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The European Union : a new security actor?

RENARD, Thomas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Security considerations were at the heart of the European project, but the European Union has started to develop fully-fledged security policies only in recent years. At this stage, the EU is a fledgling security actor, with limited capabilities and strategic clout. This paper analyses the EU’s contribution across four key security functions. It concludes that in spite of global ambitions stated in various documents, the EU remains first and foremost a regional security player.

Stable core, shifting periphery? : the European Union as an emerging inwards-outwards governing empire

GRAVIER, Magali
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The paper discusses the usefulness of the concept of empire in the study of the European Union, the integration process and the development EU’s external relations. In order to do so, it reflects critically on the use of this concept in the broader context of contemporary polities and selected European empires of the past. The paper argues that colonial empires are just one type of empires and that another type should be given more scholarly attention. In order to account for the diversity of imperial patterns observed, the paper suggests using two concepts, inwards imperial governance and outwards imperial governance. Using these two concepts instead of one undifferentiated concept of empire makes it possible to shed a different light on the EU’s alleged empirehood and its evolution over time. It also offers an analytical tool that can account for differences between different empires of the past as well as between contemporary candidates for empirehood and past empires.

Report of the Seventh Interlaboratory Comparison organized by the European Union - Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food. IMEP-107: Total and Inorganic As in Rice.

DE LA CALLE GUNTINAS Maria Beatriz; LINSINGER Thomas; EMTEBORG Per; CHAROUD-GOT Jean; VERBIST Inge
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurands (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the European Union-Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food (EU-RL-HM). Two of its core tasks are to provide advice to the Directorate General for Health and Consumers (DG Sanco) on scientific matters and to organise interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). This report represents the results of the seventh ILC of the EU-RL-HM (former CRL-HM) which focused on the determination of total and inorganic As in rice. The test item used in this exercise is rice purchased in a local supermarket and was provided by the University of Aberdeen. The test item was processed, bottled and labelled at IRMM and dispatched to the participants the first half of December 2009. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 20 g of test item. Participation in this exercise was not limited to the NRLs but was open to laboratories from all around the world, to be able to judge the state-of-the-art of the determination of total and, exercise, of which 98 reported results for total As and 30 for inorganic As. Twenty-nine of the participants were NRLs of the EU-RL-HM network...

Report of the Ninth Interlaboratory Comparison Organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food - IMEP-109: Total Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic and Mercury as well as Methylmercury and Inorganic Arsenic in Seafood

DE LA CALLE GUNTINAS Maria Beatriz; EMTEBORG Per; ROBOUCH Piotr; VERBIST Inge
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate General of the European Commission, operates the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food (EU-RL-HM). One of its core tasks is to organise interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). This report presents the results of the ninth proficiency test (PT) of the EU-RL-HM which focused on the determination of total cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury as well as methylmercury and inorganic arsenic in seafood. The test material used in this exercise was the Certified Reference Material (CRM) DOLT-4, dogfish liver of the National Research Council of Canada (CNRC). The material was relabelled to prevent recognition by the participants and was dispatched the second half of May 2010. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 20 g of test material. Thirty-eight laboratories from 27 countries registered to the exercise of which 38 reported results for total Cd, 36 for total Pb, 33 for total As, 36 for total Hg, five for methylmercury and 10 for iAs. The assigned values for total Cd, Pb, As, Hg and methylmercury are the certified values taken from the DOLT-4 certificate. An attempt was made to establish an assigned value for inorganic As (iAs) using the results provided by a group of five laboratories expert in the field...

