Cross-linking of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane proteins on T cells can trigger cell activation. We and others have shown an association between GPI-anchored proteins and the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) p56lck and p59fyn, suggesting a pathway for signaling through GPI-anchored proteins. Studies of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) or CD59 in either the C32 cell line or the HeLa cell line transfected with PTK cDNA demonstrated that the GPI-anchored proteins associated noncovalently with p56lck and p59fyn but not with p60src. Nonmyristylated versions of p56lck and p59fyn also failed to associate with the GPI-anchored proteins. Mutational analysis of the PTK demonstrated that the association with the GPI-anchored proteins mapped to the unique amino-terminal domains of the PTK. A chimeric PTK consisting of the 10 amino-terminal residues of p56lck or p59fyn replacing the corresponding amino acids in p60src was sufficient for association with DAF, but the converse constructs containing the first 10 amino acids of p60src plus the remainder of p56lck or p59fyn did not associate with DAF. Mutation of cysteine to serine at positions 3 and 6 in p59fyn or positions 3 and 5 in p56lck abolished the association of these kinases with DAF. Mutation of serine to cysteine at positions 3 and 6 in p60src conferred on p60src the ability to associate with DAF. Direct labeling with [3H]palmitate demonstrated palmitylation of this amino-terminal cysteine motif in p56lck. Thus...
Bacterial community dynamics were investigated in a land treatment unit (LTU) established at a site contaminated with highly weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the C10 to C32 range. The treatment plot, 3,000 cubic yards of soil, was supplemented with nutrients and monitored weekly for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), soil water content, nutrient levels, and aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts. Weekly soil samples were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis to monitor bacterial community structure and dynamics during bioremediation. TPH degradation was rapid during the first 3 weeks and slowed for the remainder of the 24-week project. A sharp increase in plate counts was reported during the first 3 weeks, indicating an increase in biomass associated with petroleum degradation. Principal components analysis of TRF patterns revealed a series of sample clusters describing bacterial succession during the study. The largest shifts in bacterial community structure began as the TPH degradation rate slowed and the bacterial cell counts decreased. For the purpose of analyzing bacterial dynamics, phylotypes were generated by associating TRFs from three enzyme digests with 16S rRNA gene clones. Two phylotypes associated with Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas were dominant in TRF patterns from samples during rapid TPH degradation. After the TPH degradation rate slowed...
Thrombospondin (TSP), a 450-kD multifunctional glycoprotein with a broad tissue distribution, is secreted upon platelet stimulation, binds to the activated platelet surface, and supports platelet aggregation. We have identified and isolated an 88-kd membrane glycoprotein present in platelets, endothelial cells, monocytes, and a variety of human tumor cell lines that is the membrane binding site for TSP. Endogenous platelet TSP binding to thrombin- and ionophore-stimulated human platelets was inhibited in the presence of the monoclonal antibody OKM5. TSP binding to C32 melanoma cells and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was specific and also inhibitable with OKM5 Mab. Cell labeling followed by specific immunoprecipitation demonstrated biosynthesis of a single 88-kD glycoprotein. Binding of TSP to the isolated membrane protein was specific and saturable. These studies identify an 88-kD membrane glycoprotein that reacts with the monoclonal antibody, OKM5, and may function as the cellular TSP receptor.
In isolated tobacco leaves l-valine-U-14C gave rise to labeled even-numbered isobranched fatty acids containing 16 to 26 carbon atoms and iso C29, iso C31, and iso C33 paraffins. l-Isoleucine-U-14C on the other hand produced labeled odd-numbered anteiso C17 to C27 fatty acids and anteiso C30 and C32 paraffins. Trichloroacetic acid inhibited the incorporation of isobutyrate into C20 and higher fatty acids and paraffins without affecting the synthesis of the C16 and C18 fatty acids. Thus the very long branched fatty acids are biosynthetically related to the paraffins. In Senecio odoris leaves acetate-1-14C was incorporated into the paraffins (mainly n-C31) only in the epidermis although acetate was readily incorporated into fatty acids in the mesophyll tissue. Similarly only the epidermal tissue incorporated acetate into fatty acids longer than C18 suggesting that the epidermis is the site of synthesis of both paraffins and the very long fatty acids. In broccoli leaves n-C12 acid labeled with 14C in the carboxyl carbon and 3H in the methylene carbons was incorporated into C29 paraffin without the loss of 14C relative to 3H. Since n-C18 acid is known to be incorporated into the paraffin without loss of carboxyl carbon these results suggest that the condensation of C12 acid with C18 acid is not responsible for n-C29 paraffin synthesis in this tissue. Thus all the experimental evidence thus far obtained strongly suggests that elongation of fatty acids followed by decarboxylation is the most likely pathway for paraffin biosynthesis in leaves.
