Página 7 dos resultados de 13128 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

The distribution of average and marginal effective tax rates in European Union member states

Immervoll, Herwig
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia da FGV
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Macro-based summary indicators of effective tax burdens do not capture differences in effective tax rates facing different sub-groups of the population. They also cannot provide information on the level or distribution of the marginal effective tax rates thought to influence household behaviour. I use EUROMOD, an EU-wide tax-benefit microsimulation model, to compute distributions of average and marginal effective tax rates across the household population in fourteen European Union Member States. Using different definitions of ‘net taxes’, the tax base and the unit of analysis I present a range of measures showing the contribution of the tax-benefit system to household incomes, the average effective tax rates applicable to income from labour and marginal effective tax rates faced by working men and women. In a second step, effective tax rates are broken down to separately show the influence of each type of tax-benefit instrument. The results show that measures of effective tax rates vary considerably depending on incomes, labour market situations and family circumstances. Using single averages or macro-based indicators will therefore provide an inappropriate picture of tax burdens faced by large parts of the population.

The impact of the european union fiscal rules on economic growth

Castro, Vítor
Fonte: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas Publicador: Universidade do Minho. Núcleo de Investigação em Políticas Económicas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This study intends to provide an empirical answer to the question of whether Maastricht and SGP fiscal rules have affected growth of European Union countries. A growth equation augmented with fiscal variables and controlling for the period in which fiscal rules were implemented in Europe is estimated over a panel of 15 EU countries (and 8 OECD countries) for the period 1970-2005 with the purpose of answering this question. The equation is estimated using both a dynamic fixed effects estimator and a recently developed pooled mean group estimator. GMM estimators are also used in a robustness analysis. Empirical results show that growth of real GDP per capita in the EU was not negatively affected in the period after Maastricht. This is the case when the recent performance of EU countries is compared both with their past performance and with the performance of other developed countries. Results even show that growth is slightly higher in the period in which the fulfilment of the 3% criteria for the deficit started to be officially assessed. Therefore, this study concludes that the institutional changes that occurred in Europe after 1992, especially the implementation of Maastricht and Stability and Growth Pact fiscal rules, should not be blamed for being harmful to growth in Europe.; The author acknowledges helpful comments from Jennifer Smith...

Fiscal behaviour in the European Union : rules, fiscal decentralization and government indebtedness

Afonso, António; Hauptmeier, Sebastian
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia. Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia.
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
We assess the fiscal behaviour in the European Union countries for the period 1990- 2005 via the responsiveness of budget balances to several determinants. The results show that the existence of effective fiscal rules, the degree of public spending decentralization, and the electoral cycle can impinge on the country’s fiscal position. Furthermore, the results also support the responsiveness of primary balances to government indebtedness.

Ricardian Fiscal Regimes in the European Union

Afonso, António
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The prevalence of either Ricardian or non-Ricardian fiscal regimes is important both for practical policy reasons and to assess fiscal sustainability, and this is of particular relevance for European Union countries. The purpose of this paper is to assess, with a panel data set, the empirical evidence concerning the existence of Ricardian fiscal regimes in EU-15 countries. The results give support to the Ricardian fiscal regime hypothesis throughout the sample period, and for sub-samples accounting for the dates of the Maastricht Treaty and for the setting-up of the Stability and Growth Pact. Additionally, electoral budget cycles also seem to play a role in fiscal behaviour.

Bank efficiency, market concentration and economic growth in the European Union

Ferreira, Cândida
Fonte: ISEG - Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG - Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Well-functioning financial markets and banking institutions are usually considered to be a condition favourable to economic growth. The importance of bank efficiency and bank market concentration has also been the object of discussion, with the general belief that while they are of particular relevance in the context of the European Union, there is no consensus on their specific roles. This paper aims to study the effects on economic growth of the efficiency of the banking institutions, measured through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and also of the concentration of the bank markets, measured by the percentage share of the total assets held by the three largest banking institutions (C3) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Considering a panel of all 27 EU countries for the time period between 1996 and 2008, the study analyses the influence of these bank and market conditions not only on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but also on its components: the final consumption expenditure, the gross fixed capital formation, the export of goods and services and the import of goods and services. The main findings point to the generally positive influence of bank cost efficiency on economic growth. More precisely, this influence is statistically significant for GDP and particularly with respect to the gross fixed capital formation. With regard to the bank market concentration...