Report on the 2010 Proficiency Test of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins, for the Network of National Reference Laboratories - Determination of Ochratoxin A in Cereals, Green Coffee, Paprika and Test Solution

KUNSAGI ZOLTAN; AMBROSIO Massimo; BREIDBACH Andreas; STROKA Joerg
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), a Directorate-General of the European Commission, operates the European Union Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) for Mycotoxins. One of its core tasks is to organise interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). This report presents the results of a ILC of the EU-RL for Mycotoxins which focused on the determination of ochratoxin A in food and feed samples. The test materials were naturally contaminated cereals, green coffee and paprika samples and an ampouled ochratoxin A solution. The materials were labelled at IRMM and dispatched to the participants in May 2010. Each participant received two ampoules of solution and seven sachets containing approximately 30 g of test material each. Thirty seven participants from 32 countries registered for the exercise. Thirty-six sets of results were reported for the solution, 37 for the cereals, 35 for the green coffee and 35 for the paprika. The assigned values were 13.2 µg/mL for the test solution, 191 µg/kg for the cereals, 8.0 µg/kg for the green coffee and 13.0 µg/kg for the paprika. The uncertainties of the respective assigned values were 0.9 µg/mL...

Seveso Lower Tier Establishments: Implementation of Article 7 of the Seveso II Directive in the European Union

WOOD Maureen
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The European Union hosts approximately 8500 industrial sites that are considered major hazards due to the potential accident risk associated with the presence of dangerous substances as defined by the Seveso II Directive. Approximately, half of these sites are classified as so-called lower tier sites because the quantity of the dangerous substances exceeds the lower threshold quantity stipulated in the Directive. Theoretically, the Seveso II Directive imposes a lower regulatory burden on lower tier sites than upper tier sites, whose quantity of dangerous substances exceed the higher threshold quantity given in the Directive. This lower burden is manifested particularly in Article 7, designed to apply exclusively to lower tier sites. In 2008-2009, on behalf of the Committee of Seveso Competent Authorities (CCA), the regulatory committee established by the Directive, the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre (JRC) undertook a study of Seveso implementation in lower tier sites, through administration of a survey of competent authorities and subsequently co-organization of a workshop on the topic with DG-Environment and the Czech Republic. This paper summarizes the results of this study.; JRC.DG.G.6-Security technology assessment

Land Quality and Land Use Information in the European Union

Fonte: Publication Office of the European Union Publicador: Publication Office of the European Union
Tipo: Books Formato: Printed
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The support of environmentally sound land management that is adapted to the site-specific ecological conditions is a priority area in the agricultural and rural development policy of the European Union. Although land is an indispensable economic resource and an essential element in the ecological system, so far there is no comprehensive information on land quality in Europe. However, the efficiency of agricultural and rural development policies as well as land-related environmental programs can be enhanced considerably if decisions are based on the analysis of land quality. In order to optimize the utilisation of production potential and environmental services of agriculture and to enhance the competitiveness of European farms, new information on soil resources and land quality and novel approaches of land information management are needed.; JRC.DDG.H.7-Land management and natural hazards

Assessment of the Conditions for a European Union Location Framework Report EUR

VANDENBROUCKE Danny; VANCAUWENBERGHE Glenn; CROMPVOETS Joep; PIGNATELLI Francesco; SMITS Paul; BOGUSLAWSKI RAYMOND; VOWLES GRAHAM; BORZACCHIELLO MARIA TERESA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The European Union Location Framework (EULF) is a set of good practices and actions to promote more effective and efficient use of location information in e-government services. The EULF is part of the Interoperability Solutions for Public Administrations (ISA) Programme, which supports interoperability solutions, sharing and re-use among European Public Administrations. This report assesses the conditions for an EULF, based on a survey of Member States and an examination of EU policies and work programmes. Five focus areas are being considered initially: policy and strategy alignment, e government integration, standardisation and interoperbility, costs and benefits and committed partnerships. The assessment confirmed their importance in realising and maximising the benefits of location-related information and services. There are various good practices demonstrating that these issues can be addressed and that benefits for governments, citizens and businesses can be delivered. However these good pratices are not universally deployed and there are some significant gaps. The assessment also identified other important issues, including the need for effective leadership and governance, a user-driven approach, an open and balanced data policy...

Technical efficiency of the generation of knowledge in the European Union (2003-2010).

