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Raízes do neoliberalismo brasileiro: uma análise sociológica do processo de abertura comercial; Roots of neoliberalism in Brazil: a sociological analysis of the process of trade liberalization

Fontes, Leonardo de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/02/2012 Português
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O objetivo deste estudo é realizar uma análise em torno do processo de abertura comercial brasileira, transcorrido no início dos anos 1990 e inserido no contexto da crise política vivida com a conclusão da transição para a democracia e a crise econômica advinda dos anos 1980. Dessa forma, buscou-se examinar, de uma perspectiva sociológica, este processo que é comumente analisado apenas a partir do campo econômico. O intuito, então, é compreender o arranjo sociopolítico engendrado pela abertura comercial e que, de acordo com a hipótese aqui defendida, será fundamental para a articulação de um novo arranjo hegemônico no Brasil. Nosso enfoque estará, portanto, na correlação de forças sociais presentes naquele momento, tanto em termos materiais quanto ideológicos, procurando compreender o sentido empreendido pelos atores envolvidos neste processo.; The aim of this study is to provide an analysis about the process of trade liberalization in Brazil. This process, ocurred in early 1990, took placed in the context of the political crisis with the the transition to democracy and economic crisis arising from the 1980s. Thus, we attempted to examine, from a sociological perspective, this process that is commonly analyzed only from an economic approach. The goal...

Educação e comércio internacional: impactos da liberalização comercial dos serviços sobre a regulação da educação superior no Brasil; Education and international trade: impacts of trade in services liberalization on higher education regulation in Brazil

Tasquetto, Lucas da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2014 Português
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Esta tese aborda o desenvolvimento da regulação internacional sobre o comércio de serviços educacionais, em especial nos acordos preferenciais de comércio de Austrália, Chile, China, Cingapura, Estados Unidos, Índia e União Europeia. O seu objetivo foi avaliar o atual nível de liberalização comercial da educação superior no plano global, de modo que sua compatibilidade com o direito à educação pudesse ser criticamente analisada, assim como os seus possíveis impactos sobre a regulação da educação superior no Brasil. Para tanto, a pesquisa começa pela realização de entrevistas com atores que acompanham o processo de comercialização da educação superior no Brasil. Os passos seguintes envolvem a compreensão do funcionamento das disciplinas internacionais sobre o comércio de serviços, da formulação das posições no processo negociador e, finalmente, dos compromissos em serviços de educação superior em acordos preferenciais de comércio. Uma primeira hipótese é de que, mesmo sem acordos de comércio, o mercado brasileiro já se encontra significativamente liberalizado no que diz respeito aos investimentos estrangeiros em educação superior, sem qualquer restrição ao ingresso de capital internacional. Ainda assim...

Trade Liberalization and Regional Impacts on Residual Wage Inequality: Evidence from Brazil

Rey, Ignacio Crespo
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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O objetivo deste trabalho é entender mais sobre o papel da liberalização sobre a desigualdade salarial, mais precisamente, sobre a desigualdade residual dos salários. Usando a abertura comercial brasileira, a extensa redução tarifária que ocorreu entre 1987 e 1995, é investigado empiricamente se os diferentes níveis de exposição ao comércio entre os estados contribuíram para os diferentes movimentos da desigualdade. Os resultados indicam que estados mais expostos à liberalização comercial experimentaram um aumento relativo da desigualdade residual dos salários ou, de forma equivalente, uma menor redução. Estes resultados enriquecem a discussão dos efeitos da abertura comercial sobre a desigualdade.; The aim of this paper is to understand more about the role of trade liberalization on wage inequality, more precisely, on the residual wage inequality. Using the Brazil- ian trade openness, the large tari cuts that occurred between 1987 and 1995, it is empirically investigated whether di erent levels of exposure to trade across states contributed to the di erent inequality movements. Results indicate that states more exposed to trade liberalization experienced a relative increase in residual wage in- equality or...

Wage inequality and trade liberalization : evidence from Argentina

Sanguinetti, Pablo
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Wage inequality has increased substantially in Argentina during the nineties. At the same time during this decade Argentina has gone through a rapid and deep process of trade liberalization. In this paper we try to associate both phenomena. In particular, we attempt to answer the following question: Did trade liberalization play any role in shaping the argentine wage structure during the period studied? Specifically, we test whether those sectors where import penetration deepened are also the sectors where, ceteris paribus, a higher increase in wage inequality has taken place. We fmd evidence that supports this hypothesis.

