Página 5 dos resultados de 1114 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

Nigeria - Agriculture Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report summarizes the findings of the Nigeria Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (NAGPER). The NAGPER was undertaken to achieve four main objectives: (i) establish a robust data base on public expenditure in the agricultural sector; (ii) diagnose the level and composition of agricultural spending in the recent past; (iii) understand the budget processes that determine resource allocation in the sector; and (iv) draw preliminary policy recommendations for agriculture. These objectives are admittedly modest. At a minimum, most public expenditure reviews (PER) seek to understand the basic pattern of public spending in a sector, as well as the processes that influence spending decisions. To better contribute to policy making, many PERs also extend the analysis to examine not only the quantity of spending, but also its efficiency and impact. The scope of the NAGPER was restricted because preliminary investigations revealed that assembling and validating core expenditure data represented a major challenge in and of itself. Therefore it seemed prudent not to set out an overly ambitious set of objectives...

Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the revenue and expenditure sides to limit fiscal deficits and ensure a return to a sustainable medium term fiscal path; and 2) transforming the current planning and budget system which falls short in meeting the usual measures of budget effectiveness by, for example, moving towards government-wide medium term fiscal and expenditure frameworks and a program budget in the medium term, in tandem with public sector reform and the necessary changes to the Public Financial Management (PFM) legal framework and the government accounting system. Accrual accounting is a methodology under which transactions and other events are accounted for when they occur...

Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review : Toward More Efficient Spending for Better Service Delivery

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Português
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36.54%
The report is organized as follows. Chapter one sets out the strategic context for Iraq, including the evolving political situation, macroeconomic context, and poverty and social conditions. Chapter two analyzes the trends in, and composition of, public expenditure, both from economic and functional perspectives. This chapter discusses the efficiency of public expenditure in Iraq (that is, through benchmarking as well as direct output comparisons) and identifies, on the basis of analysis, key sectors for further in-depth assessment for the second phase. It also looks at revenue management issues drawing on the Country Economic Memorandum (CEM). Chapter three examines strategic prioritization and budget execution issues in Iraq. In particular, it reviews the national development priorities, as articulated in the National Development Plan (NDP) and poverty reduction strategy (PRS), and examines the strategic orientation of public expenditures, that is, to what extent public expenditure priorities relate to Iraq s development plan. This chapter also focuses on public investment in Iraq...

Lao PDR Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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36.53%
This Public Expenditure Review starts by looking at the country s macro-fiscal performance in chapter one, it examines the implementation of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) Revenue Management Arrangements (RMA) by which the government committed itself to continued strengthening of PFM and the selection of eligible pro-poor and environmental conservation projects to be funded from NT2 revenues in chapter two, and takes stock of issues relating to expenditure prioritization and centralization of tax, treasury, and customs department in chapter three on Public Finance In this way, the PER responds to the commitment made to stakeholders in the hydropower dam project that implementation of the RMA would be reported on in successive Public Expenditure Reviews (PER). The PER then review the intergovernmental fiscal arrangements, as they have evolved since the new organic Budget Law was promulgated in 2006. Currently, central, provincial and district governments are considered deconcentrated elements of a single level executive. In practice provincial governors enjoy considerable autonomy...

Assessing Public Debt Sustainability in Mauritania with a Stochastic Framework

Baghdassarian, William; Mele, Gianluca; Pradelli, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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This work presents a stochastic framework for assessing public debt sustainability and applies it to the case of Mauritania. The sustainability assessment projects solvency and liquidity indicators -- public debt stock and gross financing needs relative to GDP -- for 2014-23. The analysis uses deterministic scenarios and stochastic simulations to analyze policy options and fiscal risks. The study relies on simple econometric models to generate forecasts of key macroeconomic variables driving the public debt dynamics and to compute debt-distress probabilities and debt thresholds. The study builds on basic techniques to determine optimal portfolios suitable as benchmarks for public debt management. A main result is that, if Mauritania maintains a strong growth performance and pursues sound policies to balance the budget and take advantage of concessional financing opportunities, it could reduce the public debt from 74 percent of GDP in 2013 to 30 percent by 2023, and the gross financing needs from 12 percent of GDP to 4 percent. Further scaling up capital spending is likely to deteriorate public debt sustainability because the estimated (marginal) growth-dividend is small. A more promising avenue would be to improve the quality of public investment and institutions...

