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Voting functions in the EU-15

Veiga, Linda Gonçalves
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE) Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas (NIPE)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This paper examines if the European integration process, by transferring policy instruments to supra-national authorities, has affected voters’ evaluations of governments’ economic performance at electoral periods. The analysis is implemented on a panel of 15 EU countries, from 1970 to 2011. Results suggest that before the Maastricht Treaty, citizens held incumbents responsible for GDP growth, and for the evolution of inflation, particularly when measured relative to the EU average. After the Maastricht Treaty, only fiscal policy variables show up as statistically significant. The capacity to control the budget deficit appears as the main determinant of electoral results, especially during the current economic crisis.; COMPETE; QREN; FEDER; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Economic Freedom and Foreign Direct Investment: How different are the MENA countries from the EU?

Caetano, José Martins; Caleiro, António Bento
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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The risk perceived by investors is crucial in the decision to invest, in particular when it concerns a foreign country. The investment risk associated is a multi-faceted element given that it reflects many aspects that are relevant to (foreign) investors, such as the level of transparency, corruption, rule of law, governance, etc. In this paper we consider the level of economic freedom, as provided by the “Heritage Foundation”, for the most recent years, in order to analyse how is this measure of risk related to the inward foreign direct investment performance index, as provided by the UNCTAD. Given the subjectivity of risk an appropriate methodology consists on using fuzzy logic clustering, which is applied in the paper in order to verify how different the MENA region is from the set of EU-member states. The results show that economic freedom and inward FDI are positively associated, in particular in the cluster of countries that present a higher economic freedom. Of particular interest is the result that some MENA countries belong to the same cluster of most of the EU-countries.

Bootstrap Panel Granger-Causality Between Government Budget and External Deficits for the EU

Afonso, António; Rault, Christophe
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 Português
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We investigate the existence of Granger-causality between current account and government budget balances over the period 1970-2007, for different EU and OECD country groupings. We use a panel-data approach based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. Our results show a causal relation from budget deficits to current account deficits for several EU countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovakia, along the lines of the so-called twin-deficit relationship. Considering the effective real exchange rate in the SUR system does not substantially alter the results.

Patterns of bi-national couples across five EU countries

Gaspar, Sofia
Fonte: Editora Mundos Sociais/CIES-IUL Publicador: Editora Mundos Sociais/CIES-IUL
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the past few years, European bi-national couples had been on rise motivated by EU´s mobility policies among its citizens. The aim of this paper is to expand upon a previous analysis of bi-national couples in Spain and Italy (Gaspar, 2011) to another three EU countries — France, Great Britain and Germany. The results revealed the presence of a threefold typology of bi-national couples, partially endorsing some of the patterns found beforehand. In the light of this evidence, the remainder of the article moves towards an understanding of how this typology has to be contextualized within broader specialized migration flows to these countries.; Ao longo dos últimos anos, os casais binacionais europeus aumentaram como consequência das políticas de mobilidade promovidas pela União Europeia. O objetivo deste artigo é desenvolver uma análise anteriormente efetuada a casais binacionais em Espanha e Itália (Gaspar, 2011) a outros três países da UE — França, Grã-Bretanha e Alemanha. Os resultados obtidos revelam a presença de uma tipologia tripartida de casais binacionais, apenas corroborando parcialmente os padrões encontrados previamente. À luz destes dados, o artigo explora como esta tipologia deverá ser contextualizada dentro de fluxos migratórios mais amplos em cada um destes países.; Au long des dernières années...

