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Postural Control in Elderly Persons with Osteoporosis: Efficacy of an Intervention Program to Improve Balance and Muscle Strength A Randomized Controlled Trial

BURKE, Thomaz Nogueira; FRANCA, Fabio Jorge Renovato; MENESES, Sarah Rubia Ferreira de; CARDOSO, Viviam Inhasz; MARQUES, Amelia Pasqual
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
Burke TN, Franc, a FJR, de Meneses SRF, Cardoso VI, Marques AP: Postural control in elderly persons with osteoporosis: Efficacy of an intervention program to improve balance and muscle strength: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2010; 89: 549-556. Objective: To assess the efficacy of an exercise program aiming to improve balance and muscular strength, for postural control and muscular strength of women with osteoporosis. Design: Sample consisted of 33 women with osteoporosis, randomized into one of two groups: intervention group, in which exercises for balance and improvement of muscular strength of the inferior members were performed for 8 wks (n = 17, age 72.8 +/- 3.6 yrs); control group, which was women not practicing exercises (n = 16, age 74.4 +/- 3.7 yrs). At baseline and after 8 wks of treatment, postural control was assessed using a force plate (Balance Master, Neurocom), and muscular strength during ankle dorsiflexion, knee extension, and flexion was assessed by dynamometry. Results: Adherence to the program was 82%. When compared with the control group, individuals in the intervention group significantly improved the center of pressure velocity (P = 0.02) in the modified clinical test of sensory interaction for balance test...

"Acidentes domésticos em idosos com diagnóstico de demência atendidos em um ambulatório de Ribeirão Preto, SP" ; Domestic accidents among aged persons with dementia attended at a Ribeirão Preto outpatient clinic

Lange, Celmira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
O estudo teve por objetivo descrever os acidentes domésticos ocorridos com idosos portadores do diagnóstico de demência, relacionando estes às suas condições de vida. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e seccional, realizado no período de 2001 a 2002. Participaram do estudo 110 idosos demenciados, residentes na zona urbana de Ribeirão Preto, SP, atendidos em um ambulatório terciário de um hospital público. Os dados foram coletados no domicílio por meio de entrevistas, previamente agendadas, com idosos e cuidadores. Os resultados evidenciaram que 65,5% dos idosos eram do sexo feminino e 34,5% do masculino, variando a idade de 63 a 91 anos, com uma média de 76 anos. Quanto à escolaridade, 45,5% dos idosos tinham até 4 anos de escolaridade, os analfabetos e os que sabem ler e escrever somaram 35,5%. O resultado dos escores dos idosos no Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM) foi padronizado em baixo e alto desempenho, de acordo com a escolaridade de cada um, sendo que 91% tiveram baixo desempenho e 9% alto desempenho. Do total dos idosos, 65,5% sofreram algum tipo de acidente doméstico, com a seguinte distribuição: 58,2% quedas, 29,1% aspirações e engasgos, 7,3% queimaduras, 6,4% cortes e ferimentos, 3,6% intoxicações e 0...

Avaliação do metabolismo protéico em idosos brasileiros independentes utilizando a glicina marcada com 15N; Protein Metabolism in Brazilian healthy elderly using glycine labeled with 15N

Pfrimer, Karina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
O metabolismo protéico em idosos, analisado pela medida da velocidade de reciclagem, é um importante fator para a análise da manutenção da massa muscular e das atividades de vida diária. Dados coletados em idosos apontam uma redução da síntese protéica com o envelhecimento. Outros relatam ser esta mantida e a degradação aumentada. Esta investigação teve por objetivo avaliar o metabolismo protéico de idosos saudáveis e independentes utilizando a glicina, marcada com o isótopo 15N. Sete idosos saudáveis foram estudados.Foram feitas avaliações clínica, nutricional e bioquímica em todos os voluntários, sendo excluídos aqueles portadores de doenças ou usuários de medicamentos que interferissem no metabolismo protéico. Foi oferecida uma dose oral de 200 mg de 15N-Glicina e coletadas amostras de sangue e urina (basal, antes do consumo da glicina, quatro horas e meia e nove horas após a ingestão da glicina). Foram quantificados amônia, uréia e nitrogênio total e as amostras analisadas por espectrometria de massa, para a determinação do enriquecimento isotópico (15N). Os voluntários tinham 65,4 ± 2,8 anos (média ± desvio padrão), quatro mulheres e três homens, com IMC de 22,73 ± 2,4 Kg/m2. Total de nitrogênio excretado de 3...

