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Optimized Design and Analysis of Sparse-Sampling fMRI Experiments

Perrachione, Tyler K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/04/2013 Português
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26.87%
Sparse-sampling is an important methodological advance in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in which silent delays are introduced between MR volume acquisitions, allowing for the presentation of auditory stimuli without contamination by acoustic scanner noise and for overt vocal responses without motion-induced artifacts in the functional time series. As such, the sparse-sampling technique has become a mainstay of principled fMRI research into the cognitive and systems neuroscience of speech, language, hearing, and music. Despite being in use for over a decade, there has been little systematic investigation of the acquisition parameters, experimental design considerations, and statistical analysis approaches that bear on the results and interpretation of sparse-sampling fMRI experiments. In this report, we examined how design and analysis choices related to the duration of repetition time (TR) delay (an acquisition parameter), stimulation rate (an experimental design parameter), and model basis function (an analysis parameter) act independently and interactively to affect the neural activation profiles observed in fMRI. First, we conducted a series of computational simulations to explore the parameter space of sparse design and analysis with respect to these variables; second...

Defining Language Networks From Resting-State fMRI for Surgical Planning—A Feasibility Study

Tie, Yanmei; Rigolo, Laura; Norton, Isaiah H.; Huang, Raymond Y.; Wu, Wentao; Orringer, Daniel; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Golby, Alexandra J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Presurgical language mapping for patients with lesions close to language areas is critical to neurosurgical decision-making for preservation of language function. As a clinical noninvasive imaging technique, functional MRI (fMRI) is used to identify language areas by measuring blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal change while patients perform carefully timed language vs. control tasks. This task-based fMRI critically depends on task performance, excluding many patients who have difficulty performing language tasks due to neurologic deficits. On the basis of recent discovery of resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), we propose a “task-free” paradigm acquiring fMRI data when patients simply are at rest. This paradigm is less demanding for patients to perform and easier for technologists to administer. We investigated the feasibility of this approach in right-handed healthy control subjects. First, group independent component analysis (ICA) was applied on the training group (14 subjects) to identify group level language components based on expert rating results. Then, four empirically and structurally defined language network templates were assessed for their ability to identify language components from individuals’ ICA output of the testing group (18 subjects) based on spatial similarity analysis. Results suggest that it is feasible to extract language activations from rs-fMRI at the individual subject level...

Age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI responses after accounting for decline in vascular reactivity

Liu, Peiying; Hebrank, Andrew C.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Section, Jarren; Park, Denise C.; Lu, Hanzhang
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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BOLD fMRI has provided a wealth of information about the aging brain. A common finding is that posterior regions of the brain manifest an age-related decrease in activation while the anterior regions show an age-related increase. Several neurocognitive models have been proposed to interpret these findings. However, one issue that has not been sufficiently considered to date is that the BOLD signal is based on vascular responses secondary to neural activity. Thus the above findings could be in part due to a vascular change, especially in view of the expected decline of vascular health with age. In the present study, we aim to examine age-related differences in memory-encoding fMRI response in the context of vascular aging. One hundred and thirty healthy subjects ranging from 20 to 89 years old underwent a scene-viewing fMRI task and, in the same session, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was measured in each subject using a CO2-inhalation task. Without accounting for the influence of vascular changes, the task-activated fMRI signal showed the typical age-related decrease in visual cortex and medial temporal lobe (MTL), but manifested an increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In the same individuals, an age-related CVR reduction was observed in all of these regions. We then used a previously proposed normalization approach to calculate a CVR-corrected fMRI signal...

