C; Zugun, F; Stein, A; Tardei, G; Lepidi, H; Raoult, D; Mege, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The occurrence of Q fever endocarditis likely involves some alterations in the responses of monocytes, the in vivo targets of Coxiella burnetii. To test this hypothesis, the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 was assessed in monocytes from patients with Q fever endocarditis. Spontaneous transcription and secretion of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 were significantly higher in patient monocytes than in healthy controls. The interleukin-6 transcripts were also upregulated in patient cells. Moreover, in patients with recent endocarditis exhibiting high titers of immunoglobulin G directed to C. burnetii in phase I, monocytes released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 than in patients with stabilized endocarditis. Immunoglobulin G titers and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 were significantly correlated. Hence, the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines might be a marker of disease activity.

Induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 gene expression by interleukin 1 beta in rat lung.

Xu, W. B.; Haddad, E. B.; Tsukagoshi, H.; Adcock, I.; Barnes, P. J.; Chung, K. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
BACKGROUND--Recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lungs may contribute to tissue injury as a result of mediators released from these cells. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent inducer of neutrophil accumulation, a process that may require local protein biosynthesis. Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) is a approximately 6 kD heparin binding protein and is a member of the C-X-C superfamily that causes significant neutrophil chemotaxis and activation in vitro. A study was performed to determine whether IL-1 beta could induce the expression of MIP-2 in the lungs of Brown-Norway rats. METHODS--rhIL-1 beta (500 U) or 0.9% NaCl was injected intratracheally and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and lung tissues were evaluated for MIP-2 mRNA expression after RNA extraction by Northern blot analysis. MIP-2 probe was prepared from cDNA obtained by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of BAL cells obtained from a rat treated with lipopolysaccharide. RESULTS--There was no detectable MIP-2 mRNA in the lungs of control rats but a marked enhancement of the expression at four hours with no expression at 12 hours and a slight expression at 24 hours. IL-1 beta induced a significant influx of neutrophils into BAL fluid with a transient increase in macrophages. In situ hybridisation of lungs using MIP-2 cDNA probe labelled with digoxigenin showed expression of MIP-2 mRNA in airway mononuclear cells and airway epithelium at four hours after IL-1 beta; at 24 hours the signal had nearly gone. CONCLUSION--IL-1 beta induces the expression of MIP-2 mRNA in rat lung. MIP-2 may be one chemokine that could contribute to IL-1 beta induced neutrophil influx.

Analysis of mutations in the putative nuclear localization sequence of interleukin-1 beta.

Grenfell, S; Smithers, N; Witham, S; Shaw, A; Graber, P; Solari, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Previous studies have shown that, after receptor-mediated endocytosis, interleukin-1 alpha (IL1 alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta) are translocated to the nucleus, where they appear to accumulate. It has been suggested that nuclear translocation may be involved in the biological responsiveness of target cells to IL1 stimulation. The human IL1 beta molecule contains a seven-amino-acid sequence (-Pro208-Lys-Lys-Lys-Met-Glu-Lys-) that shows some sequence identity with the nuclear localization sequence of the simian-virus-40 large T-antigen. The effects of point mutations within this putative nuclear localization sequence on IL1 beta binding, receptor-mediated endocytosis and biological activity have been characterized. Mutants M49 (Lys210----Ala), M50 (Lys211----Ala) and M51 (Pro208----Ala) all retained the ability to bind to the IL1 receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the wild-type molecules. However, mutants M49, M50 and M51 showed greater biological potency than wild-type IL1 alpha or IL1 beta, as measured by the induction of IL2 secretion. However, receptor-mediated endocytosis and nuclear accumulation of M50 were comparable with those in the wild-type. These observations suggest that the putative nuclear localization sequence may play an important role in the generation of biological responses to IL1 stimulation...