Formas de apresentação do eu online: um estudo facebook versus linkedin

Ferreira, Pedro Miguel Demédio
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Mestrado em Comunicação, Cultura e Tecnologias de Informação; As redes sociais online são actualmente uma forte ferramenta de socialização, com inúmeras valências: podem ser utilizadas como ferramenta política, de sensibilização social ou mesmo instrumentalizadas do ponto de vista da vida profissional. Com esta dissertação pretende-se fazer um estudo comparativo entre duas redes sociais online com características distintas, a saber, o Facebook e Linkedin, Pretende-se perceber se o mesmo indivíduo adopta diferentes estratégias de apresentação do “eu” consoante o tipo de rede utilizado e respectivos propósitos pessoais. Para perceber as estratégias de apresentação do “eu” e como elas poderão diferir consoante a rede, a estratégia metodológica a adoptar será combinada com técnicas de cariz mais qualitativas/intensivas. Serão analisadas as informações recolhidas via entrevistas presenciais e análise de conteúdo online.; Online social networks are now a strong tool of socialization, with numerous valences: can be used as a political tool, social awareness or even instrumentalized from the point of view of professional life. This dissertation aims to make a comparative study between two online social networks with different characteristics...

A construção do Eu adolescente na relação com o(s) Outro(s): o igual, o diferente e o complementar através do Rorschach

Cunha, Isabel Maria Gonzalez Duarte da; Marques, Maria Emília
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada Publicador: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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No presente trabalho as autoras procuram constituir o Outro como um organizador do processo de desenvolvimento adolescente. Através da articulação entre as concepções sobre a adolescência e as noções de sujeito e de objecto, Eu-Outro, foi possível constituir três dimensões do Outro durante o processo de desenvolvimento adolescente: o igual, o diferente e o complementar. Como método de acesso ao sujeito psicológico foi utilizado o Rorschach, inscrito por um lado na escola Francesa, com os parâmetros Representação de Si e Representação das Relações e, por outro lado, no modelo transformacional que privilegia a relação de comunicação, de simbolização, de criação e de expansão. Foram analisados protocolos de adolescentes com 13 e 17 anos, de ambos os sexos, de modo a ser possível observar de que modo é que decorre a relação entre o Eu e o(s) Outro(s) neste período do desenvolvimento. ABSTRACT In the present work the authors try to constitute the Other as an organizer of the development process in the adolescence. Using the connection between the conceptions concerned to adolescence and notions of the subject and object, Self-Other, it was possible to constitute three dimensions along the development process of the adolescent: the Equal...

A construção do Eu adolescente na relação com o(s) Outro(s): O igual, o diferente e o complementar através do Rorschach

Cunha, Isabel Duarte da; ISPA-IU; Marques, Maria Emília; ISPA-IU
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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No presente trabalho as autoras procuram constituir o Outro como um organizador do processo de desenvolvimento adolescente. Através da articulação entre as concepções sobre a adolescência e as noções de sujeito e de objecto, Eu-Outro, foi possível constituir três dimensões do Outro durante o processo de desenvolvimento adolescente: o igual, o diferente e o complementar. Como método de acesso ao sujeito psicológico foi utilizado o Rorschach, inscrito por um lado na escola Francesa, com os parâmetros Representação de Si e Representação das Relações e, por outro lado, no modelo transformacional que privilegia a relação de comunicação, de simbolização, de criação e de expansão. Foram analisados protocolos de adolescentes com 13 e 17 anos, de ambos os sexos, de modo a ser possível observar de que modo é que decorre a relação entre o Eu e o(s) Outro(s) neste período do desenvolvimento.

O Eu-pele no Rorschach: A sua expressão em adolescentes toxicodependentes

Linhares, Márcio; Pinheiro, Catarina Bray; Hospital Fernando Fonseca
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O conceito de Eu-pele, a estrutura e funcionamento dos envelopes psíquicos, em particular as funções de manutenção, continente e pára-excitação, serve de base à elaboração de novos procedimentos de interpretação para o Rorschach, subsequentemente aplicados na análise dos protocolos de dois adolescentes toxicodependentes. Os procedimentos propostos, revelaram-se relevantes para a expansão do potencial clínico do Rorschach, como forma de acesso ao funcionamento psíquico, num dado momento da vida de um sujeito. Neste sentido, a articulação entre o Eu-pele e o Rorschach poderá ajudar a clarificar o sentido/função do consumo de substâncias psicoactivas ao longo dos movimentos da adolescência.