Complement factor H (FH) and factor-H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) are human plasma proteins with regulatory functions in the alternative pathway of complement activation. FH and FHL-1 are organized in repetitive elements termed short consensus repeats (SCRs) and the seven SCRs of FHL-1 are identical with the N-terminal domain of the 20 SCRs of FH. The fourth SCR of both proteins (SCR 4) includes the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), a motif that is responsible for the major adhesive activity of matrix proteins like fibronectin. A synthetic hexapeptide with the sequence ERGDAV derived from the RGD domain of FH/FHL-1 interferes with cell attachment to a fibronectin matrix. Although the identical motif is present in both FH and FHL-1, only FHL-1 acts as a matrix for cell spreading and attachment, thus the two proteins differ in function. The adhesive activity of FHL-1 is localized to the RGD-containing SCR 4 by the use of recombinant fragments. All three analysed anchorage-dependent cell lines (CCl64, C32 and MRC-5) adhere to an FHL-1 matrix. The use of synthetic peptides in competition assays, on either FHL-1-derived or fibronectin matrices, shows that the cellular receptors binding to the FH/FHL-1-derived RGD motif are related to or identical with integrin receptors which interact with fibronectin. The identification of a functional adhesive domain in the FH/FHL-1 sequence demonstrates...
Enzymes within the biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acid (C(60)-C(90) a-alkyl,b-hydroxyl fatty acid) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are attractive targets for developing new anti-tuberculosis drugs. We have turned to the simple model system of Corynebacterium matruchotii to study the terminal steps in the anabolic pathway of a C32 mycolic acid called corynomycolic acid. By transposon-5 mutagenesis, we transformed C. matruchotii into a mutant that is unable to synthesize corynomycolic acid. Instead, it synthesized two related series of novel fatty acids that were released by saponification from the cell wall fraction and from two chloroform/methanol-extractable glycolipids presumed to be analogues of trehalose mono- and di-corynomycolate. By chemical analyses and MS, we determined the general structure of the two series to be 2,4,6,8,10-penta-alkyl decanoic acid for the larger series (C(70)-C(77)) and 2,4,6,8-tetra-alkyl octanoic acid for the smaller series (C(52)-C(64)), both containing multiple keto groups, hydroxy groups and double bonds. The mutant was temperature-sensitive, aggregated extensively, grew very slowly relative to the wild type, and was resistant to the presence of lysozyme. We suggest that a regulatory protein that normally prevents the transfer of the condensation product back to b-ketoacyl synthase in the corynomycolate synthase system of the wild type was inactivated in the mutant. This will result in multiple Claisen-type condensation and the formation of two similar series of these complex hybrid fatty acids. A similar protein in M. tuberculosis would be an attractive target for new drug discovery.
Forward genetic analysis is one of the principal advantages of the zebrafish model system. However, managing zebrafish mutant lines derived from mutagenesis screens and mapping the corresponding mutations and integrating them into the larger collection of mutations remain arduous tasks. To simplify and focus these endeavors, we developed an approach that facilitates the rapid mapping of new zebrafish mutations as they are generated through mutagenesis screens. We selected a minimal panel of 149 simple sequence length polymorphism markers for a first-pass genome scan in crosses involving C32 and SJD inbred lines. We also conducted a small chemical mutagenesis screen that identified several new mutations affecting zebrafish embryonic melanocyte development. Using our first-pass marker panel in bulked-segregant analysis, we were able to identify the genetic map positions of these mutations as they were isolated in our screen. Rapid mapping of the mutations facilitated stock management, helped direct allelism tests, and should accelerate identification of the affected genes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of coupling mutagenesis screens with genetic mapping.