Ethanol potentiates interleukin-1 beta-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

Durante, W; Cheng, K; Sunahara, R K; Schafer, A I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Experiments were performed to examine the effect of ethanol on the production of nitric oxide from interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-treated cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Incubation of vascular smooth muscle cells with IL-1 beta resulted in the release of nitrite and in the intracellular accumulation of L-citrulline. In parallel with this, IL-1 beta increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein. Ethanol (6.5-650 mM) potentiated the IL-1 beta-mediated stimulation of iNOS mRNA production, the appearance of iNOS protein and the generation of nitrite and L-citrulline from smooth muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In the absence of IL-1 beta, ethanol failed to induce iNOS expression. These results demonstrate that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol enhance the IL-1 beta-induced expression of the iNOS gene in vascular smooth muscle. The ability of ethanol to augment the release of the platelet inhibitor and vasodilator nitric oxide may, in part, contribute to the beneficial cardiovascular effects associated with moderate alcohol consumption.

Effects of dexamethasone and transforming growth factor-beta 2 on group II phospholipase A2 mRNA and activity levels in interleukin 1 beta- and forskolin-stimulated mesangial cells.

Vervoordeldonk, M J; Schalkwijk, C G; Pfeilschifter, J; van den Bosch, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/04/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
The expression of 14 kDa group II phospholipase A2 [also referred to as secretory PLA2 (sPLA2)] is induced in rat glomerular mesangial cells by exposure to inflammatory cytokines and forskolin, a cAMP elevating agent. Previously we have shown that dexamethasone and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) suppress sPLA2 protein synthesis and enzyme activity induced by cytokines and forskolin. The regulation of sPLA2 by pro-inflammatory cytokines suggests that the enzyme may play a role in glomerular inflammatory reactions. In order to understand the regulation of sPLA, in more detail, we investigated whether dexamethasone and TGF-beta 2 also suppress sPLA, mRNA after its induction by either interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) or forskolin. We found that IL-1 beta-induced sPLA2 mRNA in rat mesangial cells is not down-regulated by pretreatment of the cells with dexamethasone, even at a concentration of 10 microM, which dramatically decreases sPLA2 protein levels and activity. Metabolic labelling experiments indicated that the decreased sPLA2 levels under these conditions can be explained by inhibition of the rate of sPLA2 synthesis from the elevated mRNA levels. In contrast, the forskolin-induced elevation of sPLA, mRNA is inhibited by dexamethasone in a concentration-dependent manner. Likewise...

Interleukin 1 beta and cAMP trigger the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase I in rat renal mesangial cells.

Plüss, C; Werner, E R; Blau, N; Wachter, H; Pfeilschifter, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
Endogenous synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an important requirement for cytokine-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in mesangial cells. We have shown that inducible NO synthase is expressed in mesangial cells in response to two principal classes of activating signals, inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and agents that elevate cellular levels of cAMP [Kunz, Mühl, Walker and Pfeilschifter (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 5387-5391]. In the present paper we demonstrate that IL-1 beta and cAMP similarly increase the steady-state mRNA levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I (EC 3,5,4,16), the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis, as measured by a sensitive and quantitative nuclease protection assay. Stimulation of cells with a combination of IL-1 beta plus cAMP revealed an additive induction profile of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA. Message stability studies established that GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA induced by cAMP has a longer half-life than the IL-1 beta-induced message. Moreover, cAMP exposure markedly prolonged the half-life of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA, from 1.5 to 3.4 h. In a next step we generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody against rat GTP cyclohydrolase I expressed in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that IL-1 beta and cAMP elevated GTP cyclohydrolase I protein levels in mesangial cells. Furthermore...

Impairment by interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha of the glucagon-induced increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and gluconeogenesis in cultured rat hepatocytes.

