Página 5 dos resultados de 13128 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

As excepções aos direitos de autor em benefício das bibliotecas: análise comparativa entre a União Europeia e a América Latina; Copyright exceptions for the benefit of libraries: comparative analysis between the European Union and Latin America

Dias, Maria do Carmo Ferreira; Fernández-Molina, J. Carlos; Borges, Maria Manuel
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Escola de Ciência da Informação Publicador: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Escola de Ciência da Informação
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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66.13%
O desenvolvimento do ambiente digital tornou imprescindível uma reformulação geral da legislação sobre o direito de autor, incluindo as excepções que beneficiam as bibliotecas e instituições similares. Esta adaptação à nova realidade tecnológica, não se está a processar de uma forma satisfatória na maioria dos países, não só pelo excessivo reforço dos direitos de autor, como pela manutenção de uma certa filosofia pré-digital. Esta reforma legislativa deveria realizar-se, tendo em conta os interesses e o nível de desenvolvimento de cada país, pois os objectivos divergem entre os países da América do Norte e da Europa, em relação aos países da América Latina. O objectivo deste trabalho consiste em analisar a situação em que se encontram as excepções aos direitos de autor a favor das bibliotecas, nos principais países da União Europeia e da América Latina, examinando as suas diferenças e semelhanças. Conclui-se que, apesar de as leis nacionais dos países europeus não cumprirem todos os requisitos exigidos na actualidade, contribuem para facilitar o trabalho das bibliotecas, em maior grau do que as leis dos países latino-americanos, realmente deficientes, na sua grande maioria.; The development of the digital environment it became essential a general reformation of copyright legislation...

An investigation of the relationship between counterfeiting and culture: evidence from the European Union

Ribeiro, J. Cadima; Santos, J. Freitas
Fonte: Universiddae do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas. Publicador: Universiddae do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
International counterfeiting affects adversely producers, consumers and domestic economies. Some attempts have been made in the last years by international organisations (European Union, World Trade Organisation) to deal with this complex problem. Though some success has been achieved, the number of seizures of counterfeited goods detected in the external borders of EU has increased. This study examines the impact of Hofstede’s cultural variables (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance) on the level of counterfeiting in European countries.

An investigation of the relationship between counterfeiting and culture : evidence from the European Union

Ribeiro, J. Cadima; Santos, J. Freitas
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
International counterfeiting affects adversely producers, consumers and domestic economies. Some attempts have been made in the last years by international organisations (European Union, World Trade Organisation) to deal with this complex problem. Though some success has been achieved, the number of seizures of counterfeited goods detected in the external borders of EU has increased. This study examines the impact of Hofstede’s cultural variables (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance) on the level of counterfeiting in European countries.

Cooperação entre a União Europeia e São Tomé e Príncipe : que perspetivas futuras?; Cooperation between the European Union and Sao Tome and Principe : what future prospects?

Sousa, Admaier Will Martins de
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Políticas Comunitárias e Cooperação Territorial; Este relatório tem como objetivo dar respostas a um conjunto de questões propostas relativo a cooperação entre a União Europeia e São Tomé e Príncipe, isto é, como surgiu a cooperação, qual o principal objetivo, que instrumentos utilizados, quais os benefícios da mesma para São Tomé e Príncipe. Entretanto, houve necessidade de uma profunda reflexão histórica da cooperação desde do seu início até atualidade, o que permitiu também a identificar de 3 pontos importantes: a primeira assinatura da convenção de Lomé considerada na altura, como um modelo único e inovador de cooperação internacional, a segunda seria a politização da cooperação que se sucedeu com a mudança do sistema internacional e a assinatura do Tratado de Maastricht, e por ultimo a assinatura do acordo de Cotonu centrado em 3 aspetos fundamentais, política, economia e desenvolvimento. O trabalho foi realizado a base de documentos oficiais da cooperação, Estratégia do país e o Programa Indicativo Nacional 2008-2013, e permitiu a identificação de área de concentração e de não-concentração. O relatório analisa também um novo quadro financeiro plurianual 2014-2020...