Estudo epidemiológico de prevalência de demência em Ribeirão Preto; Epidemiological survey of prevalence of dementia in Ribeirão Preto

Lopes, Marcos Antonio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
INTRODUÇÃO: O acentuado envelhecimento da população brasileira nos últimos 40 anos torna imprescindível o melhor conhecimento dos quadros de demência no Brasil. Estudos mundiais de prevalência observaram algumas diferenças na distribuição de demência entre os idosos, no que diz respeito à idade, sexo, escolaridade e procedência (urbana ou rural). Outros levantamentos epidemiológicos mundiais apontaram determinados fatores que se associaram a essa doença, tais como atividade física, uso de anti-inflamatórios, uso de álcool e hipertensão arterial. A despeito dos vários estudos de prevalência de demência em todo o mundo, há poucos estudos deste tipo no Brasil e na América Latina. OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência de demência e de comprometimento cognitivo e funcional (CCF), em amostra idosa comunitária, em Ribeirão Preto, avaliando sua distribuição com relação a diversos fatores sócio-demográficos e clínicos. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A população selecionada foi uma amostra representativa, de três áreas distintas com relação ao nível sócio-econômico, do município de Ribeirão Preto, com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos. O processo de amostragem foi por conglomerado. A coleta dos dados foi realizada em duas fases. Os instrumentos utilizados na primeira fase (detecção dos casos de comprometimento cognitivo e funcional) foram: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)...

Validade e normas do Wisconsin Card Sorting Test em adultos da região de Ribeirão Preto; Validity and norms of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in adults from the region of Ribeirão Preto.

Silva Filho, José Humberto da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
O Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), instrumento psicológico freqüentemente utilizado em processos de avaliação neuropsicológica, examina as funções executivas: planejamento, flexibilidade do pensamento, memória de trabalho, monitoração e inibição de perseverações. Destacou-se na literatura internacional na última década, sobretudo em pesquisas aplicadas na clínica neurológica, psiquiátrica e psicológica. Dentro deste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou desenvolver normas avaliativas para adultos da região de Ribeirão Preto (SP) e verificar a validade do WCST no contexto brasileiro. Foram avaliados dois conjuntos de voluntários: um grupo estratificado e representativo de universitários de Ribeirão Preto (SP), composto por 223 estudantes de 23 cursos de ensino superior, de 18 a 30 anos, com boa saúde geral e nível intelectual mediano ou superior. O segundo grupo foi composto por dois subgrupos de idosos: o primeiro com 36 pacientes, em fase inicial da Doença de Alzheimer (DA), de Ribeirão Preto (SP) e, o segundo, com 50 idosos saudáveis da região de Porto Alegre (RS). Todos foram avaliados individualmente pela forma impressa do WCST. Inicialmente foram elaborados referenciais normativos do teste para universitários do contexto sócio-cultural da região de Ribeirão Preto (SP). Comparando-se o desempenho no WCST dos universitários brasileiros com amostra equivalente americana...

Análise comparativa da condição bucal, sistêmica e sociodemográfica de idosos brasileiros e canadenses, relacionados à qualidade de vida; A comparative analysis of oral health condition, general health and sociodemographic factors in Brazilian and Canadian elderly people related to the quality of life

Joaquim, Andréa Maia Corrêa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/09/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
Este estudo investigou a relação entre as condições de saúde oral, a saúde sistêmica e os fatores sociodemográficos em idosos brasileiros, canadenses e imigrantes canadenses, relacionados à qualidade de vida. Um total de 602 pessoas, com idade entre 60 e 85 anos, participaram voluntariamente deste estudo: 202 brasileiros, 189 canadenses e 211 imigrantes canadenses (78 chineses, 125 indianos e 8 vietnamitas). Os fatores sociodemográficos analisados foram: gênero, idade, nível educacional, estado civil, moradia e renda. A condição de saúde oral avaliou o número de dentes presentes, dentes perdidos, cariados, restaurados, hígidos, além de possuir próteses dentárias, os tipos de prótese dentária, além da condição periodontal, como profundidade de sondagem, recessão gengival, nível de inserção periodontal, mobilidade dental, índice de placa e gengival. A condição sistêmica foi baseada no auto-relato, dados sobre doenças diagnosticadas e os medicamentos que estavam emuso.A qualidade de vida foi mensurada usando o Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Índex (GOHAI), o Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) e o World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-bref), que foi administrado através de entrevista pessoal. Os resultados mostraram que 65 idosos brasileiros eram edêntulos e que os brasileiros dentados tinham perdido mais dentes...