The effects of trade liberalization on productivity growth in Brazil: competition or technology?

Lisboa,Marcos B.; Menezes Filho,Naercio A.; Schor,Adriana
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2010 Português
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This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on productivity growth in Brazil. In contrast with the previous literature, we examine whether this relationship is driven by product or input market effects, by including both output and input tariffs in firm-level productivity regressions and allowing for imperfect competition in the product market. The results show that the reductions of input tariffs were more important to explain the productivity growth that took place during trade liberalization in Brazil. Moreover, we find that the reduction in input tariffs led to a rise in mark-ups, while the reduction in output tariffs did the opposite.

Trade Liberalization, Firm Heterogneity, and Wages : New Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data

Krishna, Pravin; Poole, Jennifer P.; Senses, Mine Zeynep
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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In this paper, the authors use a linked employer-employee database from Brazil to examine the impact of trade reform on the wages of workers employed at heterogeneous firms. The analysis of the data at the firm-level confirms earlier findings of a differential positive effect of trade liberalization on the average wages at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. However, this analysis of average firm-level wages is incomplete along several dimensions. First, it cannot fully account for the impact of a change in trade barriers on workforce composition especially in terms of unobservable (time-invariant) characteristics of workers (innate ability) and any additional productivity that obtains in the context of employment in the specific firm (match specific ability). Furthermore, the firm-level analysis is undertaken under the assumption that the assignment of workers to firms is random. This ignores the sorting of worker into firms and leads to a bias in estimates of the differential impact of trade on workers at exporting firms relative to non-exporting firms. Using detailed information on worker and firm characteristics to control for compositional effects and using firm-worker match specific effects to account for the endogenous mobility of workers...

Modeling Services Liberalization : The Case of Tanzania

Jensen, Jesper; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This paper employs a 52-sector, small, open-economy computable general equilibrium model of the Tanzanian economy to assess the impact of the liberalization of regulatory barriers against foreign and domestic business service providers in Tanzania. The model incorporates productivity effects in both goods and services markets endogenously, through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. It summarizes policy notes on the key business service sectors that were prepared for this work, and estimates the ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment based on these policy notes and detailed questionnaires completed by specialists in Tanzania. The authors estimate that Tanzania will gain about 5.3 percent of the value of Tanzanian consumption in the medium run (or about 4.8 percent of gross domestic product) from a full reform package that also includes uniform tariffs. The estimated gains increase to about 16 percent of consumption in the long-run, steady-state model, where the impact on the accumulation of capital from an improvement in the productivity of capital is taken into account. Decomposition exercises reveal that the largest gains to Tanzania will derive from liberalization of costly regulatory barriers that are non-discriminatory in their impacts between Tanzanian and multinational service providers.

Modeling Services Liberalization : The Case of Kenya

Balistreri, Edward J.; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper employs a 55 sector small open economy computable general equilibrium model of the Kenyan economy to assess the impact of the liberalization of regulatory barriers against foreign and domestic business service providers in Kenya. The model incorporates productivity effects in both goods and services markets endogenously, through a Dixit-Stiglitz framework. It estimates the ad valorem equivalent of barriers to foreign direct investment based on detailed questionnaires completed by specialists in Kenya. The authors estimate that Kenya will gain about 11 percent of the value of Kenyan consumption in the medium run (or about 10 percent of gross domestic product) from a full reform package that also includes uniform tariffs. The estimated gains increase to 77 percent of consumption in the long-run steady-state model, where the impact on the accumulation of capital from an improvement in the productivity of capital is taken into account. Decomposition exercises reveal that the largest gains to Kenya will derive from liberalization of costly regulatory barriers that are non-discriminatory in their impacts between Kenyan and multinational service providers.

Does Services Liberalization Benefit Manufacturing Firms? Evidence from the Czech Republic

Arnold, Jens; Javorcik, Beata S.; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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While there is considerable empirical evidence on the impact of liberalizing trade in goods, the effects of services liberalization have not been empirically established. Using firm-level data from the Czech Republic for the period 1998-2003, this study examines the link between services sector reforms and the productivity of domestic firms in downstream manufacturing. Several aspects of services reform are considered and measured, namely, the increased presence of foreign providers, privatization, and enhanced competition. The manufacturing-services linkage is measured using information on the degree to which manufacturing firms in a particular industry rely on intermediate inputs from specific services sectors. The econometric results lead to two conclusions. First, the study finds that services policy matters for the productivity of manufacturing firms relying on services inputs. This finding is robust to several econometric specifications, including controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity and for other aspects of openness. Second...

Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report, Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization, studies the food price instability and risk problem in low-income countries and investigates the benefits and costs of alternative policy responses, and provides guidance on how to make the transition from state-dominated markets to private markets. The report concludes that problems of food price instability and food insecurity need to be addressed by developing: measures to improve overall productivity of food staples, measures to promote irrigation or crop diversification to reduce climate risks, improvements of the overall efficiency of markets, including investments in transport and communication infrastructure, storage, information systems, and market regulations. The report stresses that direct public interventions in food markets to manage food price risk should be a last resort. Specific policy recommendations are made to achieve these objectives.

The Development of Electricity Markets in the Euro-Mediterranean Area : Trends and Prospects for Liberalization and Regional Integration

Muller-Jentsch, Daniel
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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The main objective of this document is to map key policy issues that need to be addressed to successfully implement energy sector reform at the national, and regional levels, and, provides an overview of global, European, and Mediterranean trends, aiming at facilitating the dissemination of best practices. Chapter I describes international best practices in the design of legal, regulatory, and institutional sector framework, which include corporatization, and restructuring of state-owned energy utilities; separation of regulatory and operational functions, by creating coherent regulatory frameworks, establishing independent regulators, and promoting competition; engaging the electricity industry into generation, transmission, distribution, and trade; introduction of competition in generation, and trade, and, in the regulation of monopolistic activities; promotion of private participation; and, reduction of subsidies, and balance of tariffs. Chapters II and III examine power sector reform in the European Union (EU)...

Spatial Dimensions of Trade Liberalization and Economic Convergence : Mexico 1985-2002

Aroca, Patricio; Bosch, Mariano; Maloney, William F.
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article employs established techniques from the spatial economics literature to identify regional patterns of income and growth in Mexico and to examine how they have changed over the period spanned by trade liberalization and how they may be linked to the income divergence observed following liberalization. The article first shows that divergence has emerged in the form of several income clusters that only partially correspond to traditional geographic regions. Next, when regions are defined by spatial correlation in incomes, a south clearly exists, but the north seems to be restricted to the states directly on the United States (U.S.) border and there is no center region. Overall, the principal dynamic of both the increased spatial dependency and the increased divergence lies not on the border but in the sustained underperformance of the southern states, starting before the North American free-trade agreement, and to a lesser extent in the superior performance of an emerging convergence club in the north-center of the country.

The Fiscal Roots of Delayed Financial Liberalization in Western Europe, 1960-1991

Battilossi, Stefano
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject Formato: text/plain; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
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Capital controls survived in a number of European financial systems until the late 1980s, whereas other countries espoused a much more liberal approach. Why were financial reforms so controversial and controls so hard to dismantle? In the paper the determinants of delayed liberalization are empirically investigated for a panel of 16 European countries from 1960 to 1991. We find evidence in favour of a public finance interpretation of different attitudes towards financial liberalization.; Paper presented at: XIV International Economic History Conference, University of Helsinki, August 2006.

Country asymmetries, endogenous product choice and the timing of trade liberalization

Cabrales, Antonio; Motta, Massimo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 Português
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We analyze the e!ects of trade liberalization on "rms' decisions and pro"ts in a vertical product di!erentiation model with countries which have di!erent characteristics. Firms decide product speci"cations at the beginning of the game, in which autarky is followed by trade liberalization (whose date is anticipated). Our analysis suggests that a "rm located in a large (or rich) country is the likely market leader at the trade equilibrium. This outcome might be reversed if small country "rms have a strong cost advantage, transport costs are negligible, or if the large country opens its market before the small one.

Why Liberalization Alone Has Not Improved Agricultural Productivity in Zambia; The Role of Asset Ownership and Working Capital Constraints

Deininger, Klaus; Olinto, Pedro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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The authors use a large panel data set from Zambia to examine factors that could explain the relatively lackluster performance of the country's agricultural sector after liberalization. Zambia's liberalization significantly opened the economy but failed to alter the structure of production or help realize efficiency gains. They reach two main conclusions. First, not owning productive assets (in Zambia, draft animals and implements) limits improvements in agricultural productivity and household welfare. Owning oxen increases income directly, allows farmers to till their fields efficiently when rain is delayed, increases the area cultivated, and improves access to credit and fertilizer markets. Second, the authors reject the hypothesis that the application of fertilizer is unprofitable because of high input prices. Rather, fertilizer use appears to have declined because of constraints on supplies, which government intervention exacerbated instead of alleviating. (Extending the use of fertilizer to the many producers not currently using it would be profitable...

