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Activity Report 2009 of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials

SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The following report is a technical report mostly destined to Commission services, National Reference Laboratories and Member State Competent Authorities. It reports the 2009 update of the deliverables from the work programme 2009 of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials established under Regulation EC No 882/2004. The 2009 annual work programme of the EURL included methods of analysis protocols (Art 32 1(a)), reliability of results & comparative testing (Art 32 1(b)), with several guidance documents produced on method performance and validation, on sampling and testing conditions, on the 4th amendment of Directive 2002/72/EC. Two validation studies for a) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in oil and b) Bisphenol A (BPA) in the new milk simulant 50% Ethanol were organised and completed successfully. Other items completed included the collection of reference monomers and additives, emerging issues such as the Plastic Implementing Measures and in particular on the revision of Community Guidelines for Migration Testing, as well as on active and intelligent packaging (AIM). Several trainings were organised by the EURL upon request, including delegates from the FVO as well a for a delegate from Vietnam.; JRC.DG.I.2-Chemical assessment and testing

Report on the 6th Inter-Laboratory Comparison Test Organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

LERDA Donata; LOPEZ SANCHEZ Patricia; SZILAGYI Szilard; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The European Union Reference Laboratory for PAHs (EU-RL-PAHs), operated by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), organises yearly one or more proficiency tests (PTs) within the scope of the Regulation (EC) 882/2004. The proficiency test here reported concerned the determination of the 15+1 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an infant formula test sample. Participants to these PT were National Reference Laboratories for PAHs (NRLs-PAHs). The number of participants was 25. They were requested to report for the future four target PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, and chrysene) quantitative results, and absence or presence of the other 12 PAHs. The PT was organised along the lines of the IUPAC Harmonised Protocol for the Proficiency Testing of Analytical Chemistry Laboratories. The test material used was dry infant formula spiked with a 15 + 1 EU priority PAHs and a solution of the target analytes in, depending of the preference of the particular laboratory, either acetonitrile or toluene. The results for the four target PAHs were rated with z-scores and zeta-scores. About 88 % of the reported results were attributed with z-scores with an absolute value of below two...

Report on the inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins for the validation of a method for the determination of Ochratoxin A in liquorice roots and extracts - Method based on immunoaffinity column clean-up with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorimetric detection method

LERDA Donata; AMBROSIO Massimo; KUNSAGI ZOLTAN; EMTEBORG Per; CHAROUD-GOT Jean; STROKA Joerg
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The European Union Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins (EU-RL Mycotoxins), operated by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), organised a method validation study (MVS) for evaluating the effectiveness of a method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in liquorice root and liquorice extracts. A test portion is extracted with a mixture of methanol and aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The extract is filtered, diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and OTA is purified with an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific to OTA. The purified extract is dried, reconstituted and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-flourimetric detection. Twenty laboratories from 13 EU Member States, a laboratory in Uruguay, one in Turkey, one in Canada, and one in US participated in this study. Contents of OTA ranged from 26 to 141 µg/kg and from 8 to 52 µg/kg for liquorice extracts and root material respectively. Mean recoveries were calculated as 87 % for liquorice root, and 84 to 88 % for liquorice extracts. Based on results for the spiked and naturally contaminated samples the relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 10 to 17 % and from 11 to 22 % in liquorice extracts and liquorice root respectively. Standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 4 to 9 % and from 6 to 9 % in liquorice extracts and liquorice root respectively. The Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006 lays down performance criteria that must be met by a method to determine OTA in food when used for official control purposes. These criteria have been met by this method for both the liquorice root and the liquorice extracts.; JRC.DG.D.6-Food Safety and Quality

Report on the 7th Inter-Laboratory Comparison Organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - 15 + 1 EU Priority PAHs in Spiked Olive Oil and Solvent Solution

LERDA Donata; LOPEZ SANCHEZ Patricia; SZILAGYI Szilard; VERLINDE PHILIPPE; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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The European Union Reference Laboratory for PAHs (EU-RL-PAHs), operated by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), organises yearly one or more proficiency tests (PTs) within the scope of the Regulation (EC) 882/2004. The proficiency test here reported concerned the determination of the 15+1 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an olive oil test sample. Participants to these PT were National Reference Laboratories for PAHs (NRLs-PAHs) and EU official food control laboratories. The number of participants was 54. The PT was organised along the lines of the IUPAC Harmonised Protocol for the Proficiency Testing of Analytical Chemistry Laboratories. The test material used was olive oil spiked with a 15 + 1 EU priority PAHs and a solution of the target analytes in depending of the preference of the participants acetonitrile or toluene. The results from participants were rated with z-scores and zeta-scores. About 90 % of the reported results were attributed with z-scores with an absolute value of below two, which is the threshold for satisfactory performance.; JRC.DG.D.6-Food Safety and Quality