Egypt Economic Monitor, Spring 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Egypt’s economic activity is gaining momentum. Growth accelerated to 5.6 percent during the first half of FY15, compared to a dismal 1.2 percent in the same period last year. The recent spike in economic activity reflects favorable base effects, but more importantly broad-based sector recovery, especially in tourism and manufacturing. On the demand side, growth continues to benefit from resilient consumption and government stimulus, supported by large financial inflows from Gulf States. In March 2015, Egypt held a high level Economic Development Conference, which culminated with the signing of sizeable investment deals worth US$36 billion, securing external financing worth US$24 billion, and the announcement of a new Gulf support package worth US$12.5 billion. This will boost the ongoing economic recovery and facilitate efforts to achieve macroeconomic stability. Annual growth is expected to double to 4.3 percent in FY15, and should increase further thereafter, compared to the muted growth of 2 percent during FY11-FY14. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) conducted its article four consultation in November 2014 and the final report generally commended the authorities’ medium term plans while highlighting some risks including slippage in implementing reforms and a large external financing gap. Egypt’s main risk is to sustain the ongoing economic recovery which requires improved security. Notwithstanding the authorities’ ambitious fiscal consolidation plan...

Credit Ratings and Fiscal Responsibility

Hanusch, Marek; Vaaler, Paul
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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The authors build on the findings from an earlier analysis, adding to the evidence base for the notion that credit rating agencies contribute to fiscal sustainability. To do so, the authors focus on election periods when political pressures for fiscal expansions are heightened. The literature on political budget cycles documents the tendency for budget deficits to increase in election years as governments attempt to appear economically competent by strategically providing additional publicly financed goods or services, or by cutting taxes. A rating downgrade, however, signals the opposite of competence as it implies an increase in the probability of sovereign default. Since credit ratings are widely observed - by financial markets as well as voters - they in effect serve as a disciplining device for fiscal policy not to submit to short-term spending pressures, thus keeping it responsible. The authors find that: (1) governments going into an election year immediately after a rating downgrade are 27 percentage points more likely to lose at the polls; and (2) governments going into an election year with a negative rating outlook (indicating a higher likelihood of a near-term downgrade) run smaller budget deficits compared to cases with positive or stable outlooks. Ratings act like fiscal rules disciplining governments when they are more vulnerable to political pressures on the budget - as opposed to fiscal policies supporting longer-term economic growth and development objectives.

Health care reform and the deficit, 1993-1996

Gieri, William J
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Health care reform in the 103rd and 104th Congresses has run the gambit from extremely ambitious to less than ambitious undertakings. Proposals have engendered partisan debates, because of the scope and complexity of the issues involved and their implications for the federal deficit. Estimating the budget consequences of health care reform has become critical because of the strong link between health care programs and the growth in the deficit. This thesis examines the major health care reform proposals considered by Congress during the period 1993-1996. These included the comprehensive bills considered in response to President Clinton's proposed overhaul in 1993-94, the cuts included in the Republican-led balanced budget plan in 1995 and the Kassebaum- Kennedy Bill, which became law in 1996. In each case, the thesis examined the deficit situation facing Congress at the time health care reform was engaged, plans to address the deficit, and the impact of each health care reform on the federal deficit. Data was obtained from congressional reports and periodicals, journals and Congressional Budget Office documentation. The major finding was that health care legislation which portends minimal impact on beneficiaries...

Oil Rules : Kazakhstan's Policy Options in a Downturn

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.51%
This report assesses the role of fiscal rules for countercyclical economic management in Kazakhstan and simulates the behavior of different types of fiscal rules. The work represents technical assistance to the ministry of economy and budget planning and has been financed by the joint economic research program between the government of Kazakhstan and the World Bank. Kazakhstan adopted a fixed fiscal rule in 2010 and introduced changes to it in 2012. By keeping the annual amount transferred from the fund to the budget constant, Kazakhstan's rule is more stringent than pure application of the permanent rule will imply. This report's five chapters outline the advantages of Kazakhstan's current fiscal rule and its performance against other types of rules. Chapter one reviews the performance of the Kazakh economy and the policy stance of the authorities over the last 10 years. Chapter two argues that fiscal rules should be simple and transparent; presenting evidence that Kazakhstan's current fiscal rule meets these two criteria. Chapter three presents the results of simulations of different global economic scenarios and the expected impacts on key variables in Kazakhstan...

Kenya : Public Expenditure Review 2004, Report on the Structure and Management of Public Spending

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.52%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) report carries an ex-post evaluation of a) budget performance in 2002/03 and, where information is available, for 2003/04 against fiscal objectives and spending priorities as set in the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation (ERS); and, b) the Performance of budgetary institutions in the context of the government's public expenditure management (PEM) reform program. It also pulls together main features of spending patterns, and policy issues in key line ministries from the ministerial public expenditure reviews. In each of these areas, the report makes recommendations for further reform. The report also draws upon the findings of the Public Expenditure Management Assessment Action Plan (PEM-AAP) update, and the medium term expenditure framework (MTEF) Review. In an update carried out in 2004, PEM systems were found to meet 4 of the 16 benchmarks, which indicate that a much more concerted effort is needed to improve PEM in Kenya. There are two key indicators of weak PEM in Kenya: a big gap between the original (printed) budget and outturn, and, a huge stock of expenditure arrears. There are notable weaknesses in PEM that must be resolved before the budget can be wielded as an effective instrument for strategic linking of resources and spending. Within the MTEF process...