European Union poverty policies. The case of the statistical policy

Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Podadera-Rivera, Pablo; García-Lizana, António
Fonte: CIES-ISCTE Publicador: CIES-ISCTE
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
A long-lasting difficulty in dealing with the subject of poverty, both in the scientific and political realms, has been the lack of analytical and methodological instruments that facilitate defining, observing and measuring accurately the social dimensions of the phenomenon. Henceforth, it is crucial to develop further indicators in order to design and implement a consistent statistical policy. After examining these issues, this paper analyses the European Union policy on poverty and, especially, the efforts done in the field of statistical policy.; Uma dificuldade de longa data nos estudos sobre a pobreza, quer a nível académico quer a nível político, reside na escasez de instrumentos analíticos e metodológicos para definir, observar e medir as dimensões sociais da pobreza. Portanto, é importante desenvolver ferramentas e indicadores que permitam formular e implementar uma política de estatísticas consistente. Após examinar estas questões, este artigo analisa a política da União Europeia relativamente à pobreza, com destaque para a área das políticas de estatísticas.

The state of entrepreneurship education in Portugal: an empirical study on a nascent system in the European Union policy framework

Redford, Dana Thacher
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
PhD in Philosophy in Management Management, Corporate Strategy and Entrepreneurship / JEL Classification: L26 - Entrepreneurship; J48 - Public Policy; Portugal has a nascent entrepreneurship education system at the post-secondary level that aims to address several areas within the European Union policy context. This research finds that Portugal is more than 20 years behind the United States in the development of educational offerings in this area. During the academic year 2005/2006 only 826, or 0.2%, of students at the post-secondary level in Portugal participated in an entrepreneurship class. Currently only 14.8% of students believe that the Portuguese educational system develops a state of mind that encourages the creation of new firms. In developing policy in this area findings highlight regional differences, gender considerations as well as the prominence of the “public sector” mindset or predisposition of post-secondary students relating to their first job experience are important factors to consider. The few courses in Portugal that do exist focus too heavily on teaching business plan development and are almost exclusively located in the area of management. The reliance on lecture formats instead of experiential learning techniques needs to evolve if this area is to move from being teacher-centered to learner-centered. Of the universities that offer courses...

What is left when election observers go? The case of European Union and Ethiopia

Dufief, Elise
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) Publicador: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 05/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This paper offers an analysis of the interaction between international and national politics, through one main instrument: election observation mission. By focusing on what happens once observers leave, the study of the relationship between the European Union and Ethiopia shows how such an instrument is being used to reverse power relations.

Digital Divide Across the European Union

Jesus, Frederico Miguel Campos Cruz Ribeiro de
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 27/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Dissertação apresentada como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Estatística e Gestão de Informação; Our research analyzes the digital divide within the European Union 27 (EU-27). To achieve this objective we use multivariate statistical methods, more specifically factor and cluster analysis, to address the disparities in the digital development levels between EU countries. Our results lead to an identification of two latent dimensions and five groups of countries when it comes to the digital development. We conclude that a digital gap does, in fact, exist within the EU. Moreover our results suggest that there is a relation with the entrance year to the Union with the digital development stage, considering that newer member presents lower digital developments.

Causes of hospitalization among extra-European Union children in a large hospital of Northern Italy, in a five-year observation period

Sabbatani,Sergio; Baldi,Elena; Manfredi,Roberto
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The hospitalizations of 1,239 patients aged 14 years or less and immigrated from extra-European Union countries in Italy were assessed in the 6-year period, from 1999 to 2004. The main demographic and clinical features were analyzed according to several variables, also distiguishing patients aged less than one year, from those aged 1-14 years. The introduction of a deed of indemnity law in 2001 profoundly changed the pattern of admissions and health care needs and exploitation during subsequent years, leading to a massive regularization of clandestine immigrants.