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - Review of scientific advice for 2012 - Consolidated Advice on Fish Stocks of Interest to the European Union (STECF 11-18)

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report represents the STECF review of advice for stocks of interest to the European Union in all of the world’s oceans. It constitutes a consolidated version of three reports and one corrigendum released by the STECF on review of scientific advice in 2011. These reports were published as the STECF review of advice for 2012 Parts 1, 2 and 3. However, since the publication of the three separate reports, some fisheries advisory bodies have published additional information and advice and this has been taken into account in the present report. This report therefore supersedes any advice on stocks of EU interest previously given by the STECF for 2012.; JRC.G.4-Maritime affairs

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) - Review of Scientific advice for 2013 - Consolidated Advice on Fish Stocks of Interest to the European Union (STECF-12-22)

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report represents the STECF review of advice for stocks of interest to the European Union in all of the world’s oceans. It constitutes a consolidated version of three reports and one corrigendum released by the STECF on review of scientific advice in 2012. These reports were published as the STECF review of advice for 2013 Parts 1, 2 and 3. However, since the publication of the three separate reports, some fisheries advisory bodies have published additional information and advice and this has been taken into account in the present report. This report therefore supersedes any advice on stocks of EU interest previously given by the STECF for 2013.; JRC.G.4-Maritime affairs

Report on the 10th inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Four marker PAHs in chocolate and cocoa butter

LIZAK RADOSLAW; ZELINKOVA ZUZANA; VERLINDE Philippe; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the results of the tenth inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EU-RL PAHs) on the determination of the four EU marker PAHs, benz[a]anthracene (BAA), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BBF) and chrysene (CHR), in cocoa products, particularly in plain chocolate and cocoa butter. It was conducted under ISO Standard 17043 accreditation. In agreement with National Reference Laboratories, the test material used in this exercise were commercial products. Participants also received a solution of PAHs in solvent of their choice (either toluene or acetonitrile) with disclosed content for the verification of their instrument calibration. Consensus values were used to benchmark the results reported by participants, as the experience of the analytical community with this analysis scope was considered not sufficient to provide reference values. Both officially nominated National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and official food control laboratories (OCLs) of the EU Member States were admitted as participants. The participants were free to choose the method of analysis. The performance of the participating laboratories in the determination of the target PAHs in cocoa butter and plain chocolate was expressed by z-scores. Satisfactory performance with regard to z-scores was assigned to about 81 % of the reported results.; JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscience

Snapshots of renewable energy developments in the European Union. Status in 2010 and progress in comparison with National Renewable Energy Action Plans.

SCARLAT NICOLAE; BANJA MANJOLA; DALLEMAND Jean-Francois; MONFORTI-FERRARIO Fabio
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
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This report presents a snapshot of the use of renewable energy in the European Union in 2010, the progress and the deviations from the targets set in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans. The report describe the developments in the overall contribution of renewable energy in each Member State since 2005 according to their first Progress Reports, the progress made in the use of each renewable energy source and their share in heating and cooling, electricity and in transport sector.; JRC.F.7-Renewable Energy

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Review of scientific advice for 2014 – Consolidated Advice on Fish Stocks of Interest to the European Union (STECF-13-27).

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report represents the STECF review of advice for stocks of interest to the European Union in all of the world’s oceans.; JRC.G.4-Maritime affairs

Report on the 12th inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Four marker PAHs in bivalve molluscs

BRATINOVA STEFANKA; ZELINKOVA ZUZANA; KARASEK LUBOMIR; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the results of the twelfth inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EURL PAHs) on the determination of the four EU marker PAHs, benz[a]anthracene (BAA), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BBF) and chrysene (CHR), in bivalve moluscs, particularly in frozen and freeze dried (lyophilized) mussels. It was conducted under ISO Standard 17043 accreditation. In agreement with National Reference Laboratories, the test material used in this exercise were commercial products spiked with 4 markers PAHs and reference material provided by IAEA. Participants also received a solution of PAHs in solvent of their choice (either toluene or acetonitrile) with disclosed content for the verification of their instrument calibration. Reference values were used to benchmark the results reported by participants, Both officially nominated National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and official food control laboratories (OCLs) of the EU Member States were admitted as participants. The participants were free to choose the method of analysis. The performance of the participating laboratories in the determination of the target PAHs in frozen and freeze dried mussels was expressed by z-scores. Satisfactory performance with regard to z-scores was assigned to about 82 % of the reported results.; JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscience

Technical Guidance Document from the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed on the Implementation of Commission Regulation (EU) No 619/2011

MAZZARA Marco; PLAN DAMIEN; SAVINI Cristian; VAN DEN BULCKE MARC; VAN DEN EEDE Guy
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The recently adopted Commission Regulation (EU) No 619/2011 lays down the methods for sampling and analysis for the official control of food as regards to presence of genetically modified material for which an authorisation procedure is pending or the authorisation of which is has expired (the so-called LLP, Low Level presence Regulation). The requirements of this Regulation are technically demanding because they set a non-compliance limit of 0.1% GMO (mass fraction). The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) plays a crucial role in the implementation of this regulation because only methods validated by the EU-RL that show a RSDr value of maximum 25% at the level of 0.1% related to mass fraction of GM material can be used on falling under that regulation. The aim of this document is to explain how this Regulation will affect the process of validation and how laboratories need to operate under that Regulation.; JRC.I.3-Molecular Biology and Genomics

Radioactive Waste Management Stakeholders Map in the European Union - Report May 2014

MARTELL Meritxell; FERRARO GIANLUCA
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The report presents institutions and organisations involved in radioactive waste management (RWM) in several Members States (MSs) of the European Union (EU). It also identifies the responsibilities of different actors and the relationships and lines of accountability existing between them. The purpose is to provide a comprehensive overview of the RWM key stakeholders in the EU MSs. The report also locates RWM facilities in each country through the use of geographical maps. Detailed country profiles are provided for fifteen MSs: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.; JRC.F.4-Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Reactor Safety

Annual Activity Report 2013: European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials

SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The work programme 2013 for the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials was established during the June 2012 Plenary meeting in consensus with the Network of NRLs and DG SANCO. It included developments on testing for ceramics in support to the revisions currently discussed for the Directive on ceramics. It also included 1) a first-time proficiency testing (PT) as next phase to the 2012 validation of a method for the new simulant for dry foodstuffs 2) a first-time PT on fingerprinting as identification of the nature of plastics FCM materials, 3) a follow up on the PT 2012 on measurement of formaldehyde from imports melaware, 4) an exercise on calculation of surface areas in contact for kitchen utensils using different methods and 5) a workshop and evaluation of supporting documents for the establishment of compliance. It also initiated exploratory work on testing of kitchen paper and napkins as a non-regulated issue for primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and on strategies to develop multianalyte methods. In addition continuing work items included the development of a databank for substances regulated under the Regulation 10/2011 for plastics as well as the development of an inventory of methods of analysis.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

Public ICT R&D funding in the European Union

STANCIK JURAJ; ROHMAN IBRAHIM KHOLILUL
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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The report provides a detailed analysis of the state of public expenditure on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Research and Development (R&D) in the European Union (EU). We also provide an interim assessment of the extent to which the Digital Agenda target about doubling public ICT R&D expenditures has been achieved. Furthermore, besides focusing on the EU, we compare these expenditures with public expenditures on ICT R&D in the EU’s main counterpart, the United States of America (US). Our analysis, covering the period 2006-2011, shows that EU ICT R&D public funding has been steadily growing. In 2011, it reached €6.1 billion which represented 6.6% of the whole public R&D funding. Regarding the comparison with the US, we conclude that the US government devotes more ICT R&D funds than all the EU Member States governments together but this gap has been shrinking and during the period 2006-2011 it decreased by 50%.; JRC.J.3-Information Society

Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Consolidated Advice on Fish Stocks of Interest to the European Union (STECF-14-24).