Christ, B; Nath, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/11/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
The influence of the inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 beta (IL1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) on the glucagon-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) and on glucose formation via gluconeogenesis was investigated in cultured rat hepatocytes. Gene expression was monitored by determination of mRNA levels and of enzyme activity. Glucose formation was estimated with newly synthesized radioactive glucose derived from a radiolabelled lactate precursor. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK mRNA transiently to a maximum 2 h after its application. In the presence of recombinant human (rh) IL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the increase in PCK mRNA levels was totally inhibited at 0.1 nM glucagon, whereas at 1 nM glucagon the maximal increase was inhibited by only 25%. Glucagon (0.1 or 1 nM) induced PCK activity to a maximum after 4 h (4-fold and 6-fold over prestimulatory activity respectively). In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha the maximal increase was inhibited by approx. 50%. Addition of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha 2 h after glucagon, at the maximal glucagon-induced PCK mRNA levels, accelerated the decay of PCK mRNA. Glucagon (1 or 10 nM) [corrected] increased glucose formation from lactate by 1.3-fold and 1.7-fold respectively over unstimulated rates. In the presence of rhIL1 beta or rhTNF alpha this increase in glucose formation was inhibited by 60-90%. At 0.1 nM...

Langerhans cells require signals from both tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta for migration.

Cumberbatch, M; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The induction phase of contact sensitization is associated with the movement of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) from the skin and their migration, via afferent lymphatics, to draining lymph nodes where they accumulate as immunostimulatory dendritic cells (DC). It has been demonstrated previously that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) provides an important signal for LC migration and that in the absence of this cytokine, movement of LC from the epidermis to regional lymph nodes is inhibited. Recent evidence indicates that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), a cytokine produced in murine epidermis exclusively by LC, may also play a role in LC migration. The purpose of the investigations described here was to clarify, using relevant neutralizing anti-cytokine antibodies, the contributions made by TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta to the migration of LC from the epidermis. It was found that like anti-TNF-alpha, anti-IL-1 beta administered systemically to mice (by intraperitoneal injection), prior to skin sensitization with the contact allergen oxazolone, resulted in a marked inhibition of DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes. It was shown also that anti-IL-1 beta inhibited TNF-alpha-induced LC migration and DC accumulation and that; in similar fashion...

The role of nitric oxide in cardiac depression induced by interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

Schulz, R; Panas, D L; Catena, R; Moncada, S; Olley, P M; Lopaschuk, G D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
1. Myocardial dysfunction during septic shock is associated with enhanced production of cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). These cytokines depress cardiac mechanical function by a mechanism which is not well defined. 2. Bacterial endotoxin or cytokines cause the expression of Ca(2+)-independent nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelial cells and endocardial endothelial cells, causing enhanced production of NO. As NO has negative inotropic actions on cardiac muscle, we tested the sum effects of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha in the intact heart to determine whether enhanced expression of NO synthase activity in the cells that comprise the heart is involved in cardiac depression associated with cytokine stimulation. 3. Rat isolated working hearts perfused with IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha showed a markedly greater depression in contractile function, measured as cardiac work, after 2 h of perfusion compared with time-matched control hearts. The depressant action of IL-1 beta plus TNF-alpha was first apparent after 1 h of perfusion; no early (15 min) cardiac depressant actions were seen. 4. The competitive inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent NO synthases...

Inhibition by neuropeptides of interleukin-1 beta-induced, prostaglandin-independent hyperalgesia.

Follenfant, R. L.; Nakamura-Craig, M.; Henderson, B.; Higgs, G. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1989 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
The cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent hyperalgesic agent in the rat whereas IL-1 alpha is relatively inactive (Ferreira et al., 1988). IL-1 beta induced a dose-dependent increase in the sensitivity of rat paws to mechanical stimulation following intra-plantar injection but this effect was not reduced by indomethacin (1.0 mg kg-1, p.o.), at a dose known to inhibit completely prostaglandin synthesis in the rat (Salmon et al., 1983). Prostaglandin (PG)E2 enhanced sensitivity to both mechanical pressure and increased temperature but IL-1 beta enhanced only sensitivity to pressure. These observations indicate that IL-1 beta sensitized pressure-sensitive but not temperature-sensitive sensory neurones, through a prostaglandin-independent mechanism. Hyperalgesia induced by IL-1 beta but not PGE2, was inhibited by the neuropeptide melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) and its analogue [Nle4, D-Phe7] alpha MSH which are known to antagonize IL-1 responses in other systems (Holdeman & Lipton, 1985; Cannon et al., 1986). IL-1 beta-induced hyperalgesia was also reduced by the putative IL-1 beta antagonist Lys-D-Pro-Thr (Ferreira et al., 1988) but alpha MSH and its analogue were 10-50 times more potent.

