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When Parties (also) Position Themselves: An Introduction to the EU Profiler

TRECHSEL, Alexander H.; MAIR, Peter
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper is intended to frame and describe a novel method of political party positioning within the European Union and beyond. Ever since the groundbreaking work by Downs in the 1950s, political scientists have derived a variety of methods to empirically determine the position of parties on dimensions measuring differences in policies or ideologies. Today, two sets of techniques dominate this research domain: expert surveys and manifesto/ programme coding. What is common to both techniques is that the positioning is done by qualified scholars and other experts outside the parties, and that it is not always possible to trace the grounds on which a party was coded in one way rather than another. The EU Profiler project, a large-scale, interdisciplinary and pan-European research endeavour, takes a step beyond these established methods by using party self-positioning and by offering full documentation. That is, and in addition to conventional expert coding, some 300 political parties in Europe have been invited to place themselves on 30 issue dimensions. Moreover, and in so far as it proved possible, each coded position for each party is fully documented with extracts from party manifestos, party leaders’ speeches, or relevant press or policy statements. The resulting data offer unique opportunities for comparing the accuracy and efficiency among party positioning techniques...

EU 2050 Low-Carbon Energy Future: Visions and strategies

MEEUS, Leonardo; AZEVEDO, Isabel; MARCANTONINI, Claudio; GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; HAFNER, Manfred
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The aim of this paper is to identify the main challenges regarding the achievement of a low-carbon energy system in the EU by 2050. We analyze the visions presented by stakeholders and existing strategies of member state to achieve this transition. The five main challenges identified are the following: 1// energy efficiency - to ensure ambitious energy savings; 2// GHG emissions - to go towards a nearly zero-carbon electricity system; 3// renewable energy - to push effective technologies into the market; 4// energy infrastructure - to ensure timely investment in the electricity transmission grid capacity across borders; 5// energy markets - to guarantee timely investment in electricity generation back-up capacity. We also find that member states are already pursuing different strategies in dealing with these challenges. This creates risks for a European energy policy fragmentation. It also opens new opportunities for cooperation among member states so that the European Commission could demonstrate how to produce European added value.

Building Gas Markets: US versus EU, market versus market model

VAZQUEZ, Miguel; HALLACK, Michelle; GLACHANT, Jean-Michel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The liberalization process of the gas sector has showed that the reasoning to introduce competition in gas industries separates the services in at least two groups: commodities with relatively low transaction costs, and hence suitable to short-term market coordination, and network services which concentrate most of the specificities related to the physical flows. However, the way to coordinate such network services is still under debate. In this view, in USA specific services are coordinated through long term contracts, whereas the EU regulatory frame socializes the costs of the network services. In this paper, we develop a general analysis of the major consequences of this fundamental regulatory choice. In addition, we build on such analysis to explain the differences among the current proposals to design the coming European Internal Market.

Industry Compensation under Relocation Risk: A Firm-level analysis of the EU emissions trading scheme

MARTIN, Ralf; MUULS, Mirabelle; DE PREUX, Laure B.; WAGNER, Ulrich J.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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When industry compensation is offered to prevent relocation of regulated firms, efficiency requires that payments be distributed across firms so as to equalize marginal relocation probabilities, weighted by the damage caused by elocation. We formalize this fundamental economic logic and apply it to analyze industry compensation rules proposed under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, which allocate permits for free to carbon and trade intensive industries. We estimate that this practice will result in overcompensation in the order of €6.7 billion every year. Efficient allocation would reduce the aggregate risk of job loss by two thirds without increasing aggregate compensation.

The EU internal electricity market : done forever?

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; RUESTER, Sophia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Taking a quarter-century to build a European internal market for electricity may seem an incredibly long journey. The aim of achieving a European-wide market might be reached, but we have gone through – and should continue to go through – a process subject to many adverse dynamics. The EU internal market may derail greatly in the coming years from the effects of a massive push for renewables, as well as a growing decentralization of the production-consumption loop. Moreover, a serious concern is the risk of a definitive fragmentation of the European electricity market due to uncoordinated national moves with respect to renewable support and capacity mechanisms.

EEAS 2.0 : A legal commentary on Council decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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Article 13(3) of Council Decision 2010/427/EU of 26 July 2010 establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service (EEAS) required that the High Representative should provide a review of the organisation and functioning of the EEAS by mid-2013. This paper provides a legal commentary on the Decision and is intended to inform those involved in the review process and to serve as a reference document for practitioners and analysts dealing with the EEAS. This commentary provides a textual and contextual analysis of each article of the Decision, taking account of i) other relevant legal provisions (primary, secondary, international), ii) the process leading to the adoption of the 2010 Council Decision (i.e. travaux préparatoires), iii) the preamble of the Council Decision, and iv) insofar as it is possible at this stage, early implementation.

EEAS 2.0 : recommendations for the amendment of Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European external action service

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This report offers recommendations for the amendment of the Council Decision 2010/427/EU establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service. Its purpose is to contribute, in practical legal terms, to the ongoing review of the Decision in 2013, as well as to the possible discussion on its revision that may take place in 2014. In particular, it sheds light on possible adjustments in the application of the Decision ‘à droit constant’, but also suggests potential alteration of its formulation.

EU mobility regimes and visa policy towards ENP countries

DUMAS, Perrine; GOLDNER LANG Iris
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The paper compares the instruments which enhance the mobility of ENP Mediterranean and Eastern citizens, by distinguishing between visa cooperation and legal migration matters. Our analysis would suggest that cooperation in the field of legal migration, and especially social security rights, is more developed with Mediterranean Partners than with Eastern ones. This can be explained by the fact that the Association Agreements concluded with Mediterranean states are a more fruitful framework for cooperation than the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements concluded with Eastern partners. As far as visa cooperation is concerned, it is, conversely, more developed with Eastern Partners. It appears that the instruments tailored in the context of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice are more appropriate to favouring the short stay of ENP nationals in the EU, to the Association Agreements. In any case, at this point, the opportunities provided by these instruments have not been fully exploited and cooperation levels remain weak.