From the mouths of Janus: political constructions of transnational EU migrants in Ireland

Power, Martin J.; Haynes, Amanda; Devereux, Eoin
Fonte: School of Media, Dublin Institute of Technology Publicador: School of Media, Dublin Institute of Technology
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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peer-reviewed; International research indicates that recessionary periods may be accompanied by a decline in the quality of relations between the majority population and migrant groups as the latter are at risk of being scapegoated for the economic downturn. In that context, political leadership on the matter of immigration is of crucial importance, with political parties having a key role to play in framing how the public understand immigration.1 This article is based on research which examined how politicians construct non-Irish EU immigrants to Ireland through an analysis of the content of statements attributed to this group in the print media. The article focuses on those statements relating to welfare and the economy, which were among a larger range of themes identified in the wider study. Our sample of articles demonstrates that representatives on both the left and right of the political spectrum were found to commonly address the issue of immigration as a social problem, whether by contributing to its framing as a problem, or by seeking to contradict its problematisation. In particular, our analysis demonstrated that some representatives of mainstream parties contribute to a discourse whereby migrants are constructed as fraudulent and as burdens on the economy. Drawing on theories (McLaren and Johnson...

Australia and the EU in the multilateral round: defining the common ground

Vaile, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 15886 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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[Conclusion]: There is much in common between the EU and Australia in the multilateral round. In fact we agree on far more issues than we disagree on. Indeed we are both deeply committed to an open and transparent multilateral trading system – in which all WTO members can participate and from which all can benefit. We have common interests in mobilising support for the Doha round, and we want to work together towards that end. The Doha Round gives us the chance to work with Europe on services, industrials, the dispute settlement understanding, and a range of proposals to assist developing countries. Even on the topic of agriculture where our views diverge, we have a productive and frank dialogue. Because, fundamentally, our differences on issues like agriculture are set against the backdrop of historic ties and pragmatic cooperation that characterises Australian relations with the EU. I am confident that, together, we can help chart a path to the successful conclusion of the Doha Round of trade negotiations at the WTO.; no

Containing (social) justice? rights, EU law and the recasting of Europe’s ‘social bargains’

Wincott, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 41368 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
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Concluding remark: If the EU legal system is indeed an essential prerequisite for transnational economic liberalisation in Europe then both its existence (on the one hand) and its contested character and limited scope (on the other) suggest that liberalisation was far from an automatic consequence of a general dynamic or process, such as globalisation. Moreover, the on-going re-negotiation of aspects of the regime of socio-economic regulation means that its final form may not yet be settled. There is certainly little reason to believe that the character of the EU reflects any clear and effective preference for economic liberalism on the part of European ‘states’ as liberal intergovernmentalists seem to believe, nor even on the part of the peoples of Europe as today’s ‘modified neofunctionalism’ might suggest. Nonetheless, the structure of Europe’s supranational institutions may tend to bend social forces to this end, even when they clearly intend to move in a different direction.; no

Small States – Big Negotiations Decision-Making Rules and Small State Influence in EU Treaty Negotiations

LEHTONEN, Tiia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This study examines the impact of the decision-making rules, procedures and practices of the European Union on the ability of small Member States to influence Treaty negotiation outcomes, and assesses the causality of this influence in Treaty-revision. Within Treatymaking processes, actor influence is here expected to vary according to the institutional preconditions, and small states are presumed to benefit from particular type of decisionmaking rules to the disadvantage of others. The fundamental aim of the study is therefore to investigate the conditions under which small state influence increases in European Union Treaty-negotiations. To explain this puzzle, a distinction is made between two types of Treaty-making processes, those of the Intergovernmental Conferences and the Convention, which allows for subsequent comparisons between the decision-making rules of unanimity and restricted consensus. In order to empirically test the underlying hypotheses, explicit units of observation are chosen from the IGCs of Amsterdam, Nice and 2003-04, and the Convention on the Future of the EU. In-depth comparisons are made between four small Member States – Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Ireland – and their de facto influence is process-traced through three substantial issues of the institutional reform: the composition of the Commission...