Sources of Convergence in the European Union : the Case of Portugal

Pontes, José Pedro
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The paper surveys the main trends of per capita income convergence in the European Union, It stresses that income disparities have ceased to diminish across the European regions since 1980, although convergence between countries has continued in this period. Income levels have diverged inside each country in a weak sense with two exceptions. Theoretical forces behind income convergence are analized by means of the decomposition of per capita income in labor productivity and employment rate and applied to the stylized facts outlined above. The case of Portugal is regarded as an atypical one, since the country has converged as a whole to the European average and among its regions. The flexibility of the Portuguese labor market is regarded as the main factor behind this performance. However, the limited convergence of labor productivity bounds the expected future performance of the Portuguese economy.

What determines the export performance? : a comparative analysis of China and India in the European Union

Coutinho, Ana Luísa; Fontoura, Maria Paula
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper aims to assess the competitiveness of exports of manufactured goods from China and India to the European Union in the 2000s. The empirical analysis is based on two methodologies: (i) a Constant Market Share analysis which allows to decompose the export growth to the European market into several components including an effect usually related to competitiveness, and (ii) an analysis based on the combination of revealed comparative advantage indexes with a geographic orientation of trade which allows to identify the products of China and India that appear to have export potential.

Mobility, return for development and sense of Europe: narratives of Moldavian immigrants returning from the European Union

Marcu,Silvia
Fonte: Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios Publicador: Centro Scalabriniano de Estudos Migratórios
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The article links migration, cross-border mobility and return for development embedded in terms of identity and approach to sense of Europe. Taking into account the global changes in Moldova, the paper examines the perceptions of mobility, return and identity of the Moldovans engaged in emigration in the countries of the European Union (EU). Utilising a multi-discipline approach and an in-depth qualitative interview technique, this article seeks to analyze how mobility and return can support social change and development of the country, and argues that people, who cross EU borders, living through the experience of emigration, acquire a pro-European mentality.

Problems of accountability in the European Union

Harlow, Carol
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 141618 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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Summary: This chapter explores the concept of accountability as it operates in the European Union, weighing the importance of political accountability against managerial and audit accountability. The existing machinery for accountability is evaluated and political “accountability gap” identified. The vertical transfer of functions to the institutions of a transnational system of governance which, it is argued, are not designed for purposes of accountability, is seen as weakening national accountability systems. A horizontal transfer of powers from the institutions of representative democracy to an autonomous and unrepresentative judiciary is also identified. The current Convention on the Constitution and the White Paper on European Governance are considered. The author concludes that accountability is currently weak in the EU and that change needs to start at the lowest level: within the EU institutions and in national parliaments.; no

European Union and Enlargement

Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference item Formato: 377559 bytes; 387 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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This National Europe Centre publication collates the proceedings from a conference held at the Australian National University in December 2000. The purpose of the conference was to allow the Australian diplomatic missions of nine Central and Eastern European nations seeking entry into the European Union to give their case for admission. Although Malta, Turkey, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic and Romania are at different stages of preparation for the EU, the object is to gauge their progress on the formal entry criteria. The papers address the countries progress toward meeting these criteria, as well as the obstacles they face. The papers begin with a preview from the Commission. It cites the three core requisites for accession into the EU as a market economy, democratic political institutions and the capacity to abide by the EU’s obligations of membership.; no

The European Union and Global Governance

Cameron, Fraser
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 141637 bytes; 374 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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The European Union (EU) faces a new geopolitical situation. The Iraq war and its aftermath plus the failure of the Cancun WTO meeting have triggered a new debate on global governance and international law. Kofi Annnan has warned of the dangers of weakening the authority of the UN and other multilateral institutions. Romano Prodi has openly questioned whether the current multilateral system is up to the challenges facing the world. At the same time, the current US administration has openly scorned the multilateral system in pursuit of its one-dimensional security policy – the war on terrorism – although there are some indications that this approach may be changing as a result of the problems it faces in Iraq. In contrast, the European security strategy paper, presented by Javier Solana to the European Council in December 2003, highlighted the importance of the EU working to strengthen the institutions of global governance. It implicitly called for a more active and effective EU role on the world stage. This paper will assess the prospects for the EU in meetings its ambitious goals in regard to global governance.; no

European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC) - with addendum

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report is an addendum to the European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report on dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DODMAC), that has been prepared by Germany in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances and published in 2002 on the European Chemicals Bureau website (European Risk SummaryAssessment Report, SPI.02.76) . For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Summary Report.; JRC.DDG.I.5-Nanobiosciences

IMEP-111: Total Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Mercury and Copper and Extractable Cadmium and Lead in Mineral Feed - Report of the Eleventh Interlaboratory Comparison Organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food