Downregulation of nitrovasodilator-induced cyclic GMP accumulation in cells exposed to endotoxin or interleukin-1 beta.

Papapetropoulos, A.; Abou-Mohamed, G.; Marczin, N.; Murad, F.; Caldwell, R. W.; Catravas, J. D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
1. Induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), which may be a principal cause of the massive vasodilatation and hypotension observed in septic shock. Since NO-induced vasorelaxation is mediated via the soluble isoform of guanylate cyclase (sGC), the regulation of sGC activity during shock is of obvious importance, but yet poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activation of sGC by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) before and after exposure of rat aortic smooth muscle cells to endotoxin (LPS) or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). 2. Exposure of rat aortic smooth muscle cells to SNP (10 microM) elicited up to 200 fold increases in cyclic GMP. This effect was attenuated by 30-70% in IL-1 beta- or LPS-pretreated cells, in a pretreatment time-and IL-1 beta- or LPS-concentration-dependent manner. When, however, cells were exposed to IL-1 beta or LPS and then stimulated with the particulate guanylate cyclase activator, atriopeptin II, no reduction in cyclic GMP accumulation was observed. 3. Pretreatment of rats with LPS (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) for 6 h led to a decrease in aortic ring SNP-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 4. The IL-1 beta-induced reduction in SNP-stimulated cyclic GMP accumulation in cultured cells was dependent on NO production...

Interleukin-1 beta enhances capsaicin-induced neurogenic vasodilatation in the rat skin.

Herbert, M. K.; Holzer, P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
1. This study examined the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on the capsaicin-induced increase in cutaneous blood flow of anaesthetized rats as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. 2. The substances were administered by intraplantar subcutaneous injection of 10 microliters-volumes, saline being injected into one hindpaw and IL-1 beta into the other. 3. IL-1 beta (0.5-500 pg) was without effect on blood flow on its own but dose-dependently enhanced the hyperaemic response to intraplantar capsaicin (0.3 microgram) up to 180% (P < 0.05) of the response seen in saline-treated paws. 4. Il-1 beta-(163-171), a fragment devoid of proinflammatory activity, failed to enhance capsaicin-induced hyperaemia when given at a dose of 50 pg. 5. Indomethacin (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) did not alter the capsaicin-induced vasodilatation but prevented IL-1 beta (50 pg) from augmenting the hyperaemic response to capsaicin. 6. The hyperaemia evoked by intraplantar calcitonin gene-related peptide (0.038-3.8 ng) was not altered by IL-1 beta (50 pg). 7. These data indicate that IL-1 beta enhances the cutaneous hyperaemic response to afferent nerve stimulation with capsaicin in a prostaglandin-dependent manner. This proinflammatory action of the cytokine appears to arise from sensitization of afferent nerve endings.

Effects of intraperitoneal recombinant interleukin-1 beta in intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft models: comparison with the effects of tumour necrosis factor.

Malik, S. T.; East, N.; Boraschi, D.; Balkwill, F. R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
The effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (rhIL-1 beta) was studied in three i.p. nude mouse xenograft models of human ovarian cancer (HU, OS, and LA). Intraperitoneal rhIL-1 beta administration led to a dose dependent replacement of peritoneal ascitic tumour with solid tumours attached to the peritoneum and intraabdominal viscera in two (HU and LA) out of the three xenograft models. In the third xenograft model (OS), low doses of rhIL-1 beta (10 ng day) promoted micrometastatic peritoneal implants of tumour, but higher doses of rhIL-1 beta (1 microgram day) had a marked antitumour effect. This was due to direct cytotoxicity for tumour cells and was not related to peritoneal neutrophil influx induced by rhIL-1 beta. Recombinant human TNF (rhTNF) also promoted tumour implantation in all three xenograft models, but its antitumour effects differed from rhIL-1 beta. TNF increased the survival of HU and LA bearing mice, but had no antitumour effect in the OS xenograft model. Analysis of peritoneal fluid and tumour xenografts showed that TNF induced murine IL-1 in the tumour bearing mice. The magnitude of IL-1 induction indicated that TNF induced IL-1 did not contribute significantly to its effects.

Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Secretory granules of human dermal mast cells contain a chymotrypsin- like serine proteinase called chymase. In this study, we demonstrate that the inactive cytokine, 31 kD interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), can be converted rapidly to an 18 kD biologically active species by human mast cell chymase. The product formed is three amino acids longer at the amino terminus than the mature IL-1 beta produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and has comparable biological activity. Because chymase is a secretory granule constituent, it is likely to be released into the surrounding tissue when mast cells degranulate. It is also known that non-bone marrow derived cells resident in skin (keratinocytes, fibroblasts) produce but do not process 31 kD IL-1 beta. In this context, chymase may be a potent activator of locally produced 31 kD IL-1 beta. Mast cells lie in close apposition to blood vessels in dermis; therefore, chymase mediated conversion of 31 kD IL-1 beta might be expected to have a critical role in the initiation of the inflammatory response in skin.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin and interleukin 1 beta initiate meningeal inflammation

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Although previous studies using human cytokines in rabbits and rats have provided evidence of the participation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) in the meningeal inflammatory cascade, the results obtained by several groups of investigators have been discordant or, at times, contradictory. In the present study, homologous cytokines were applied to the rabbit meningitis model. Intracisternal administration of 10(2)-10(5) IU of purified rabbit TNF-alpha (RaTNF-alpha) produced significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation. A similar response was observed after intracisternal inoculation of 5-200 ng of rabbit recombinant IL-1 beta (rrIL-1 beta). Preincubation of these two mediators with their specific antibodies resulted in an almost complete suppression of the CSF inflammatory response. In animals with Haemophilus influenzae type b lipooligosaccharide-induced meningitis, intracisternal administration of anti-rrIL-1 beta, anti-RaTNF-alpha, or both resulted in a significant modulation of meningeal inflammation. Simultaneous administration of 10(3) IU of RaTNF-alpha and 5 ng of rrIL-1 beta resulted in a synergistic inflammatory response manifested by a more rapid and significantly increased influx of white blood cells into the CSF compared with results after each cytokine given alone. These data provide evidence for a seminal role of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta in the initial events of meningeal inflammation.

Interleukin 1 beta propeptide is detected intracellularly and extracellularly when human monocytes are stimulated with LPS in vitro

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
Human interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is cleaved by IL-1 converting enzyme (ICE) between Asp116 and Ala117 to form COOH-terminal mature IL-1 beta and NH2- terminal IL-1 beta propeptide. Little is known about the fate of the NH2-terminal cleavage product. In this study, human recombinant (hr)IL- 1 beta propeptide (amino acids 2-116) was produced and used to prepare specific antibodies which do not recognize mature human IL-1 beta. These anti-propeptide antibodies were used for immunoprecipitation of biosynthetically labeled proteins from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes. Analysis of immunoprecipitates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography revealed that these antibodies recognize precursor IL-1 beta and two unique proteins: one migrating at 17.5 kD and one at 14 kD. The larger of these two proteins has a migration nearly identical to that of the recombinant IL-1 beta propeptide, and most likely represents naturally derived propeptide. The protein migrating at 14 kD may result from a second cleavage by ICE, between Asp27 and Gly28. These proteins accumulate intracellularly and extracellularly during pulse-chase experiments, and therefore represent stable products of precursor IL-1 beta cleavage.

Contribution of interleukin-1 beta to the inflammation-induced increase in nerve growth factor levels and inflammatory hyperalgesia.