Delegation of Power and Agency Losses in EU Trade Politics

DA CONCEICAO-HELDT, Eugenia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper addresses the problem of agency losses (agency shirking and agency slippage) in the process of power delegation in EU trade policy. The central question is whether a conflictual situation exists between the interests of the member states and those of the European Commission (agency shirking), or whether the structure of delegation in itself stimulates the agent to adopt a different position from the principals (agency slippage). Drawing on the principal-agent approach, I argue that agency losses are due to the structure of delegation and that the existence of multiple principals with diverging preferences facilitates agency. I find empirical evidence that the Council-Commission relationship on trade politics has different dynamics depending on the negotiating stage. In the initial negotiating stage, when defining the negotiating mandate of the Commission, the relationship is cooperative. Conflict between the Commission and the Council only breaks out in a latter stage of negotiations, when the Commission makes concessions at the international level.; EU Trade Politics; agency losses; principal-agent approach; Council-Commission relationship; agricultural trade liberalization

From Lëtzebuerg to Luxembourg: EU Law, Non-Discrimination and Pregnancy

BELAVUSAU, Uladzislau
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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[Virginie Pontin v. T-Comalux SA, ECJ (Third Chamber), Judgment of 29 October 2009, C-63/08] In autumn 2009 the ECJ made another step forward in fostering gender equality through the instrumental framework of the EU law. The case triggers the right of pregnant women to protection against employers, who use inadequately constructed procedural norms to disguise an illegal dismissal. The Court holds that where the only remedy available under national legislation to a worker dismissed during pregnancy does not provide reasonable time bars on claims for wrongful dismissal, that legislation introduces less favorable treatment linked to pregnancy and constitutes discrimination against female employees. The Court held that a 15 days limit to bring proceedings was insufficient in terms of the principle of effective judicial protection of an individual’s rights under EU law. A pregnant woman should equally enjoy other remedies beyond an action for nullity and reinstatement, such as an action for damages, in case the analogous recourses are available for other categories of dismissed workers. The Court therefore clarified an essential element for the implementation of the Pregnant Workers’ Directive in the Member States.

Toward a Smart EU Energy Policy: Rationale and 22 Recommendations

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; GRANT, Robert; HAFNER, Manfred; DE JONG, Jacques
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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We are in desperate need of an EU Energy Policy. The facts are that, yes, there is indeed an EU Energy Policy. It is a policy based on a vision, a vision with three components. The policy is aiming for “markets, competition and efficiency”, it is equally focussing on “a sustainable energy economy”, and thirdly, it wants to “secure the EU’s energy supply”. Three objectives, three separate action lines. Balancing the three objectives in an integrated approach is challenging and difficult. To what extent is the market approach consistent with the other two policy packages? What impact does a climate package with tradable emission rights and non-tradable targets for green energy have on the market designs for gas and electricity? Are the necessary investments in new pipes and wires for securing our energy supplies sufficiently coming under the prevailing regulatory framework? Or, to put it differently; are we smart enough in the way in which we are making implementing steps in order to meet our stated objectives? Our paper ends with a proposed new vision and a set of 22 recommendations to the new European Commission.

Mevrouw de Jong Gaat Eten: EU Citizenship and the Culture of Prejudice

KOCHENOV, Dimitry
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This essay discusses the dubious premises of ‘repressive liberalism’ underlying the policies of cultural ‘integration’ that have been adopted by a number of otherwise liberal democracies around the world. The author uses his own first-hand experience of naturalisation in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the pioneering jurisdiction with regards to the introduction of ‘cultural integration’, in order to expose the counterproductive nature of the ‘integration’ approach to the absorption of non-citizens. The essay claims that there is no such thing as a ‘nation-specific’ culture to be tested and that the creation and consolidation of EU citizenship changed the whole framework of reference within which any Member State nationality operates and should be discussed. The argument is that, particularly in the EU context, culture and language testing before naturalisation is built on false assumptions and does not serve any identifiable goal that would go beyond the perpetuation of prejudice. Since testing stigmatises a large number of Europeans and potentially undermines social cohesion in the Member States, it should be abolished.