DE LA CALLE GUNTINAS Maria Beatriz; KRATA AGNIESZKA; ARI B.; QUETEL Christophe; EMTEBORG Per; ROBOUCH Piotr; VERBIST Inge
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
Português
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The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre, a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food (EU-RL-HM). One of its core tasks is to organize interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) among appointed National Reference Laboratories. This report presents the results of the eleventh proficiency test (PT) of the EU-RL-HM which focused on the determination of total Cd, Pb, As, Hg and Cu and extractable Cd and Pb in mineral feed according to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed. The test material used in this exercise was the Certified Reference Material (CRM) BCR-032, Moroccan phosphate rock. The material was relabelled to prevent identification by the participants and was dispatched the second half of October 2010. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 100 g of test material. Thirty-one laboratories from 26 countries registered to the exercise of which 28 reported results for total Cd and total Pb, 25 for total Hg and total Cu, 23 for total As and for extractable Cd and extractable Pb. The assigned values (Xref) for total Cd...

The implementation of sustainable development in regional trade agreements : a case study on the European Union and MERCOSUR

DE ANDRADE CORRÊA, Fabiano
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Examining Board: Professor Marise Cremona, European University Institute (Supervisor) Professor Ernst Ulrich Petersmann, European University Institute Professor Markus Gehring, University of Cambridge, England Professor Adriana Dreyzin de Klor, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina.; Defence date: 5 June 2013; This thesis addresses the implementation of sustainable development in the legal frameworks of regional integration agreements (RIAs). Sustainable development is reaffirmed as one of the main priorities of the international community, while poverty eradication and the integration of socio-environmental concerns into all governance levels remain the most pressing challenges to its implementation. Furthermore, the role of law is considered fundamental for sustainable development, but there remains a lack of analysis of how legal frameworks are effectively advancing this objective. In this regard, the thesis focuses on the laws and policies of two of the most important RIAs in force, the European Union and MERCOSUR, with a twofold objective: 1) to analyze how RIAs can provide enabling legal frameworks for the promotion of sustainable development, going beyond trade liberalization and serving as a building block between multilateral goals and their implementation at the national level; 2) to provide case studies of norms and policies developed at the regional level addressing a) poverty eradication and social justice within their internal spheres; b) trade policies and instruments that more effectively integrate socioenvironmental objectives. The research undertaken has also a comparative element that enables the consideration of whether the EU...

Compound republics as viable political systems : a comparison of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation and the European Union

HALDÉN, Peter
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Defence date: 28 July 2006; Examining board: Prof. Friedrich Kratochwil, European University Institute (Supervisor) ; Prof. Jaap Dronkers, European University Institute ; Prof. Jens Bartelson, University of Copenhagen ; Prof. Richard Little, University of Bristol; The way the sovereign state is taken for granted in political theory prevents an explanation of historical and contemporary organizations and phenomena different from this ideal type. Peter Haldén bypasses the state and the problems it causes by constructing an understanding of politics and a research model based on classical and early modern republican political theory. This enables historical analysis without anachronism and a new interpretation of the European Union. By comparing the EU with the Holy Roman Empire (1648-1763) and the antebellum United States (1776-1865), he explains that the EU's international weakness is a result of its strength as a security system that stabilizes Europe. The author argues that continued American support and embedding in NATO is necessary in order for the EU to act on the world stage and to stabilize Europe in the long run. Through these theoretical innovations, he explores alternatives to state-building in the Third World.

The crisis of the European Union and its impact on regionalism in Latin America

Lehmann,Kai
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Relações Internacionais Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Relações Internacionais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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At the same time during which the European Union is passing through one of the worst crises in its history, the attempts to promote regionalism in South America are also beset by grave problems, with some commentators suggesting that 'regionalism is out, sovereignty back in', in the words of Andrés Malamud. This article aims to respond to the question whether there is a connection between the problems confronted in Europe and the difficulties here in the region. In other words, what has been the impact of the European crisis on the prospects for highly developed regionalism in South America. Based on interviews with policy-makers and representatives of Brazilian industry, as well as an analysis of the existing literature, the article argues that, even though both have suffered as a consequence of the general global political and economic trends - and both suffer from similar problems in terms of their strategic thinking - the particularities of each case does not allow for a direct causal link between the European and South American case.

Between uncertainty and controversy: has the European Union actually responded to the challenges of GMO regulation?