Revenue and the Fiscal Impact of Liberalization : The Case of Niger

Zafar, Ali
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Using data collected during several missions, the author finds that the principal reasons for low revenue mobilization are (1) the adverse fiscal impact of trade liberalization, (2) the defiscalization of agriculture in the 1970s, (3) the collapse of the uranium boom in the 1980s, and (4) the poor record of the VAT in mobilizing revenue. The large reduction in tariffs during the 1980s and 1990s in the context of structural adjustment programs and West African regional integration initiatives had adverse effects on trade tax revenue during the period 1980 2003. But higher import levels after 1994 succeeded in partially mitigating the revenue losses. The experience of Niger shows that without accompanying macroeconomic policies, parallel improvements in tax and customs administration, and success in mobilizing domestic taxes, most notably the VAT, trade reform can have adverse fiscal consequences. Using a SMART model partial equilibrium analysis developed by UNCTAD for researchers and negotiators at multilateral trade rounds, the author simulated three different tariff shocks to test the fiscal and trade implications of additional trade liberalization in Niger. First, the preferred tariff regime in terms of overall fiscal and job creation impact was the harmonized Swiss formula in contrast to a 10 and 15 percent uniform tariff. Second...

Safeguards and Antidumping in Latin American Trade Liberalization

Finger, J. Michael; Nogues, Julio J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The binding of tariff rates and adoption of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization-sanctioned safeguards and antidumping mechanisms provided the basis to remove a multitude of instruments of protection in the Latin American countries discussed in this paper. At the same time, they helped in maintaining centralized control over the management of pressures for protection in agencies with economy-wide accountabilities. The World Trade Organization's procedural requirements (for example, to follow published criteria, or participation by interested parties) helped leaders to change the culture of decision-making from one based on relationships to one based on objective criteria. However, when Latin American governments attempted to introduce economic sense - such as base price comparisons on an economically sensible measure of long-run international price rather than the more generous constructed cost concept that is the core of WTO rules - protection-seekers used the rules against them. They pointed out that World Trade Organization rules do not require the use of such criteria...

Liberalization and tax amnesty in a developing economy

Bosea, Pinaki; Jetter, Michael.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Art??culo; publishedVersion
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We show that tax evaders can respond to a tax amnesty, even if enforcement activities do not change, if it is timed to coincide with liberalization and rising incomes. The success of the amnesty, in terms of its effect on tax revenue and welfare, depends on the distribution of the gains from liberalization. Our analysis provides a theoretical justification of the link between successful amnesties and economic liberalization and points to factors that a policy maker should consider for success of future amnesties.

Impacts of a liberalization in the USA market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice: why Florida's producers are so afraid?

Fracalanza,Paulo Sérgio; Ferreira,Adriana Nunes; Neves,Marcos Fava
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Economia e Sociologia Rural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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This study aims at examining the resource allocation and welfare implications of the reduction of barriers in the United States market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ) imported from Brazil. The present paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents an overview of the main features of the market and current trade regime for orange juice, as well as the possible impacts of liberalization within FTAA and with the European Union; section 3 describes the partial equilibrium model of imperfect substitute goods used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization in the United States, on prices and quantities and on welfare; in section 4 two possible scenarios for liberalization are designed using the large country model. The last section summarizes the main conclusions.

International Capital liberalization: The impact on World Development

Eatwell, John
Fonte: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios Publicador: Universidad de Chile. Facultad de Economía y Negocios
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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The widespread liberalization of international financial flows followed the end of the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities among the world’s major currencies. The trend toward openness has accelerated in the 1980’s and 1990’s and liberalization is now spreading rapidly to emerging economies. Yet it is not clear that the optimism hat underpins this global liberalization effort is warranted. An examination of the record of financial reveals that many hoped for benefits have failed to materialize. International financial flows have concentrated in the rich countries, have created new systemic risks, and have led to lower rates of growth of the world economy. This has happened essentially because financial markets do not merely process the financial information necessary to secures and efficient allocation of real resources. Instead, they tend to operate in such a way that heir own “beliefs” are imposed on the real economy, becoming self-fulfilling prophecies. Moreover; the potential for instability in today´s massive capital markets induces both governments and private-sector investor in the real economy to pursue highl risk-averse strategies. The result is low growth and high unemployment.