Integration Requirements in EU Migration Law

DE VRIES, Karin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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In recent years, integration requirements have come to play a role in EU immigration law. Several directives – the Family Reunification Directive (2003/86), the Long-Term Residents Directive (2003/109) and the Blue Card Directive (2009/50) – allow Member States to demand third country nationals’ compliance with such requirements. A definition of integration requirements has not, however, been provided. This paper distinguishes between two functions of integration requirements: one is to equip migrants with the right skills to further their participation in society, whereas the other is to operate as a selection criterion, determining, which third country nationals are granted admission, residence or access to other rights, and who is to be excluded. An analysis of the three directives shows that the integration clauses in those directives do not all have the same function and that there is room for a more uniform and consistent concept of integration in EU immigration law. The paper also considers, on a more theoretical level, the role played by integration requirements in shaping a European concept of citizenship for third county nationals.

The impact of emissions-performance benchmarking on free allocations in EU ETS phase 3

LECOURT, Stephen; PALLIÈRE, Clément; SARTOR, Oliver
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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From Phase 3 (2013-20) of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme carbon-intensive industrial emitters will receive free allocations based on harmonised, EU-wide benchmarks. This paper analyses and evaluates the impacts of these new rules on allocations to key energy-intensive sectors. It exploits an original dataset that combines recent data from the National Implementing Measures of 20 Member States with the Community Independent Transaction Log and ETS-installation NACE code data. The analysis reveals that free allocations to benchmarked sectors will be reduced significantly, though not excessively, in Phase 3. This reduction should both increase public revenues from carbon auctions and has the potential to enhance the economic efficiency of the carbon market. The analysis also shows that changes in allocation vary mostly across installations within, rather than across, countries. Lastly, the analysis finds evidence that the new rules will, as intended, reward installations with better emissions performance, and will improve harmonisation of free allocations in the EU ETS by reducing differences in allocation levels across countries with similar carbon intensities of production.

The governance of the arctic environment : the EU and US contribution

VIGNI, Patrizia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The Arctic, as a unique area of our planet, has always attracted the interest of humanity. Despite its uniqueness, the Arctic is more difficult to preserve than other areas of our planet. The presence of ice makes this region particularly fragile and exposed to environmental degradation. The environmental threats that have recently increased their impact on the Arctic are: first, resource exploitation; second, shipping and tourist activities; and finally, climate change. Special protection seems to be required for the Arctic. The establishment of an effective international regime (like the Antarctic Treaty System) for the management of the Arctic should be a common aim of both the EU and US. However, regardless of the existence of a global regime for the Arctic, the EU and US may so far exercise their authority in an “environmentally responsible manner” in order to ensure the protection of the Arctic as a “common good” that must be managed in the interest of humankind.; The Redefining the Transatlantic Relationship and its Role in Shaping Global Governance (TRANSWORLD) project is funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 290454.

The EU ETS : eight years and counting

ELLERMAN, A. Denny; MARCANTONINI, Claudio; ZAKLAN, Aleksandar
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper provides an introduction to the EU’s Emissions Trading System. As such it provides a discussion of the historical and legal context in which the EU ETS developed and now operates, a presentation of the key performance indicators for the first eight years through the end of the second phase in 2012, and some concluding observations on the system’s future. The paper is purposively descriptive to provide background for more analytically oriented articles, as well as to provide a matter-of-fact presentation for readers who wish to learn about or be updated on the progress of the EU ETS.