Although the molecular function of σ receptors has not been fully defined and the natural ligand(s) is still not known, there is increasing evidence that these receptors and their ligands might play a significant role in cancer biology. 4-(N-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-iodobenzamide (4-IBP), a selective σ1 agonist, has been used to investigate whether this compound is able to modify: 1) in vitro the migration and proliferation of human cancer cells; 2) in vitro the sensitivity of human glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic drugs; and 3) in vivo in orthotopic glioblastoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) models the survival of mice co-administered cytotoxic agents. 4-IBP has revealed weak antiproliferative effects on human U373-MG glioblastoma and C32 melanoma cells but induced marked concentration-dependent decreases in the growth of human A549 NSCLC and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The compound was also significantly antimigratory in all four cancer cell lines. This may result, at least in U373-MG cells, from modifications to the actin cytoskeleton. 4-IBP modified the sensitivity of U373-MG cells in vitro to proapoptotic lomustin and proautophagic temozolomide, and markedly decreased the expression of two proteins involved in drug resistance: glucosylceramide synthase and Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. In vivo...
Human platelet thrombospondin adsorbed on plastic promotes attachment and spreading of human G361 melanoma cells. Attachment is rapid, and spreading is maximal by 90 min with 60-90% of the attached cells spread. In contrast, thrombospondin promotes attachment but not spreading of human C32 melanoma cells, which attach and spread only on laminin substrates. The specificity of these interactions and the regions of the thrombospondin molecule involved in attachment and spreading were examined using proteolytic fragments of thrombospondin and by inhibition studies. The sulfated fucan, fucoidan, and monoclonal antibody A2.5, which is directed against the heparin-binding domain of thrombospondin, selectively inhibit spreading but only weakly inhibit attachment. Monoclonal antibodies against some other domains of thrombospondin, however, are potent inhibitors of attachment. The amino- terminal heparin-binding domain of thrombospondin does not promote attachment. Large fragments lacking the heparin-binding domain support attachment but not spreading of G361 cells. Attachment activity is lost following removal of the 18-kD carboxyl-terminal domain. These results suggest that at least two melanoma ligands are involved in cell attachment and spreading on thrombospondin. The carboxyl-terminal region and perhaps other regions of the molecule bind to receptor(s) on the melanoma surface that promote initial attachment but not cell spreading. Interaction of the heparin-binding domain with sulfated glycoconjugates on melanoma surface proteoglycans and/or sulfated glycolipids mediates spreading. Monoclonal antibodies A2.5 and C6.7 also reverse spreading of G361 cells growing on glass culture substrates...
Integrin-associated protein (IAP) is a receptor for the carboxyl- terminal "cell-binding domain" (CBD) of thrombospondin 1 (TS1). IAP associates with alpha v beta 3 integrin and mAbs against IAP inhibit certain integrin functions. Here we examine the effects of the TS1 CBD and 4N1K (KRFYVVMWKK), a cell-binding peptide derived from it, on the adhesion and spreading on vitronectin (VN) of C32 human melanoma cells which express IAP, alpha v beta 3, and alpha v beta 5. Cells adhere to VN at low surface densities via alpha v beta 5 and spread very slowly while adhesion to higher density VN involves both alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 3 and results in rapid spreading. Spreading of the cells, but not adhesion, on sparse VN coatings is markedly enhanced by the presence of soluble TS1, the recombinant CBD and 4N1K, but not the "mutant" peptide 4NGG, KRFYGGMWKK, which fails to bind IAP. This enhanced spreading is completely blocked by mAb LM609 against alpha v beta 3 and the anti-IAP mAb B6H12. Correlated with this enhanced spreading is increased tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, and a protein of ca. 90 kD. The enhanced spreading induced by TS1 and 4N1K and the constitutive spreading on higher density VN are both blocked by calphostin C (100 nM)...
Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to cerebral postcapillary venular endothelium is believed to be a critical step in the development of cerebral malaria. Some of the possible receptors mediating adherence have been identified, but the process of adherence in vivo is poorly understood. We investigated the role of carbohydrate ligands in adherence, and we identified chondroitin sulfate (CS) as a specific receptor for P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Parasitized cells bound to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and C32 melanoma cells in a chondroitin sulfate-dependent manner, whereas glycosylation mutants lacking chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) supported little or no binding. Chondroitinase treatment of wild-type CHO cells reduced binding by up to 90%. Soluble CSA inhibited binding to CHO cells by 99.2 +/- 0.2% at 10 mg/ml and by 72.5 +/- 3.8% at 1 mg/ml, whereas a range of other glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate had no effect. Parasite lines selected for increased binding to CHO cells and most patient isolates bound specifically to immobilized CSA. We conclude that P. falciparum can express or expose proteins at the surface of the infected erythrocyte that mediate specific binding to CSA. This mechanism of adherence may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria...
We have tested the role of the polar loop of subunit c of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase in stabilizing the hairpin structure of this protein. The structure of the c32–52 peptide corresponding to the cytoplasmic region of subunit c bound to the dodecylphosphocholine micelles was solved by high-resolution NMR. The region comprising residues 41–47 forms a well-ordered structure rather similar to the conformation of the polar loop region in the solution structure of the full-length subunit c and is flanked by short α-helical segments. This result suggests that the rigidity of the polar loop significantly contributes to the stability of the hairpin formed by the two helices of subunit c. This experimental system may be useful for NMR studies of interactions between subunit c and subunits γ and ɛ, which together form the rotor of the ATP synthase.
Amplification and overexpression of the c-myc gene have been associated with neoplastic transformation in a plethora of malignant tumours. We applied interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a locus-specific probe for the c-myc gene (8q24) in combination with a corresponding chromosome 8 α-satellite probe to evaluate genetic alterations in 8 primary melanomas and 33 advanced melanomas and compared it to 12 melanocytic nevi, 7 safety margins and 2 cases of normal skin. Additionally, in metaphase spreads of 7 melanoma cell lines a whole chromosome 8 paint probe was used. We investigated the functionality of the c-myc gene by detecting c-myc RNA expression with RT-PCR and c-myc protein by immunohistochemistry. 4/8 primary melanomas and 11/33 melanoma metastases showed additional c-myc signals relative to the centromere of chromosome 8 copy number. None of the nevi, safety margins or normal skin samples demonstrated this gain. In 2/7 melanoma cell lines (C32 and WM 266–4) isochromosome 8q formation with a relative gain of c-myc copies and a loss of 8p was observed. The highest c-myc gene expression compared to GAPDH was found in melanoma metastases (17.5%). Nevi (6.6%) and primary melanomas (5.0%) expressed the c-myc gene on a lower level. 72.7% of the patients with c-myc extra copies had visceral melanoma metastases (UICC IV)...
Previously, it was found that a novel class of neutral fucosylated
glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is required for male fertility. These lipids contain
very long-chain (C26-C32) polyunsaturated (4-6 double bonds) fatty acid
residues (VLC-PUFAs). To assess the role of these complex GSLs in
spermatogenesis, we have now investigated with which of the testicular cell
types these lipids are associated. During postnatal development, complex
glycosylated and simple VLC-PUFA sphingolipids were first detectable at day
15, when the most advanced germ cells are pachytene spermatocytes. Their
synthesis is most likely driven by ceramide synthase-3. This enzyme is encoded
by the Cers3/Lass3 gene (longevity assurance genes), and out
of six members of this gene family, only Cers3 mRNA expression was
limited to germ cells, where it was up-regulated more than 700-fold during
postnatal testicular maturation. Increasing levels of neutral complex VLC-PUFA
GSLs also correlated with the progression of spermatogenesis in a series of
male sterile mutants with arrests at different stages of spermatogenesis.
Remarkably, fucosylation of the complex VLC-PUFA GSLs was not essential for
spermatogenesis, as fucosylation-deficient mice produced nonfucosylated
versions of the complex testicular VLC-PUFA GSLs...
