peer-reviewed; The objective of this work was to develop an alternative methodology to study and characterize the phosphate crystalline properties, directly associated with solubility and plant availability, in biochar from swine bones. Some phosphate symmetry properties of pyrolyzed swine bones were established, using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, principal component analysis, and multivariate curve resolution analysis, on four pyrolyzed samples at different carbonization intensities. Increasing carbonization parameters (temperature or residence time) generates diverse phosphate structures, increasing their symmetry and decreasing the crossed polarizability of the pair H-1-P-31, producing phosphates with, probably, lower solubility than the ones produced at lower carbonization intensity. Additionally, a new methodology is being developed to study and characterize phosphate crystalline properties directly associated with phosphate solubility and availability to plants.; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed
peer-reviewed; Mental imagery, or the ability to simulate in the mind information that is not currently perceived by the senses, has attracted considerable research interest in psychology since the early 1970's. Within the past two decades, research in this field-as in cognitive psychology more generally-has been dominated by neuroscientific methods that typically involve comparisons between imagery performance of participants from clinical populations with those who exhibit apparently normal cognitive functioning. Although this approach has been valuable in identifying key neural substrates of visual imagery, it has been less successful in understanding the possible mechanisms underlying another simulation process, namely, motor imagery or the mental rehearsal of actions without engaging in the actual movements involved. In order to address this oversight, a "strength-based" approach has been postulated which is concerned with understanding those on the high ability end of the imagery performance spectrum. Guided by the expert performance approach and principles of ecological validity, converging methods have the potential to enable imagery researchers to investigate the neural "signature" of elite performers, for example. Therefore...
This paper investigates the intertwining
of a discourse of parental blame with the legacy of institutionalised neglect
and the current roll-back of state support and services in two of Ireland s
most socially marginalised and economically disadvantaged communities. In the
course of fieldwork conducted to explore narratives of community safety, the
authors were struck by the continual, unprompted emergence of a divisive and
enduring belief that community problems could be primarily traced to bad parents
and bad parenting . This belief was expressed by diverse members of the
communities involved including young people, young and middle-aged parents,
elderly people and those without children. A similar discourse was espoused by
representatives of state agencies, community workers, members of the police
force, and in the media.
This willingness to position people and parents
living in extremely challenging conditions as being responsible for the
creation, maintenance and continuance of these conditions is deeply problematic.
This article argues / identifies that the internalisation of a powerfully
evocative discourse of blame works to absolve the state of all responsibility
for the conditions in which marginalised communities are forced to live; it
legitimises current and future cutbacks by portraying such communities as irresponsible
and as the creators of their own problems; it distorts and distracts discussion
away from necessary and critical questioning of state accountability by
promoting a reductive...
peer-reviewed; This article critically appraises the success of the Back To Education Allowance (BTEA) in removing barriers to participation in 3rd level education for welfare recipients in Ireland. The paper is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative interviews with 3rd level students on the BTEA. This study argues that it is beneficial to society to specifically fund access to third level education for people on welfare as it provides the State with a larger return on its initial investment than traditional welfare to work programmes. However BTEA participants perceived that the effectiveness of the scheme in providing access falls short in the face of the class inequalities that exist in 3rd level education in Ireland, which are assisted by a general acceptance of the 'new right' ideology of personal responsibility. It is argued that the specific targeting of individuals for the scheme and the provision of direct assistance in applying for 3rd level courses would maximise the schemes potential. It is argued that welfare recipients are still seen as 'Undeserving' (MacGregor, 1999: 110). This mindset allows short-termism to prevail in relation to the progression and administration of the BTEA. This ideology allows the civil service to take personal ownership of decisions affecting the participants on the scheme. The data shows how these elites restrict the effectiveness of the BTEA...
peer-reviewed; In this paper I offer a critical appraisal of the value of welfare to education programmes in alleviating the social exclusion of welfare recipients in Ireland. Education is located as a key resource to be utilised in the fight against social exclusion. The paper suggests the function of education with regards to social inclusion is to promote relative social mobility. It is noted that in modern capitalist societies educational credentials are a key determinant of ones social class. Consequently education has a dual role in improving the individual's class position and additionally in potentially reducing the gap between those at the top of the hierarchy of economic power and those at the bottom. The paper takes the view that it is beneficial to society as a whole to specifically fund access to third level education for people on welfare. It is suggested that funding access for these groups is more likely to result in employment for them, more likely to sustain employment, and furthermore it will reduce time spent unemployed in the future. Additionally the paper demonstrates from a financial viewpoint welfare to education programmes will provide the state with a larger return on its initial investment. However it is apparent that internationally welfare to education is seen as a luxury...