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with Auditory Stimulation in Songbirds

Van Ruijssevelt, Lisbeth; De Groof, Geert; Van der Kant, Anne; Poirier, Colline; Van Audekerke, Johan; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/06/2013 Português
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The neurobiology of birdsong, as a model for human speech, is a pronounced area of research in behavioral neuroscience. Whereas electrophysiology and molecular approaches allow the investigation of either different stimuli on few neurons, or one stimulus in large parts of the brain, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) allows combining both advantages, i.e. compare the neural activation induced by different stimuli in the entire brain at once. fMRI in songbirds is challenging because of the small size of their brains and because their bones and especially their skull comprise numerous air cavities, inducing important susceptibility artifacts. Gradient-echo (GE) BOLD fMRI has been successfully applied to songbirds 1-5 (for a review, see 6). These studies focused on the primary and secondary auditory brain areas, which are regions free of susceptibility artifacts. However, because processes of interest may occur beyond these regions, whole brain BOLD fMRI is required using an MRI sequence less susceptible to these artifacts. This can be achieved by using spin-echo (SE) BOLD fMRI 7,8 . In this article, we describe how to use this technique in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which are small songbirds with a bodyweight of 15-25 g extensively studied in behavioral neurosciences of birdsong. The main topic of fMRI studies on songbirds is song perception and song learning. The auditory nature of the stimuli combined with the weak BOLD sensitivity of SE (compared to GE) based fMRI sequences makes the implementation of this technique very challenging.

Presurgical EEG-fMRI in a complex clinical case with seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Qingzhu; Mei, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Weifang; Chen, Hui; Xia, Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Yunlin
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Epilepsy surgery has improved over the last decade, but non-seizure-free outcome remains at 10%–40% in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and 40%–60% in extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). This paper reports a complex multifocal case. With a normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) result and nonlocalizing electroencephalography (EEG) findings (bilateral TLE and ETLE, with more interictal epileptiform discharges [IEDs] in the right frontal and temporal regions), a presurgical EEG-functional MRI (fMRI) was performed before the intraoperative intracranial EEG (icEEG) monitoring (icEEG with right hemispheric coverage). Our previous EEG-fMRI analysis results (IEDs in the left hemisphere alone) were contradictory to the EEG and icEEG findings (IEDs in the right frontal and temporal regions). Thus, the EEG-fMRI data were reanalyzed with newly identified IED onsets and different fMRI model options. The reanalyzed EEG-fMRI findings were largely concordant with those of EEG and icEEG, and the failure of our previous EEG-fMRI analysis may lie in the inaccurate identification of IEDs and wrong usage of model options. The right frontal and temporal regions were resected in surgery, and dual pathology (hippocampus sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia in the extrahippocampal region) was found. The patient became seizure-free for 3 months...

Large-Scale, High-Resolution Neurophysiological Maps Underlying fMRI of Macaque Temporal Lobe

Issa, Elias B.; Papanastassiou, Alex M.; DiCarlo, James J.
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Maps obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are thought to reflect the underlying spatial layout of neural activity. However, previous studies have not been able to directly compare fMRI maps to high-resolution neurophysiological maps, particularly in higher level visual areas. Here, we used a novel stereo microfocal x-ray system to localize thousands of neural recordings across monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT), construct large-scale maps of neuronal object selectivity at subvoxel resolution, and compare those neurophysiology maps with fMRI maps from the same subjects. While neurophysiology maps contained reliable structure at the sub-millimeter scale, fMRI maps of object selectivity contained information at larger scales (>2.5 mm) and were only partly correlated with raw neurophysiology maps collected in the same subjects. However, spatial smoothing of neurophysiology maps more than doubled that correlation, while a variety of alternative transforms led to no significant improvement. Furthermore, raw spiking signals, once spatially smoothed, were as predictive of fMRI maps as local field potential signals. Thus, fMRI of the inferior temporal lobe reflects a spatially low-passed version of neurophysiology signals. These findings strongly validate the widespread use of fMRI for detecting large (>2.5 mm) neuronal domains of object selectivity but show that a complete understanding of even the most pure domains (e.g....