The class B scavenger receptor CD36 binds multiple ligands, including oxidized and native lipoprotein species. CD36 and the related receptor SR-B1 have been localized to caveolae, domains that participate in cell signaling, transcytosis, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Previous work has indicated that the ligand preference of CD36 may depend on the cell type in which it is expressed. To determine if the presence or absence of caveolae is the determining factor for lipoprotein preference, we treated CHO-CD36 and C32 cells with filipin. Filipin treatment rapidly increased the binding capacity of CD36 for the native lipoproteins HDL and LDL, but did not affect the binding capacity of CD36 for oxidized LDL. Filipin treatment affected the distribution of caveolin and CD36 suggesting that the presence caveolae may modulate the ligand preference of CD36. However, its molecular mechanism how CD36 and caveolin interaction in regulating lipoprotein transport remains to be further studied.
The C22-C34 fragment of antascomicin B lacking the C31 and C32 hydroxyl groups has been prepared in 11 steps from commercially available 2-OH-cyclohexanone. An Ireland-Claisen rearrangement was employed to install the C26 and C27 stereocenters. Our recently reported diastereoselective acyclic 1,3-reductive transposition was used to establish the remote C23 stereocenter. Directed hydrogenation was employed to set the C29 stereocenter. The model compound contains 5 of the stereocenters and all of the carbons of the corresponding fragment of antascomicin B.
The effect of SLN incorporation on transdermal delivery and in vitro antiherpetic activity of Artemisia arborescens essential oil was investigated. Two different SLN formulations were prepared using the hot – pressure homogenization technique, Compritol 888 ATO as lipid, and Poloxamer 188 and Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. Formulations were examined for their stability for two years by monitoring average size distribution and zeta potential values. The antiviral activity of free and SLN incorporated essential oil was tested in vitro against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) by a quantitative tetrazolium-based colorimetric method (MTT), while the effects of essential oil incorporation into SLN on both the permeation through and the accumulation into the skin strata was investigated by using in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin and an almond oil Artemisia essential oil solution as a control.
The ability to specifically deliver therapeutic agents to selected cell types while minimizing systemic toxicity is a principal goal of nanoparticle-based drug delivery approaches. Numerous cellular portals exist for cargo uptake and transport, but after targeting, intact nanoparticles typically are internalized via endocytosis prior to drug release. However, in this work, we show that certain classes of nanoparticles, namely lipid-coated liquid perfluorocarbon emulsions, undergo unique interactions with cells to deliver lipophilic substances to target cells without the need for entire nanoparticle internalization. To define the delivery mechanisms, fluorescently-labeled nanoparticles complexed with αvβ3-integrin targeting ligands were incubated with αvβ3-integrin expressing cells (C32 melanoma) under selected inhibitory conditions that revealed specific nanoparticle-to-cell interactions. We observed that the predominant mechanism of lipophilic delivery entailed direct delivery of lipophilic substances to the target cell plasma membrane via lipid mixing and subsequent intracellular trafficking through lipid raft-dependent processes. We suggest that local drug delivery to selected cell types could be facilitated by employing targeted nanoparticles designed specifically to utilize alternative membrane transport mechanisms.
The aim of this study was to formulate a new delivery system for ecological pesticides by the incorporation of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Two different SLN formulations were prepared following the high-pressure homogenization technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 or Miranol Ultra C32 as surfactants. The SLN formulation particle size was determined using Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and laser diffraction analysis (LD). The change of particle charge was studied by zeta potential (ZP) measurements, while the melting and recrystallization behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro release studies of the essential oil were performed at 35°C. Data showed a high physical stability for both formulations at various storage temperatures during 2 months of investigation. In particular, average diameter of Artemisia arborescens L essential oil-loaded SLN did not vary during storage and increased slightly after spraying the SLN dispersions. In vitro release experiments showed that SLN were able to reduce the rapid evaporation of essential oil if compared with the reference emulsions. Therefore, obtained results showed that the studied SLN formulations are suitable carriers in agriculture.