Realism, disciplinary history and European Union studies

Hussey, Barry
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
peer-reviewed; This thesis is a realist, disciplinary history of European Union Studies (EUS). It begins by examining a number of criticisms aimed at realist IR theory. By considering these criticisms it is possible to illustrate a more productive approach to realism. It will be shown that realism has two distinct uses, practical and hermeneutical, and that these are based on three core principles. These are the centrality of philosophical and ethical scepticism towards progress and naturalist epistemology; a belief in the centrality of power competition between all forms of social community; and a link to ‘reality’ as the foundation to any research. This part of the analysis is linked into a criticism of the dominance of unsuitable scientific divisions in IR Theory. Instead of the existing approach which assumes total explanatory power on the part of each theory, this research returned to the belief of many classical realists that realism alone was insufficient to understand and improve the practice of politics. Instead what is required is dialectic between realist and idealist modes of thought. This is argued to be the healthy condition of a discourse through the work of Karl Mannheim. Where this is not present, disciplinary history assists in understanding why this is the case. This realist disciplinary history framework deconstructs the development of EUS. Its Integration theory and politybuilding phases show that the discipline is hegemonised by liberal...

Corporate income taxation in the European Union: current state perspectives

Genser, Bernd
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 113463 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The paper reviews the state and recent changes in corporate income taxation in the European Union (EU) and major Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It also reviews coordination measures proposed and adopted in the EU so far. This empirical evidence is related to theoretical results on international tax competition. On this basis I conclude that tax competition has contributed to move the system of international capital taxation in an economically desirable direction. Although EU and OECD efforts to promote non-discrimination (‘Code of Conduct’) and curb international tax engineering strategies in multinational enterprises are desirable, a further harmonisation of corporate tax systems does not seem to be warranted.; no

Challenges for global environmental diplomacy in Australia and the European Union

Papadakis, Elim
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 255883 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
One of the predominant issues on the agenda of diplomats and politicians is how to address the consequences of shifts in perception about threats to the environment and the actual short and long-term characteristics and effects of environmental degradation. Another challenge is that such issues as climate change impact on many areas including trade, economic and fiscal policies, employment, transport, agriculture and regional development. Furthermore, decisions taken at a national level cannot be isolated from international concerns, as in the case of the Kyoto Protocol. This paper maps out some of the differences between Australia and such transnational organizations as the European Union, be they in relation to the role of developing countries in tackling climate change, the use of market mechanisms to tackle environmental problems and the implementation of punitive compliance systems. The paper explores why on some issues Australia and the EU might be perceived as either leaders and pioneers or laggards. The paper also looks beyond the binary coding of ‘laggards’ versus ‘leaders’ to some striking parallels between the two jurisdictions in their efforts to achieve sustainable development, ecological modernisation and introduce new environmental policy instruments as well as in similar pressures arising from changes in value systems over the past four decades. The paper is organized around four themes: challenges facing both Australia and the EU; why the EU is regarded as a global leader; how Australia has engaged with sustainable development; and how commonalities are more striking than differences.; no

Slovenia and the European Union

Rupel, Dimitrij
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 96020 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This paper covers the topics of the pending European Union enlargement and accompanying processes, including the issue of a new Constitutional Treaty and the position and role of Slovenia in these discussions.; no

Explaining Telecoms and Electricity Internationalization in the European Union: A Political Economy Perspective

CLIFTON, Judith; DIAZ-FUENTES, Daniel; REVUELTA LOPEZ, Julio
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.

The European Union and Global Financial Harmonisation

QUAGLIA, Lucia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This research examines the influence of the European Union (EU) in international financial harmonisation over the last two decades. It asks why the EU ‘uploads’ international financial regulation in some (few) cases, ‘downloads’ it in (many) other cases, or neither uploads or download rules. It sets up an analytical framework that combines the concepts of ‘international regulatory capacity’ and ‘EU regulatory capacity’, considering their variation across financial services as well as over time. Such a framework is then concisely applied to a variety of significant empirical case studies of prudential regulation of banking, securities, and insurance.