Causality within the Epileptic Network: An EEG-fMRI Study Validated by Intracranial EEG

Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Avanzini, Pietro; Tassi, Laura; Ruggieri, Andrea; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Benuzzi, Francesca; Nichelli, Paolo; Lemieux, Louis; Meletti, Stefano
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2013 Português
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Accurate localization of the Seizure Onset Zone (SOZ) is crucial in patients with drug-resistance focal epilepsy. EEG with fMRI recording (EEG-fMRI) has been proposed as a complementary non-invasive tool, which can give useful additional information in the pre-surgical work-up. However, fMRI maps related to interictal epileptiform activities (IED) often show multiple regions of signal change, or “networks,” rather than highly focal ones. Effective connectivity approaches like Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) applied to fMRI data potentially offers a framework to address which brain regions drives the generation of seizures and IED within an epileptic network. Here, we present a first attempt to validate DCM on EEG-fMRI data in one patient affected by frontal lobe epilepsy. Pre-surgical EEG-fMRI demonstrated two distinct clusters of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increases linked to IED, one located in the left frontal pole and the other in the ipsilateral dorso-lateral frontal cortex. DCM of the IED-related BOLD signal favored a model corresponding to the left dorso-lateral frontal cortex as driver of changes in the fronto-polar region. The validity of DCM was supported by: (a) the results of two different non-invasive analysis obtained on the same dataset: EEG source imaging (ESI)...

Test-Retest Reliability of fMRI Brain Activity during Memory Encoding

Brandt, David J.; Sommer, Jens; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Kircher, Tilo; Paulus, Frieder M.; Jansen, Andreas
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The mechanisms underlying hemispheric specialization of memory are not completely understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to develop and test models of hemispheric specialization. In particular for memory tasks however, the interpretation of fMRI results is often hampered by the low reliability of the data. In the present study we therefore analyzed the test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation related to an implicit memory encoding task, with a particular focus on brain activity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Fifteen healthy subjects were scanned with fMRI on two sessions (average retest interval 35 days) using a commonly applied novelty encoding paradigm contrasting known and unknown stimuli. To assess brain lateralization, we used three different stimuli classes that differed in their verbalizability (words, scenes, fractals). Test-retest reliability of fMRI brain activation was assessed by an intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC), describing the stability of inter-individual differences in the brain activation magnitude over time. We found as expected a left-lateralized brain activation network for the words paradigm, a bilateral network for the scenes paradigm, and predominantly right-hemispheric brain activation for the fractals paradigm. Although these networks were consistently activated in both sessions on the group level...

A Large N400 but No BOLD Effect – Comparing Source Activations of Semantic Priming in Simultaneous EEG-fMRI

Geukes, Sebastian; Huster, René J.; Wollbrink, Andreas; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dobel, Christian
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/12/2013 Português
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Numerous studies have reported neurophysiological effects of semantic priming in electroencephalography (EEG) and in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because of differing methodological constraints, the comparability of the observed effects remains unclear. To directly compare EEG and fMRI effects and neural sources of semantic priming, we conducted a semantic word-picture priming experiment while measuring EEG and fMRI simultaneously. The visually presented primes were pseudowords, words unrelated to the target, semantically related words and the identical names of the target. Distributed source analysis of the event-related potentials (ERPs) successfully revealed a large effect of semantic prime-target relatedness (the N400 effect), which was driven by activations in a left-temporal source region. However, no significantly differing activations between priming conditions were found in the fMRI data. Our results support the notion that, for joint interpretations of existing EEG and fMRI studies of semantic priming, we need to fully appreciate the respective methodological limitations. Second, they show that simultaneous EEG-fMRI, including ERP source localization, is a feasible and promising methodological advancement for the investigation of higher-cognitive processes. Third...

FMRI Signal Analysis Using Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition

Deng, Fan; Zhu, Dajiang; Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series is non-linear and composed of components at multiple temporal scales, which presents significant challenges to its analysis. In the literature, significant effort has been devoted into model-based fMRI signal analysis, while much less attention has been directed to data-driven fMRI signal analysis. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven multi-scale signal decomposition framework named Empirical Mean Curve Decomposition (EMCD). Targeted on functional brain mapping, the EMCD optimizes mean envelopes from fMRI signals and iteratively extracts coarser-to-finer scale signal components. The EMCD framework was applied to infer meaningful low-frequency information from Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signals from resting state fMRI, task-based fMRI, and natural stimulus fMRI, and promising results are obtained.