Agueros Sánchez, Manuel; Casares Hontañón, Pedro; Coto Millán, Pablo; Pesquera González, Miguel Ángel
Fonte: De Gruyter Publicador: De Gruyter
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
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This paper analyses the determinants of knowledge in the European Union of the 27, through estimates of transcendental logarithmic production functions (translog) in different scenarios. For this, a data panel for the period 2003-2010 has been elaborated, selecting the production stochastic frontier as the most reliable model to estimate technical efficiency for European innovation. The empirical result is that technological capital, human capital and relational capital have a positive and significant influence on the generation of knowledge. Also, from the observation of results we can assure that the size (in terms of population) of a country within the EU-27 does not positively influence the technical efficiency of knowledge production. This is an empirical study about the relationship between the determinants of knowledge and the technical efficiency of the generation of knowledge, and such a study does not exist in literature for the EU-27 in the period analysed.

ICT for the employability and integration of immigrants in the European Union: A Qualitative Analysis of a Survey in Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Spain

REICHEL David; SIEGEL Melissa; ANDREO Juan Carlos; CARRETERO GOMEZ STEPHANIE; CENTENO MEDIAVILLA Isabel Clara
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report shows the role played by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in supporting the employability and integration of immigrants in Europe in three European countries, framed in their migration history, migration policies, integration policy and levels of integration of migrants in the country. This study complements the findings obtained in the report entitled "ICT for the employability and integration of immigrants in the European Union: Results from a survey in three Member States". The research found that age, education, employment status and type of occupation are drivers of digital inequalities; ICTs constitute an important resource for employability and integration of immigrants in the three countries, and specific groups of immigrants such as older and less educated are isolated from the digital world, and that immigrants they are not making more advanced uses of ICTs. Policy strategies go toward increasing access and the digital literacy of isolated groups and in particular for newly arrived migrants, as to provide on-line access to relevant information and on-line services for migrants through user friendly multi-lingual websites.; JRC.J.3-Information Society

Turkey-European Union relations: great expectations

Aydin, Hanifi
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxii, 94 p.
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Since 1963 Turkey has been struggling to join the European Union (EU) . Despite strong Turkish aspirations, it appears unlikely that Turkey will be accepted as an EU member in the near future due to Turkey's shortcomings in its political, economic and social structure. Applications submitted prior to December 1999, were rejected by the EU Commission on the basis of poor democracy, human rights abuses, restrictions on political and cultural rights, a high level of influence of the Turkish military in political affairs, weak economy, and disputes with Greece and the Cyprus problem. The EU has certain criteria for membership: a functioning democracy, respect for rule of law, protection of minority and human rights, functioning market economy and settlement of disputes with other member states prior to accession. Turkey is seeking an immediate EU membership to improve economy and democratization, and take an undisputable place inside the European order and civilization. To this end, Turkey has to adopt the necessary reforms and regulations that will help strengthen democracy, economy and social and cultural rights in Turkey. However, Turkey's present domestic infrastructure does not provide a suitable situation to commence key radical political reforms in the immediate future.; http://www.archive.org/details/turkeyeuropeanun00aydi; Lieutenant...

Interest Group Politics in the European Union: Migrant Inclusion Organizations and Political Behavior Across Levels of Governance

Schnyder, Melissa
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Political Science, 2006; This project explores why similar organizations located in similar countries in the European Union (EU) working on behalf of similar interests will undertake very different strategies to achieve their policy goals. I focus on organizations working toward a migrant inclusion policy agenda across twenty EU countries, and compare their political activities across levels of governance. I develop an integrative model based on group interconnectedness to explain activity. In particular, I examine how an organization's ties with a range of other actors shape activity levels and activity choice, as compared to more traditional social movement explanations. A broad range of activities are examined, including lobbying, protest, judicial action, media use, and collaborative efforts with others. The findings support the proposition that the nature and strength of an organization's connections strongly influences its political activity across each level of governance. At the national level, increasingly strong connections to other like-minded actors serve to increase and moderate activity. Moreover, groups that maintain strong connections with actors beyond the state are more likely to expand their activities across levels of governance...