Relationships between research and policy on migration in the European Union : a practice-based analysis

GEDDES, Andrew
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
This paper analyses relationships between research and policy at European Union (EU) level about international migration by drawing from the perspectives of migration policy practitioners and their practices. By practitioners is meant those who seek to influence, shape or make migration policy at EU level including officials from EU institutions, national officials, academic researchers and representatives of international organisations, think tanks and NGOs. By practice is meant the socially recognised competence of practitioners. A particular focus is on the relationship between research and policy, or put another way, between the production of knowledge about international migration and the use of this knowledge in policy-shaping and policy-making. Questions include: how are relationships structured between researchers and policy-makers at EU level? How do policy-makers gather and process information? Is there risk of information overload and, if there is, how does this affect the relationship between researchers and policy-makers? Do policy-makers actually listen to researchers? If they do, what do they want to hear? And, do they actually hear it? Is there evidence that research has contributed to the development of shared understandings at EU level? If so...

European Union economic sanctions on Iran; critical considerations

Suknaič, Anja
Fonte: [s.n.] Publicador: [s.n.]
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Relações Internacionais com o Mundo Árabe e Islâmico; Esta dissertação centra a investigação sobre a questão de saber se as sanções económicas representam um instrumento eficaz no sentido de impedir o Irão de desenvolver actividades nucleares ilegais. O objectivo da pesquisa consiste igualmente em avaliar as consequências reais das sanções económicas para cada um dos Estados-Membros da União Europeia (UE), bem como outros Estados na cena internacional — sendo a eficácia das sanções avaliada com a ajuda de variáveis políticas e económicas. A pesquisa inclui informações detalhadas sobre o perfil político do Irão, sobre as relações comerciais entre a UE e o Irão, sobre o programa nuclear iraniano e sobre as sanções impostas ao Irão. O trabalho extrai um certo número de resultados relevantes, onde se inclui o facto de que Irão tem o apoio de várias superpotências na cena internacional, e o facto segundo o qual os países da UE os mais envolvidos nas relações comerciais com o Irão são igualmente os mais afectados pela crise global internacional. As principais conclusões a retirar do estudo apontam para a ideia de que as sanções contra o Irão foram até agora ineficazes...

The PHARMINE study on the impact of the European Union directive on sectoral professions and of the Bologna declaration on pharmacy education in Europe

Atkinson,J.; Rombaut,B.
Fonte: Pharmacy Practice (Internet) Publicador: Pharmacy Practice (Internet)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The Bologna declaration and the European Union (EU) directive 2005/36/EC on the recognition of professional qualifications influence the mobility of pharmacy students and pharmacy professionals, respectively. In addition the Bologna declaration aims at tuning higher education degrees including pharmacy throughout the EU in order to prepare for a harmonised European Higher Education Area. The directive outlines the knowledge, skills and qualifications required for the pursuit of the professional activity of a pharmacy in the EU. The PHARMINE project (Pharmacy Education in Europe, www.pharmine.org) looked at how the Bologna declaration and the directive influence modern-day pharmacy education and training in Europe.

El Asesor Sanitario en la European Union Training Mission Somalia

Relanzón López,J.M.
Fonte: Sanidad Militar Publicador: Sanidad Militar
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
La European Union Training Mission Somalia (EUTM Somalia) tiene la finalidad de la preparación y entrenamiento del ejército somalí leal al Gobierno Federal de Transición. En ella participan 150 militares de la Unión Europea, 37 de ellos españoles, por ser España la nación líder, entre los que se incluye el Asesor Sanitario, cuya función fundamental es establecer los planes de gestión de las contingencias sanitarias, las evacuaciones médicas y la medicina preventiva. La misión se desarrolla en Uganda, nación centroafricana con numerosos riesgos sanitarios, entre los que se destaca la alta incidencia de enfermedades transmitidas por artrópodos, SIDA, aguas no tratadas, calidad de los servicios sanitarios lejos de los estándares europeos y circulación peligrosa por el mal estado de las carreteras. A todo esto hay que añadir el riesgo de accidentes propio de un campamento militar.