Gonçalves, M. E.
Fonte: DINÂMIA Publicador: DINÂMIA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /06/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
DINÂMIA, Junho de 2008.; The legal regime applicable to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) in the European Union is an important witness to the central position assumed by risk in European regulatory and institutional reform over the last years. At the European level, the GMO regime provides an archetypical response by the regulator to the challenges raised by scientific uncertainty, social controversy and the weakening of national frontiers. The need to act in situations where knowledge about relevant facts is insufficient or uncertain presents a test to the regulator and more generally to a legal system in which the verification or proof of the truth has traditionally been the requirement for both activating the law and for determining their possible violation. The precautionary principle provides the primary EU response to this challenge. Its inclusion in EU legislation on GMOs entails the recognition of the actual lack of conclusive evidence of harm which may be caused by the experimental use, the cultivation or industrial application of GMOs. At the same time, the extent of the public controversy surrounding this biotechnology led the EU to reconsider and possibly reinforce mechanisms for involving the civil society in the regulatory process. Yet...

Communication policies and the protection of pluralism in the European Union and the United States

Bas Portero, Juan José; Segovia Alonso, Ana Isabel; Llorens Maluquer, Carles; Almiron, Núria; Puertas Grau, Helena; Suárez, Roberto
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This article describes and analyses the regulatory frameworks and the current pluralism protection policies in the United States and several countries of the European Union (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain). The data obtained allowed a qualitative assessment to be carried out, through a comparative analysis, in order to identify certain similarities and some significant differences. Thus, it was found that pluralism protection is a common denominator in the communication policies of these countries. However, regulatory and legislative differences depend on social, geographical and media contexts, and time variations in the application of policies depend on audiovisual media market liberalisation processes.; Este texto describe y analiza el marco reglamentario y la política actual de protección del pluralismo en Estados Unidos y en diversos países de la Unión Europea (Alemania, Francia, Reino Unido, Holanda, Italia y España). Los datos obtenidos permiten plantear una valoración cualitativa, gracias al análisis comparativo, donde se identifican ciertas semejanzas y también algunas diferencias significativas. Así, se observa que la protección del pluralismo es un referente común en las políticas de comunicación de estos países. No obstante...

THE MISSING LINK: GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS TRADING BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE UNITED STATES?

Hardy, Brettny
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 197913 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper uses existing literature on economic, political, and legal issues surrounding market linkages to analyze the possibility of linking two specific greenhouse gas trading markets: the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeastern United States and the European Union Emissions Trading System. The opportunity to connect trading systems between the European Union and the United States might be beneficial for both programs because it could create a bigger market and lower costs, while at the same time taking a large international step forward in the process of developing a global greenhouse gas trading market. In order to allow trading from one program to another, however, a link would need to pass constitutional muster. In general, the federal government has the authority to address foreign policy. A link between RGGI and the EU would need to be as informal and private as possible in order to avoid stepping into federal territory. Furthermore, there are practical considerations that would need to be addressed. Although the cap-and-trade systems in the EU and the United States share many similar features, there are some important differences between the two programs. Creating a link that would be economically and politically salient might require negotiations between RGGI and the EU. Negotiations could greatly implicate constitutional principles...

European Union: Economic Convergence versus Social Mobility

Choi, Chong; Cheng, Philip; Hilton, Brian
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the economic convergence of the European Union in terms of the effects of European Monetary Union (EMU), which began in 1999 and possible conflict with, 'social mobility' in Europe. Our focus is on the low rate of mobility in the labour market. We assume that this is due to psychological and social aspects.

Transnational migration of health professionals in the European Union

Gerlinger,Thomas; Schmucker,Rolf
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The establishment of the European Common Market has involved the free movement not only of capital and goods, but also of persons and services. The principles of free movement also apply to the health care sector, i.e. they allow for the free incorporation of health care providers and the cross-border delivery of services. Since the 1970s, the European Union (EU) has passed numerous regulations to enforce the mutual recognition of qualifications of physicians, nurses, and other health professionals by the Member States, considered an indispensable precondition for the free movement of services. Thus far, the establishment of a European job market for the health care professions has not led to extensive migration among the EU Member States. Likewise, the accession of Central and Eastern European countries to the EU in 2004 did not cause a "brain drain" to the better-off countries of Western and Northern Europe. However, the mobility among health care professions is expected to increase in the coming years.