A Kernel Machine-based fMRI Physiological Noise Removal Method

Song, Xiaomu; Chen, Nan-kuei; Gaur, Pooja
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique with blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast is a powerful tool for noninvasive mapping of brain function under task and resting states. The removal of cardiac- and respiration-induced physiological noise in fMRI data has been a significant challenge as fMRI studies seek to achieve higher spatial resolutions and characterize more subtle neuronal changes. The low temporal sampling rate of most multi-slice fMRI experiments often causes aliasing of physiological noise into the frequency range of BOLD activation signal. In addition, changes of heartbeat and respiration patterns also generate physiological fluctuations that have similar frequencies with BOLD activation. Most existing physiological noise-removal methods either place restrictive limitations on image acquisition or utilize filtering or regression based post-processing algorithms, which cannot distinguish the frequency-overlapping BOLD activation and the physiological noise. In this work, we address the challenge of physiological noise removal via the kernel machine technique, where a nonlinear kernel machine technique, kernel principal component analysis, is used with a specifically identified kernel function to differentiate BOLD signal from the physiological noise of the frequency. The proposed method was evaluated in human fMRI data acquired from multiple task-related and resting state fMRI experiments. A comparison study was also performed with an existing adaptive filtering method. The results indicate that the proposed method can effectively identify and reduce the physiological noise in fMRI data. The comparison study shows that the proposed method can provide comparable or better noise removal performance than the adaptive filtering approach.

Network Connectivity in Epilepsy: Resting State fMRI and EEG–fMRI Contributions

Centeno, Maria; Carmichael, David W.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/07/2014 Português
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There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks underlying the core phenomena in epilepsy, from seizure generation to cognitive dysfunction or response to treatment. The investigation of networks in epilepsy has become a key concept to unlock a deeper understanding of the disease. Functional imaging can provide valuable information to characterize network dysfunction; in particular resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI), which is increasingly being applied to study brain networks in a number of diseases. In patients with epilepsy, network connectivity derived from RS-fMRI has found connectivity abnormalities in a number of networks; these include the epileptogenic, cognitive and sensory processing networks. However, in majority of these studies, the effect of epileptic transients in the connectivity of networks has been neglected. EEG–fMRI has frequently shown networks related to epileptic transients that in many cases are concordant with the abnormalities shown in RS studies. This points toward a relevant role of epileptic transients in the network abnormalities detected in RS-fMRI studies. In this review, we summarize the network abnormalities reported by these two techniques side by side, provide evidence of their overlapping findings...

Flexible Adaptive Paradigms for fMRI Using a Novel Software Package ‘Brain Analysis in Real-Time’ (BART)

Hellrung, Lydia; Hollmann, Maurice; Zscheyge, Oliver; Schlumm, Torsten; Kalberlah, Christian; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/04/2015 Português
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26.87%
In this work we present a new open source software package offering a unified framework for the real-time adaptation of fMRI stimulation procedures. The software provides a straightforward setup and highly flexible approach to adapt fMRI paradigms while the experiment is running. The general framework comprises the inclusion of parameters from subject’s compliance, such as directing gaze to visually presented stimuli and physiological fluctuations, like blood pressure or pulse. Additionally, this approach yields possibilities to investigate complex scientific questions, for example the influence of EEG rhythms or fMRI signals results themselves. To prove the concept of this approach, we used our software in a usability example for an fMRI experiment where the presentation of emotional pictures was dependent on the subject’s gaze position. This can have a significant impact on the results. So far, if this is taken into account during fMRI data analysis, it is commonly done by the post-hoc removal of erroneous trials. Here, we propose an a priori adaptation of the paradigm during the experiment’s runtime. Our fMRI findings clearly show the benefits of an adapted paradigm in terms of statistical power and higher effect sizes in emotion-related brain regions. This can be of special interest for all experiments with low statistical power due to a limited number of subjects...