Safieh-Garabedian, B.; Poole, S.; Allchorne, A.; Winter, J.; Woolf, C. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.93%
1. Peripheral inflammation is associated with the local production of neuroactive inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. These may contribute to inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia by directly or indirectly altering the function or chemical phenotype of responsive primary sensory neurones. 2. To investigate this, inflammation was produced by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in adult rats. This resulted in a significant elevation in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the inflamed tissue and of the peptides, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the L4 dorsal root ganglion 48 h post CFA injection. 3. The effects of a steroidal (dexamethasone) and a non-steroidal (indomethacin) anti-inflammatory drug on the levels of NGF and IL-1 beta in inflamed tissue were investigated and compared with alterations in behavioural hyperalgesia and neuropeptide expression in sensory neurones. 4. Systemic dexamethasone (120 micrograms kg-1 per day starting the day before the CFA injection) had no effect on the inflammatory hyperalgesia. When the dose was administered 3 times daily, a reduction in mechanical and to a lesser extent thermal sensitivity occurred. Indomethacin at 2 mg kg-1 daily (i.p.) had no effect on the hyperalgesia and a dose of 4 mg kg-1 daily was required to reduce significantly mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. 5. The increase in NGF produced by the CFA inflammation was prevented by both dexamethasone and indomethacin...

A novel cis-acting element required for lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the murine interleukin-1 beta gene.

Godambe, S A; Chaplin, D D; Takova, T; Read, L M; Bellone, C J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Regulatory elements important for transcription of the murine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene lie within a DNase I-hypersensitive region located > 2,000 bp upstream from the transcription start site. We have identified within this region a novel positive regulatory element that is required for activation of an IL-1 beta promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene in the murine macrophage line RAW264.7. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis of the 3' portion (-2315 to -2106) of the hypersensitive region revealed at least two nuclear factor binding sites, one of which is located between positions -2285 and -2256. Competitive inhibition studies localized the binding site to a 15-bp sequence between -2285 and -2271. Nuclear factor binding was lost by mutation of the 6-bp sequence from -2280 to -2275. The specific retarded complex formed with RAW264.7 nuclear extract was not detected under similar conditions with nuclear extracts from RLM-11, a murine T-cell line which does not express IL-1 beta RNA. Mutation of the 6-bp sequence (-2280 to -2275) in the chimeric IL-1 beta promoter -4093 +I CAT plasmid virtually eliminated the activation of this reporter gene by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in transfected RAW264.7 cells. Multimerization of the 15-bp sequence containing the core wild-type 6-bp sequence 5' of minimal homologous or heterologous promoters in CAT reporter plasmids resulted in significant enhancement of CAT expression compared with parallel constructs containing the mutant 6-bp core sequence. This element was LPS independent and position and orientation dependent. The multimerized 15-bp sequence did not enhance expression in RLM-11 cells. Methylation interference revealed contact residues from -2281 to -2271...

A CRE/ATF-like site in the upstream regulatory sequence of the human interleukin 1 beta gene is necessary for induction in U937 and THP-1 monocytic cell lines.

Gray, J G; Chandra, G; Clay, W C; Stinnett, S W; Haneline, S A; Lorenz, J J; Patel, I R; Wisely, G B; Furdon, P J; Taylor, J D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Transfection of U937 and THP-1 cells with a recombinant plasmid, pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT, containing 4 kb of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene upstream regulatory sequence resulted in inducer-dependent expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. Treatment of the transfected cells with various combinations of the inducers lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP upregulated the IL-1 beta promoter. In U937 and THP-1 cells, maximum stimulation of both the endogenous IL-1 beta gene and pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT transfectants was observed following treatment with the combination of inducing agents lipopolysaccharide-phorbol myristate acetate-dibutyryl cyclic AMP. This combination of inducing agents was used to identify and study, at the molecular level, some of the regulatory elements necessary for induction of the IL-1 beta gene. A series of 5' deletion derivatives of the upstream regulatory sequence were used in transient transfection assays to identify an 80-bp fragment located between -2720 and -2800 bp upstream of the mRNA start site that was required for induction. Exonuclease III mapping, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and DNA sequence analysis of this region were used to identify a transcription factor binding sequence which contained a potential cyclic AMP response element (CRE/ATF)- and NF-kappa B-like binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/ATF-like site resulted in the loss of binding of a specific factor or factors as determined by EMSA. The loss of binding activity directly correlated with a loss of approximately 75% of promoter activity as determined in transient transfection assays. As determined by EMSA...