Uganda Economic Update, March 2014 : Are You Being Served?

World Bank
Fonte: Kampala Publicador: Kampala
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This is the third edition of the Uganda Economic Update series. The first part of this update provides a general overview on the state of Uganda's economy. Then the second part offers an examination of an economic topic of special interest and high relevance for the country, looking at how to improve service delivery by district governments. In 2013 Uganda managed to sustain macroeconomic stability and contain a short-lived uptick in inflation caused by fluctuations in regional food prices. This demonstrates the ability of the country's authorities to formulate and implement sound macroeconomic policies, and lays the foundation for continued achievement of economic growth rates in the range of 6-7 percent. The implementation of the large public infrastructure projects planned for the next several years should also contribute to growth. However, it will be as important as ever to keep budget deficits under control and to make sure that increased focus on infrastructure does not slow down progress in social outcomes. While healthy and educated population is critical for achieving Vision 2040...

Malawi - Public Expenditures : Issues and Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.53%
This report argues that public expenditure outcomes in Malawi, can be improved in the next few years, provided 1) additional spending on priority items is balanced by expenditure cut-backs in low priority areas, so that public expenditures remain within fiscal parameters to restore macroeconomic stability; 2) incentives for improving the budget process are strengthened; 3) intra-sectoral allocations in key sectors, i.e., education, health, agriculture, and roads, focus on key public goods, and, measures to improve spending are enforced; and, 4) areas such as pensions, and parastatals are restructured, so as to reduce future fiscal burden. Balancing additional spending on priority areas within a macroeconomic framework, will require expenditure restructuring, by limiting non-essential spending, to reduce the country's overall deficit, achieve its macro targets, and attain the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief finance, which should allow additional spending on priority items. Recommendations suggest a shift in expenditures towards social sectors...

Mozambique : Public Expenditure Management Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.53%
Improving budget management in Mozambique requires a set of actions in the area of fiscal policy at the macroeconomic level, as well as specific measures to deal with contingent liabilities and to address issues related to intergovernmental fiscal relations. At the same time, a new round of reforms in the way the budget is formulated, executed, controlled, and accounted for is also required to improve efficiency, transparency, and accountability in the use of public resources. This report is organized as follows: The first part of this report offers an analysis of fiscal topics at the aggregate level and discusses cross-cutting issues--recent trends of fiscal policy, medium-run sustainability, contingent liabilities and intergovernmental fiscal relations. Part 2 deals with the budget management system, covering budget formulation, execution, evaluation, and audit. Issues related to public accounting, reporting, cash management, and internal control and auditing are reviewed in this context. It describes the current system...

Revitalizing Eritrea's Development Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.47%
It is no exaggeration to say that Eritrea is at a cross-roads today. The war with Ethiopia meant that the development plans and programs gradually put into place since independence were disrupted. The signing of the peace agreement in December 2000, and the ruling of the boundary commission on April 13, 2002, are all-important, but it is clear that the conditions facing Eritrea are significantly more difficult than prior to the war. Not only are the direct costs of the war very high, but the break in economic relations with Ethiopia and the loss of investor confidence will continue to exact a price for some years to come. It is in this context that the Government has decided to review its development strategy and has asked for World Bank input into this process. In response, the Bank has prepared this Country Economic Memorandum (CEM). It follows the first CEM on Eritrea (World Bank 1994) that provided a Bank and donor input as independent Eritrea refined its development strategy. The CEM is divided into three chapters. The first is a review of Eritrea's development experience since independence...

Uganda - Public Expenditure Review 2003 : Supporting Budget Reforms at the Central and Local Government Levels

World Bank
Fonte: Washington DC Publicador: Washington DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.55%
This 2003 Public Expenditure Review (PER) report addresses budget process challenges, at both the central and local government (LG) levels, highlighting the progress made, and identifying challenges for the future. The first chapter reviews country economic performance over the previous year and its implications for fiscal performance. In addition to tracking the various macroeconomic indicator trends, the chapter highlights areas of challenge in the economy, and includes an expanded section on the challenges of managing the recent fiscal deficit trends. Chapter 2 discusses the budget process, including issues concerning the preparation of the budget, the roles of the sector working groups, and progress made in the preparation of sector budget framework papers. The chapter also comments on the quality and depth of participation of various stakeholders in the budget process. Chapter 3 addresses budget execution challenges in Uganda during the last budget cycle. Problems encountered in budget execution - non-programmed allocation of resources during the course of the year...