Compressed Sensing for fMRI: Feasibility Study on the Acceleration of Non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T

Han, Paul Kyu; Park, Sung-Hong; Kim, Seong-Gi; Ye, Jong Chul
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Conventional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique known as gradient-recalled echo (GRE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is sensitive to image distortion and degradation caused by local magnetic field inhomogeneity at high magnetic fields. Non-EPI sequences such as spoiled gradient echo and balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) have been proposed as an alternative high-resolution fMRI technique; however, the temporal resolution of these sequences is lower than the typically used GRE-EPI fMRI. One potential approach to improve the temporal resolution is to use compressed sensing (CS). In this study, we tested the feasibility of k-t FOCUSS—one of the high performance CS algorithms for dynamic MRI—for non-EPI fMRI at 9.4T using the model of rat somatosensory stimulation. To optimize the performance of CS reconstruction, different sampling patterns and k-t FOCUSS variations were investigated. Experimental results show that an optimized k-t FOCUSS algorithm with acceleration by a factor of 4 works well for non-EPI fMRI at high field under various statistical criteria, which confirms that a combination of CS and a non-EPI sequence may be a good solution for high-resolution fMRI at high fields.

Effects of cardiac gating on fMRI of the human auditory system

Dykstra, Andrew R. (Andrew Richard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 32 leaves
Português
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Guimaraes et al. (1998) showed that sound-evoked fMRI activation in the auditory midbrain was significantly improved by a method which reduces image signal variability associated with cardiac-related brainstem motion. The method, cardiac gating, synchronizes image acquisition to a constant phase of the cardiac cycle. Since that study, several improvements to auditory fMRI have been made, and it is unclear whether cardiac gating still yields worthwhile benefits. The present study re-evaluated the effects of cardiac gating for detecting fMRI activation with current auditory fMRI standards. In 11 experiments, we directly compared fMRI activation for images acquired with a fixed repetition time (ungated) vs. those acquired by triggering image acquisition (gated) to the oxygen saturation at the fingertip (SpO2), an indirect measure of cardiac activity. Three of these experiments compared the effects of gating with the Sp02 signal vs. gating with the R-wave of the electrocardiogram (ECG). fMRI activation was routinely detected at all levels of the auditory pathway from the cochlear nucleus to the auditory cortex. Compared to ungated acquisitions, cardiac gating with the SpO2 reduced image signal variability in all centers of the auditory system and increased the magnitude of activation in the inferior colliculus (p < 0.01) and medial geniculate body (p < 0.1).; (cont.) Simultaneous measurements of the SpO2 and ECG indicated that the peak of the SpO2 signal followed the ECG R-wave by approximately 400 ms...

Breaking down the barriers: fMRI applications in pain, analgesia and analgesics

Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino R
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/09/2006 Português
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This review summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings that have informed our current understanding of pain, analgesia and related phenomena, and discusses the potential role of fMRI in improved therapeutic approaches to pain. It is divided into 3 main sections: (1) fMRI studies of acute and chronic pain. Physiological studies of pain have found numerous regions of the brain to be involved in the interpretation of the 'pain experience'; studies in chronic pain conditions have identified a significant CNS component; and fMRI studies of surrogate models of chronic pain are also being used to further this understanding. (2) fMRI studies of endogenous pain processing including placebo, empathy, attention or cognitive modulation of pain. (3) The use of fMRI to evaluate the effects of analgesics on brain function in acute and chronic pain. fMRI has already provided novel insights into the neurobiology of pain. These insights should significantly advance therapeutic approaches to chronic pain.