Incidência de osteoporose e prevalência de fraturas referidas por idosos do Município de São Paulo. Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento, 2000 e 2006; Incidence of self-reported osteoporosis and prevalence of self-reported fractures after 60 year-old in the elderly of São Paulo. SABE Study (Health, wellbeing and aging) 2000 and 2006

Anzola Lujan, Marianella
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Introdução: A osteoporose (OP) é doença caracterizada pela fragilidade do osso e, consequentemente, pelo incremento do risco de fraturas. É considerada problema de saúde pública na maioria dos países. Evidências epidemiológicas apontam associação entre variáveis sociodemográficas, variáveis de estilo de vida (como a ingestão de alimentos e de bebidas alcoólicas e hábito de fumar), e indicadores antropométricos (como índice de massa corporal -IMC-) e risco de OP e fraturas osteoporóticas. Objetivo: Estimar a incidência de OP e a prevalência de fraturas referidas, em idosos domiciliados no Município de São Paulo e verificar associação com variáveis sociodemográficas, de estilo de vida, e IMC. Método: analisaram-se dados do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento) 2000 - 2006, o qual é estudo epidemiológico, longitudinal, de base domiciliar, cuja amostra inicial foi composta por 2143 idosos (≥60 anos), de ambos os sexos, residentes habituais de domicílios urbanos no Município de São Paulo, e selecionados por amostragem probabilística, sendo que 829 idosos (39%) constituíram a amostra de estudo, em 2000, para análise da incidência de OP referida, em 2006, e 1072 idosos (50%) foi a amostra de estudo para análise de prevalência de fraturas após 60 anos referidas...

Na corda bamba da vida : causas das quedas de idosos, usuários da atenção básica, residentes em uma região do município de Porto Alegre/RS; En la cuerda floja de la vida: causas de las caídas de ancianos, usuarios de la atención primaria de salud, residentes en una región del município de Porto Alegre/RS; On life’s tightrope: causes of falls of elderly, users of primary health care, persons residing in a region in a municipality of Porto Alegre/RS

Araujo, Vivian Elizabeth
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
O crescente contingente de idosos associado à alta incidência de quedas e ao despreparo da população para o envelhecimento, juntamente com a incipiência das políticas públicas para o enfrentamento dessa real e difícil situação, serviu de motivação para este estudo, cuja relevância reside na busca de melhor compreender e dar visibilidade às causas de quedas de idosos, na perspectiva da morbidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer e compreender as causas das quedas dos idosos assistidos nos serviços de saúde de Atenção Básica de uma Região de Porto Alegre/RS, no período de fevereiro de 2002 a fevereiro de 2005. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório e descritivo, com abordagem de triangulação de métodos. Na abordagem quantitativa, foram identificados 96 agravos por Causas Externas, dos quais, 28 tiveram quedas. Na abordagem qualitativa foram entrevistados 13 idosos com quedas. Para coleta e análise de dados realizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas, genograma e diagrama de relações sociais, bem como foram fotografados os locais das quedas. A fim de sistematizar os dados quantitativos, utilizou-se o software EXCEL e na qualitativa, o NVivo 7.0 seguido do referencial de Análise de Conteúdo tipo temático. Os sujeitos entrevistados eram predominantemente mulheres...

Profiles of ageing in the South of Portugal: education and cognitive functioning in elderly persons living in institutionalized and community contexts

Gaudêncio, Jacinto; Silva, Maria Eugénia Duarte
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 27/10/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
The region of the Algarve shows huge differences between the coastline where population in the urban areas grows, and the inland rural areas, in some cases very isolated, which frequently have high ageing indexes. This general scenario, with an elderly population with very different economic and social conditions, frames the ongoing PhD research designed as a cross-sectional study of an intentional sample of elderly persons. The basic theoretical framework departs from the perspective of developmental psychology of life-span and the model of selection, optimisation and compensation for optimal ageing (Baltes & Baltes, 1990; Freund & Baltes, 2002). The present study is a first step in the analysis of empirical data collected in the PhD sample (N=156; age range 65 to 97 years; M = 80.4 years; SD = 7.2 years). Its purpose is to assess the cognitive functioning of participants, screening for cognitive impairment and examine the relations between the cognitive status of the subjects and a number of selected variables including educational level, age, physical activity and living contexts of the subjects. We accessed the cognitive status of the participants with the Portuguese version of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) finding a 10.3% prevalence of positive cases with cognitive impairment. The results also show significant relationships between the cognitive status accessed by the MMSE and educational level...