Report of the Tenth Interlaboratory Comparison Organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food - IMEP-110: Total Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead in Vegetable Food

DE LA CALLE GUNTINAS Maria Beatriz; EMTEBORG Per; CHAROUD-GOT Jean; ROBOUCH Piotr; VERBIST Inge
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) a Directorate-General of the European Commission operates the European Union Reference Laboratory for Heavy Metals in Feed and Food (EU-RL-HM). One of its core tasks is to organise interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) among appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). This report presents the results of the tenth ILC of the EU-RL-HM which focused on the determination of total arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in vegetable food. The test material used in this exercise was the Standard Reference Material SRM 1570a, spinach leaves of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The material was rebottled and relabelled to prevent recognition by the participants and was dispatched at the beginning of June. Each participant received one bottle containing approximately 15 g of test material. Thirty-five laboratories from 24 countries registered to the exercise of which 35 reported results for total Cd and total Pb, 32 for total As and 31 for total Hg. The assigned values for total As, Cd and Hg are the certified values taken from the SRM 1570a certificate. For total Pb, the "information value" provided by NIST in the SRM certificate was used as assigned value. The uncertainties of the assigned values (uref) for total As...

The European Union and the promotion of regional integration: a viable approach to the resolution of regional conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Piccolino, Giulia
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) Publicador: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The European Union has been seen as a new type of 'normative power', aiming at diffusing its values through its external policy. The EU influence in Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly worth noting. The EU is historically a leading partner for Africa and it presents itself to the African continent as a successful model of conflict transformation by regional integration. The European institutions have spent a considerable amount of material resources and diplomatic efforts for promoting regionalism in Africa and for encouraging the transition of African regional organizations from a security culture of 'non interference' to one of 'non indifference'. Yet, the expectation that the promotion of regional integration will contribute to the resolution of regional conflicts in Africa faces two sets of challenges. First, the historical, political and economic context of Africa may not be conducive to the success of regional cooperation as a conflict resolution strategy. Second, the effectiveness and the coherence of the EU's promotion of regional integration and regional conflict resolution in Africa are disputed. This paper presents REGIOCONF, a new collective research project aiming at investigating systematically the EU's engagement in addressing regional conflicts worldwide...

Turkey's Accession to the European Union in terms of impact on the EU's security and defense policies: potential and drawbacks

Pinto,Maria do Céu
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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This study explores the impact of Turkey's likely entry in the European Union (EU) in terms of the EU's foreign, security and defense policies. It reviews Turkish capabilities, namely its military capabilities, which could provide the EU with valuable defense assets. There are differences related to Turkey's relations with the EU, which have increasingly spilled over into the NATO, hindering the development of cooperation over crisis management operations. The article then delves in the implications of Turkey's strategic geographical location to EU policies. It reviews how far the EU and Turkey may have convergent interests in some of the neighboring regions, especially in the Middle East.

The private and fiscal returns to schooling in the European Union

Fuente, Ángel de la; Jimeno, Juan Francisco
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 5484289 bytes; application/pdf
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El pdf del artículo es el documento de trabajo publicado con el titulo The private and fiscal returns to schooling and the effect of public policies on private incentives to invest in education: a general framework and some results for the EU.; We present estimates of the private and fiscal returns to schooling in 14 European Union countries. Estimates of the private returns to post-compulsory formal education take into account the effects of schooling on wages and employment probabilities and allow for academic failure rates, the direct and opportunity costs of education, and the impact of personal taxes, social security contributions, and unemployment and pension benefits on lifetime earnings. Estimates of fiscal returns capture the long-term effects of a marginal increase in average educational attainment on public finances under conditions that approximate general equilibrium. (JEL: I20, J31, H60).; This paper is part of a research project financed by the European Fund for Regional Development and Fundación Caixa Galicia. Additional financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science through project SEJ 2005-06357 is also gratefully acknowledged.; Peer reviewed

Legal doctrines of freedom of conscience and religion: comparative analysis of the current state in Russia, European Union, Italy and Spain; Instituição jurídica da liberdade de consciência e de religião. Análise comparativa: O estado atual na Rússia, na União Europeia, Itália e Espanha