Relation between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single neuron, local field potential (LFP) and electrocorticography (ECoG) activity in human cortex

Ojemann, George A.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Ojemann, Jeffrey
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/02/2013 Português
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The relation between changes in the blood oxygen dependent metabolic changes imaged by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neural events directly recorded from human cortex from single neurons, local field potentials (LFPs) and electrocorticogram (ECoG) is critically reviewed, based on the published literature including findings from the authors' laboratories. All these data are from special populations, usually patients with medically refractory epilepsy, as this provides the major opportunity for direct cortical neuronal recording in humans. For LFP and ECoG changes are often sought in different frequency bands, for single neurons in frequency of action potentials. Most fMRI studies address issues of functional localization. The relation of those findings to localized changes in neuronal recordings in humans has been established in several ways. Only a few studies have directly compared changes in activity from the same sites in the same individual, using the same behavioral measure. More often the comparison has been between fMRI and electrophysiologic changes in populations recorded from the same functional anatomic system as defined by lesion effects; in a few studies those systems have been defined by fMRI changes such as the “default” network. The fMRI-electrophysiologic relationships have been evaluated empirically by colocalization of significant changes...

Optimal experimental designs for fMRI via circulant biased weighing designs

Cheng, Ching-Shui; Kao, Ming-Hung
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2015 Português
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology is popularly used in many fields for studying how the brain reacts to mental stimuli. The identification of optimal fMRI experimental designs is crucial for rendering precise statistical inference on brain functions, but research on this topic is very lacking. We develop a general theory to guide the selection of fMRI designs for estimating a hemodynamic response function (HRF) that models the effect over time of the mental stimulus, and for studying the comparison of two HRFs. We provide a useful connection between fMRI designs and circulant biased weighing designs, establish the statistical optimality of some well-known fMRI designs and identify several new classes of fMRI designs. Construction methods of high-quality fMRI designs are also given.; Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/15-AOS1352 in the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org)

The effect of ageing on fMRI: Correction for the confounding effects of vascular reactivity evaluated by joint fMRI and MEG in 335 adults

Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Henson, Richard N. A.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Davis, Simon W.; Shafto, Meredith A.; Taylor, Jason R.; Williams, Nitin; Cam-CAN; Rowe, James B.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.22768/full; In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research one is typically interested in neural activity. However, the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal is a composite of both neural and vascular activity. As factors such as age or medication may alter vascular function, it is essential to account for changes in neurovascular coupling when investigating neurocognitive functioning with fMRI. The resting-state fluctuation amplitude (RSFA) in the fMRI signal (rsfMRI) has been proposed as an index of vascular reactivity. The RSFA compares favourably with other techniques such as breath-hold and hypercapnia, but the latter are more difficult to perform in some populations, such as older adults. The RSFA is therefore a candidate for use in adjusting for age-related changes in vascular reactivity in fMRI studies. The use of RSFA is predicated on its sensitivity to vascular rather than neural factors; however, the extent to which each of these factors contributes to RSFA remains to be characterized. The present work addressed these issues by comparing RSFA (i.e., rsfMRI variability) to proxy measures of (i) cardiovascular function in terms of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) and (ii) neural activity in terms of resting state magnetoencephalography (rsMEG). We derived summary scores of RSFA...

Global and local fMRI signals driven by neurons defined optogenetically by type and wiring

Lee, Jin Hyung; Durand, Remy; Gradinaru, Viviana; Zhang, Feng; Goshen, Inbal; Kim, Dae-Shik; Fenno, Lief E.; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2010 Português
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Despite a rapidly-growing scientific and clinical brain imaging literature based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, it remains controversial whether BOLD signals in a particular region can be caused by activation of local excitatory neurons. This difficult question is central to the interpretation and utility of BOLD, with major significance for fMRI studies in basic research and clinical applications. Using a novel integrated technology unifying optogenetic control of inputs with high-field fMRI signal readouts, we show here that specific stimulation of local CaMKIIα-expressing excitatory neurons, either in the neocortex or thalamus, elicits positive BOLD signals at the stimulus location with classical kinetics. We also show that optogenetic fMRI (ofMRI) allows visualization of the causal effects of specific cell types defined not only by genetic identity and cell body location, but also by axonal projection target. Finally, we show that ofMRI within the living and intact mammalian brain reveals BOLD signals in downstream targets distant from the stimulus, indicating that this approach can be used to map the global effects of controlling a local cell population. In this respect...