peer-reviewed; This article critically examines the Back to Education Allowance (BTEA) as a
mechanism of social inclusion for Irish welfare recipients through participation in third-level
education. The article is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative
interviews with third-level students on the BTEA, and key informants. The article adopts a
strong ‘structural’ position, situating the source of social exclusion in the structured
inequality of the labour market and the state, which disadvantages particular groups in
society. In an era of unprecedented growth in Ireland, the first signs of a fiscal crisis saw cuts
made to welfare programmes in 2003/2004. The article examines the resultant changes
made to the BTEA, utilising Mutch’s adaptation of Bourdieu’s field theory to form a
theoretical understanding of how and why these restrictive changes to the BTEA occurred.; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed
non-peer-reviewed; The “understandable preoccupation” with Morrissey’s sexuality has seen “other forms of social identity” which inform his body of work, particularly social class, being neglected to a certain extent (Coulter 2010:160). In this chapter I examine Morrissey’s representation of the working / underclass in an era where neo-liberalism and the ideology of personal responsibility have obtained a global hegemonic or dominant position. My particular interest in Morrissey’s creative work lies in wider sociological debates around the continuing relevance and representations of social class. This chapter will document how Morrissey has continuously dealt with the “hidden injuries of class” that characterise contemporary society (Coulter 2005:6). Ultimately, the chapter will demonstrate that Morrissey’s work presents a counter narrative / alternative lens with which to critically examine the hegemonic neo-liberal view of the working / underclass; ACCEPTED; Not peer reviewed
peer-reviewed; Purpose - This paper aims to report on the design and development of a new approach for automatic classification and subject indexing of research documents in scientific digital libraries and repositories (DLR) according to library controlled vocabularies such as DDC and FAST.Design/methodology/approach - The proposed concept matching-based approach (CMA) detects key Wikipedia concepts occurring in a document and searches the OPACs of conventional libraries via querying the WorldCat database to retrieve a set of MARC records which share one or more of the detected key concepts. Then the semantic similarity of each retrieved MARC record to the document is measured and, using an inference algorithm, the DDC classes and FAST subjects of those MARC records which have the highest similarity to the document are assigned to it.Findings - The performance of the proposed method in terms of the accuracy of the DDC classes and FAST subjects automatically assigned to a set of research documents is evaluated using standard information retrieval measures of precision, recall, and F1. The authors demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of accuracy performance in comparison to a similar system currently deployed in a large scale scientific search engine.Originality/value - The proposed approach enables the development of a new type of subject classification system for DLR...
peer-reviewed; Objective: It is not established whether myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is associated with structural brain changes. The aim of this study was to investigate this by conducting the largest voxel-based morphometry study to date in CFS.Methods: High-resolution structural 3 T cerebral MRI scanning was carried out in 26 patients with CFS and 26 age-and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Voxel-wise generalised linear modelling was applied to the processed MR data using permutation-based non-parametric testing, forming clusters at t>2.3 and testing clusters for significance at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons across space.Results: Significant voxels (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) depicting reduced grey matter volume in the CFS group were noted in the occipital lobes (right and left occipital poles; left lateral occipital cortex, superior division; and left supracalcrine cortex), the right angular gyrus and the posterior division of the left parahippocampal gyrus. Significant voxels (p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) depicting reduced white matter volume in the CFS group were also noted in the left occipital lobe.Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that significant neuroanatomical changes occur in CFS...
peer-reviewed; Smart grids are increasingly proliferating all over
the world to leverage electricity infrastructures with information
technology. Smart metering, particularly Advanced
Metering Infrastructure (AMI), is an enabling technology for
realizing smart grids by collecting and processing energy
consumption logs and managing energy for customers and
utility companies. Security is one of the main concerns of smart
metering, and potential threats and attacks to this technology
have been discussed since the early initiatives. Considering
the unbounded and changing nature of security problems,
especially in complex and critical cyber-physical systems, smart
metering security concerns can not be always addressed at
design time. Autonomic self-protection promises to address
runtime security concerns in proactive and reactive ways. In
this paper, we focus on the customer domain of smart metering,
and investigate potential reactive self-protection scenarios by
concentrating on requirements. To this aim, we analyze a
sample set of published security requirements from the AMISEC
forum  to derive self-protection requirements. Then
we discuss how these requirements can be linked to the MAPE
loop  in the autonomic computing architecture.
peer-reviewed; There is frequently an assumption that fixed dualisms are no longer relevant (Thorne, 1993) so that socially constructed and differentially valued gendered cultures no longer exist. Gender however has not been consistently referred to as an outdated or zombie category (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim, 2002), while a variety of evidence suggests that male priorities, choices and life-styles are differentially valued (UN, 1995; O’Connor, 2000). Drawing on a national one in ten random sample of 4,100 texts written by Irish young people, typically aged 10-12 and 14-17 years, in response to an invitation to describe ‘themselves and the Ireland they inhabit’, this article suggests that aspects of their narratives (relating to relationships and life styles) reflect the existence of gender differentiated cultures, although these ‘two cultures’ are much less apparent in their narratives about time, space and consumption. Finally, the paper touches on the implications of these trends for understanding contemporary Irish society.
peer-reviewed; When attempting to integrate any Information and Communications Technology (ICT) based resource into Post-Primary Schools (High Schools) many potential barriers must be considered. Importantly, many of these barriers revolve around the individual teacher and hence they are an important starting point in understanding the change process in schools. This work describes attempts to integrate an ICT-based resource (a Virtual Chemistry Laboratory) into some science teachers’ practice within the Irish education system. From these experiences a working framework has been developed to describe teachers’ level of ICTintegration into their practice and the factors underpinning this. The framework raises important questions of how teachers may be effectively supported to move between descriptions within the framework. It also highlights the need for change attempts to incorporate mixed strategies for mixed teacher stances on ICT integration.
peer-reviewed; This study aimed to examine student teachers’ opinions of changes to reflective practice requirements during a five‐week teaching practice placement as part of a one‐year postgraduate initial teacher education programme. The results highlighted that prior to the changes, students saw little relevance in the reflective writing requirements while on teaching placement. Students saw the new requirements as more beneficial as they provided them with more time to reflect and greater opportunities to explore issues relevant to their professional development. Teacher educators need to consider carefully the reflective practice requirements of professional placements in order to ensure that they foster critical reflection and that students do not see them as mandatory paper exercises.