Rapid Assessment of the Effect of the Economic Crisis on Health Spending in Mongolia

Bredenkamp, Caryn; Sande Lie, Geir Sølve; Brenzel, Logan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.53%
This rapid assessment examines the effect of Mongolia's economic crisis on government health budgets and health expenditure, household out-of-pocket spending and donor health commitments. This study was part of a larger assessment conducted in four countries on the effects of the economic crisis on health spending. A standardized approach was developed for all country case studies and consisted of a desk review of internationally-available literature and databases, extensive in-country review of data and documents available in government and donor offices, and semi-structured interviews with government staff, health providers and development partners. This assessment in Mongolia reveals a substantial reduction in the government health budget: the 2009 national health budget was significantly lower than the previous year's, and then was further reduced by 10 percent in a subsequent budget amendment. At national level, budget cuts were concentrated in investment line items. Among recurrent line items, the pharmaceutical budget was hardhit...

Tajikistan : Strong Growth, Rising Risks

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
Português
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36.5%
Tajikistan's economy grew at higher-than-projected rate of 7.4 percent in 2013 on the back of record high inflow of remittances. High remittances fueled private consumption and investment. Meanwhile, weaker external demand and lower prices for aluminum and cotton adversely affected exports and resulted in a widening of the current account deficit. Inflation was reduced to a record low because of the limited increase in food prices and stable exchange rate. The fiscal deficit widened because of higher investment expenditures and a reduction in nontax revenues. The overall fiscal picture is likely to be different than official statistics suggests because of soft budget constraints on state-owned enterprises, continued directed lending by banks, and other quasi-fiscal risks. The economy remains vulnerable to shocks, and the fiscal and debt position remains weak because of the country's remittance-driven growth model, narrow export base, high dependence on concessional financing, and large infrastructure. In addition...

Philippines Quarterly Update, September 2011 : Solid Macroeconomic Fundamentals Cushion External Turmoil

World Bank Group
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
The Philippines Quarterly Update provides an update on key economic developments and policies over the past three months. It also presents findings from recent World Bank work on the Philippines. As of September 2011 due to sluggish exports and government spending, economic growth was lower than expected. The Philippine economy continued to decelerate during the first half of 2011 as investment and exports contracted. Private consumption growth remained robust, rising by 5.4 percent in the first half of 2011 and contributing 3.6 percentage points to GDP growth in Q2 2011. A contraction in construction spending slowed down growth of fixed capital formation. On the supply side, the resilient services sector was the main source of growth. The Philippines' external position and macroeconomic fundamentals remain strong. Monetary policy remains accommodating, while the fiscal deficit is likely to fall below target. After a strong rebound in 2010, economic growth in 2011 is likely to remain around 5 percent with downside risks. The challenge for policymakers is to ensure that the Philippines continues to improve its competitiveness...

Indonesia : Public Spending in a Time of Change

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.52%
The study identifies strategic priorities for restoring sound public finances, emphasizing the need to maintain fiscal sustainability, under a constrained budget, and the need to improve the processes for making budgetary allocations, and budget implementation, towards greater fiscal transparency. It reviews Indonesia's public spending during the crisis, and the unavoidable build-up of fiscal pressure, its indebtedness, and fiscal risks, coupled with policy implications. Improvements to the budget allocation process are examined, focusing on budgetary management processes, across levels of government, and on the impact of decentralization - which could possibly reinforce civil society participation. A shift in the fiscal policy focus, towards maintaining fiscal sustainability, and ensuring economic recovery is recommended. Nonetheless, risks may threaten fiscal sustainability, namely, macroeconomic fluctuations, contingent liabilities, and decentralization. To minimize risks, the study suggests a combination of domestic revenue generation efforts...

Fiscal regime changes and the sustainability of fiscal imbalance in South Africa: a smooth transition error-correction approach

Jibao,Samuel S; Schoeman,Niek J; Naraidoo,Ruthira
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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36.5%
In addition to the conventional linear cointegration test, this paper tests the asymmetry relationship between fiscal revenue and expenditure, by making a distinction between the adjustment of positive (budget surplus) and negative (budget deficit) deviations from equilibrium. The analysis uses quarterly data for South Africa. The paper reveals that government authorities in South Africa are more likely to react more quickly when the budget is in deficit than when in surplus, and that the stabilisation measures used by government are fairly neutral at low deficit levels; that is, at deficit levels of 4 per cent of GDP and below. We conclude that the assumption that adjustment towards equilibrium is always present and of the same strength under all circumstances, is not valid in the case of fiscal data on South Africa; and that that fiscal sustainability in South Africa has been attained at the expense of a reduction in the ratio of expenditure to GDP on education, and a relatively constant ratio of expenditure to GDP on health. The paper noted that a priori one would expect that such a decline in the allocations to sectors which could stimulate growth and which in turn could generate future revenue, may pose a threat to the accumulated fiscal space. In South Africa the main fiscal challenge...