Lagoda, Ekaterina
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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This paper examines the development of main aspects of the doctrine of freedom of conscience and religion at the present stage in the Russian Federation, in the context of European Union law and law of certain European countries - Italy and Spain. On the basis of comparative analysis, it was highlighted global trends and particular features of the constitutional regulation which predetermine the form and content of the doctrine of freedom of conscience and religion in the studied countries, taking into account the influence of international law-making in this area.; No artigo serão examinadas as direções principais de desenvolvimento da instituição da liberdade de consciência e de religião na etapa atual na Federação Russa, no contexto do direito da União Europeia e do direito de certos países europeus – Itália e Espanha. Na base da análise comparativa se revelam as tendências globais e as características distintivas da regulamentação constitucional as quais predeterminam a forma e conteúdo da constituição jurídica da liberdade de consciência e de religião nos países pesquisados, considerando a influência do Direito Internacional nesta área.

Feasibility study on dietary recommendations for older adults in the European Union

MAK TSZ NING; MUSSIO FLAMINIA; LOURO CALDEIRA SANDRA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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Despite mounting scientific evidence to support healthy and balanced diet in promoting active and healthy ageing, targeted, age-specific, and up-to-date dietary recommendations for older adults in Europe are not easy to find. On the 23-24 October 2014, the JRC organised an expert workshop "Feasibility study on dietary recommendations for older adults in the European Union" to discuss the need for dietary recommendations targeting older adults in Europe, and to identify strategies to promote better diet to prevent malnutrition in the older population. Twenty four experts from multiple disciplines related to nutrition and ageing from various European countries participated in the one and half day workshop. The overall consensus was that older adults, who are healthy may not need additional specific dietary recommendations as the current general adult population recommendations are likely to be sufficient, although some argued that even in healthy older adults, attention should still be paid to vitamin D and protein intakes. Participants identified and developed points for action for three main strategies/ working areas to promote better diet and reduce malnutrition in older adults. The strategies were 1) to develop targeted dietary guidelines for specific groups of older adults...

From the Europe of the markets to the Europe of the arrests when terrorism, xenophobia and paranoia try to enter in the right of the European Union; Da Europa dos mercados à Europa das prisões quando terrorismo, xenofobia e paranóia tentam entrar no direito da União Européia

Dal Ri Júnior, Arno; UFSC
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2006 Português
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The article if dedicates to the analysis of the process of insertion in the legal system of the European Union and in the legislation in criminal substance of some between the main European States, of norrns foreseeing the criminalization of the international terrorism and of behaviors to this connected. In the same way, it examines the possible origin of the criminologic teses that have based such insertions.;  O artigo se dedica à análise do processo de inserção no ordenamento jurídico da União Européia e na legislação em matéria penal de alguns entre os principais Estados europeus, de normas prevendo a criminalização do terrorismo internacional e de condutas a este conexas. Da mesma forma, examina a possível origem das teses criminológicas que têm fundamentado tais inserções.

The “mass naturalization” in Romania and the “sale” of the Citizenship of Member States of the European Union: reflections about the political and economic use of the legal institution of nationality; A “naturalização de massa” na Romênia e a “venda” da Nacionalidade de Estados-membros da União Europeia: reflexões sobre o uso político e econômico do instituto jurídico da nacionalidade

Beltrame de Moura, Aline; UFSC
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2015 Português
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p279The traditional legal institution of nationality has been undergoing relevant transformations, mainly due to the recent phenomenon observed in the operation of state policies focused on the reform of laws regulating nationality, aimed at introducing different criteria for the assignment of status civitatis to foreigners interested in it. The present study intends to verify if, and to what extent, the policies implemented by Member States of the European Union, designed to grant nationality through “mass naturalization” procedures or even its mere “sale”, are not correct ways to use this legal institution for political and economic ends in a sharp contrast with the European and international standards.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2015v36n71p279O tradicional instituto jurídico da nacionalidade vem sofrendo relevantes transformações, principalmente diante dos mais recentes fenômenos observados na condução de políticas estatais voltadas para a reforma das legislações sobre nacionalidade com o escopo de introduzir inusitados critérios para a atribuição do status civitatis aos estrangeiros interessados. O presente estudo pretende, assim...