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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66.08%
This report represents the STECF review of advice for stocks of interest to the European Union in all of the world’s oceans. It constitutes a consolidated version of three reports released by the STECF on review of scientific advice in 2014. These reports were published as the STECF review of advice for 2015 Parts 1, 2 and 3. However, since the publication of the three separate reports, some fisheries advisory bodies have published additional information and advice and this has been taken into account in the present report. This report therefore supersedes any advice on stocks of EU interest previously given by the STECF for 2015.; JRC.G.3-Maritime affairs

Report on the 14th inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Four marker PAHs in food supplements

BRATINOVA STEFANKA; ZELINKOVA ZUZANA; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the results of the fourteenth inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EURL PAH) on the determination of the four EU marker PAHs, benz[a]anthracene (BAA), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BBF) and chrysene (CHR), in food supplements, particularly in fish oil and spirulina powder. It was conducted under ISO Standard 17043 accreditation. The test materials used in this exercise were commercial products naturally contaminated (spirulina) or spiked with the 4 markers PAHs (fish oil). Participants also received a solution of PAHs in solvent of their choice (either toluene or acetonitrile) with disclosed content for the verification of their instrument calibration. Reference values were used to benchmark the results reported by participants. Both National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and official food control laboratories (OCLs) of the EU Member States were admitted as participants. The participants were free to choose the method of analysis. The performance of the participating laboratories in the determination of the target PAHs in test materialss was expressed by z-scores. Satisfactory performance expressed by z scores was assigned to about 83.6 % of the reported results.; JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscience

Report on the 15th inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Four marker PAHs in smoked meat

BRATINOVA STEFANKA; ZELINKOVA ZUZANA; WENZL Thomas
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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This report presents the results of the fifteenth inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EURL PAH) on the determination of the four EU marker PAHs, benz[a]anthracene (BAA), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BBF) and chrysene (CHR) in smoked meat. It was conducted under ISO 17043 accreditation. Both officially nominated National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) and official food control laboratories (OCLs) of the EU Member States were admitted as participants. In agreement with National Reference Laboratories, the test material used in this exercise was smoked sausage. Participants also received a solution of PAHs in solvent of their choice (either toluene or acetonitrile) with disclosed content for the verification of their instrument calibration. The participants were free to choose the method of analysis. Reference values were used to benchmark the results reported by participants. The performance of the participating laboratories in the determination of the target PAHs in smoked meat was expressed by z-scores. Satisfactory performance with regard to z-scores was assigned to about 93% of the reported results.; JRC.D.5-Standards for Food Bioscience

Regional Human Poverty Index - poverty in the regions of the European Union

WEZIAK-BIALOWOLSKA DOROTA MARIA; DIJKSTRA Lewis
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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We measure area-specific poverty in the European Union (EU) at the second level of the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS 2). We construct the regional human poverty index (RHPI), which comprises four dimensions: social exclusion, knowledge, a decent standard of living, and a long and healthy life. The RHPI provides information regarding the relative standing of a given country with respect to the level of poverty but also shows the variability of poverty within a country with respect to NUTS 2. The approach we propose has four properties. (1) Because the RHPI comprises only six indicators it is relatively simple to be replicated in subsequent years. (2) The RHPI provides information about the absolute magnitude of poverty experienced by Europeans in a given country and provides information about the relative standing of the country. (3) The RHPI shows the variability of poverty within a country with respect to NUTS 2. (4) The RHPI shows satisfactory statistical coherence confirmed by the results of correlation analysis and principal component analysis. As confirmed by uncertainty analysis, the RHPI also shows satisfactory robustness to the normative assumptions made during the construction process. The RHPI also has some limitations. First...

Explaining telecoms and electricity internationalization in the European Union: a political economy perspective

Clifton, Judith Catherine; Díaz Fuentes, Daniel; Revuelta López, Julio
Fonte: MPRA Publicador: MPRA
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
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One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.

FDI, trade integration and the border effect: evidence from the European Union

Martínez San Román, Valeriano; Bengoa Calvo, Marta; Sánchez-Robles Rute, Blanca
Fonte: Ifo Institute for Economic Research Center for Economic Studies Publicador: Ifo Institute for Economic Research Center for Economic Studies
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
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This paper intends to combine two fields in the economic literature by examining empirically the FDI pattern –horizontal versus vertical– within the European Union and the relevance of trade integration as a potential determinant of investment flows over the period 1995-2009. We capture trade integration by estimating the magnitude and evolution of the home bias or border effect rather than by using other indicators such as the openness rate or the existence of tariffs and non-tariff barriers. We find that, for the particular case of the EU, it is not possible to strictly discriminate between horizontal or vertical FDI. The market-seeking strategy appears to be more important than factor-proportion related motivations; however, the robust relationship of complementarity between trade integration and FDI provides at least one argument in support of vertical FDI and suggests that the vertical model cannot be dismissed entirely.