Exercise but not diet-induced weight loss decreases skeletal muscle inflammatory gene expression in frail obese elderly persons

Lambert, Charles P.; Wright, Nicole R.; Finck, Brian N.; Villareal, Dennis T.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Many obese elderly persons have impaired physical function associated with an increased chronic inflammatory response. We evaluated 12 wk of exercise (aerobic and resistance) or 12 wk of weight loss (∼7% reduction) on skeletal muscle mRNAs for toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), mechanogrowth factor (MGF), TNF-α, and IL-6 in 16 obese (body mass index 38 ± 2 kg/m2) older (69 ± 1 yr) physically frail individuals. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at 0 and 12 wk and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body weight decreased (−7.5 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.001) in the weight loss group but not in the exercise group (−0.3 ± 0.8 kg, P = 0.74). Fat-free mass (FFM) decreased (−2.9 ± 0.6 kg, P = 0.010) in the weight loss group and increased (1.6 ± 0.6 kg, P = 0.03) in the exercise group. Exercise resulted in a 37% decrease in TLR-4 mRNA (P < 0.05) while weight loss had no significant effect. Additionally, exercise led to a significant (50%) decrease in IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA (P < 0.05) while weight loss had no effect. Exercise increased MGF mRNA (∼2 fold, P < 0.05), but weight loss had no effect. In conclusion, exercise but not weight loss had a beneficial effect on markers of muscle inflammation and anabolism in frail obese elderly individuals.

ACNP White Paper: Update on Use of Antipsychotic Drugs in Elderly Persons with Dementia

Jeste, Dilip V.; Blazer, Dan; Casey, Daniel; Meeks, Thomas; Salzman, Carl; Schneider, Lon; Tariot, Pierre; Yaffe, Kristine
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
In elderly persons, antipsychotic drugs are clinically prescribed off-label for a number of disorders outside of their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder). The largest number of antipsychotic prescriptions in older adults is for behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. In April 2005, the FDA, based on a meta-analysis of 17 double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials among elderly people with dementia, determined that atypical antipsychotics were associated with a significantly (1.6−1.7 times) greater mortality risk compared with placebo, and asked that drug manufacturers add a ‘black box’ warning to prescribing information for these drugs. Most deaths were due to either cardiac or infectious causes, the two most common immediate causes of death in dementia in general. Clinicians, patients, and caregivers are left with unclear choices of treatment for dementia patients with psychosis and/or severe agitation. Not only are psychosis and agitation common in persons with dementia but they also frequently cause considerable caregiver distress and hasten institutionalization of patients. At the same time, there is a paucity of evidence-based treatment alternatives to antipsychotics for this population. Thus...

Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

Cornejo-Ovalle, Marco; Costa-de-Lima, Kenio; Pérez, Glória; Borrell, Carme; Casals-Peidro, Elías
Fonte: Medicina Oral S.L. Publicador: Medicina Oral S.L.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures...

Are we providing the best possible pain management for our elderly patients in the acute-care setting?

Mcliesh, P.; Mungall, D.; Wiechula, R.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Background: During 2008 seven practice improvement projects were conducted in an acute-care hospital under the banner of The Older Person and Improving Care (TOPIC 7). Each project team examined a discrete aspect of care of the elderly and this project focus was on pain management and in particular assessment of the older person with communication difficulties. Aims: The project intended to assess current practice and implement changes to match best practice in the management of pain in the older person within an acute-care setting. Methods: A multidisciplinary team was recruited to conduct the project. The pain team with the other six TOPIC 7 teams was facilitated by a coordinating team. The project was divided into four phases. Phase one was designated as Describing, where the clinical issue was identified and focused to priority areas. It was decided to focus on the elderly who were unable to verbally communicate their pain management needs. Standards of practice relevant to the area of practice were sourced to guide practice improvement. Phase two was Measuring activity where clinical audits were used to measure current practice and compare this with the appropriate standards. Phase three was Taking action where a range of practice improvement activities were implemented including the introduction of the Abbey Pain Scale. The final phase was designated as Review and share where the impact of the project activities was measured with a follow-up audit and the results were disseminated. Results: Initial results showed a need for increased awareness of the difficulties in the pain assessment and management of older persons who cannot verbally communicate their needs. Seventy-eight per cent of patients had a documented pain assessment in the previous 24 h on audit. However...

Kognitive Profile und potentielle Serummarker für die Demenzfrüherkennung bei älteren Menschen mit depressiven Störungen; Cognitive profiles and potential serum markers for early detection of dementia in a sample of elderly persons with depressive disorders

Niebler, Raphael
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
Die aktuelle Forschung beobachtet Zusammenhänge zwischen Depression und Neurodegeneration. Dabei steht eine late-onset-Depression (LOD), mit einem Beginn nach dem 60ten Lebensjahr, im Zusammenhang mit dementiellen Prozessen, sowohl als Prodrom wie auch während einer Demenz (Blazer 2003). Eine early-onset-Depression (EOD), mit einem Beginn vor dem 60ten Lebensjahr, dahingegen stellt aufgrund neurotoxischer Effekte einen Risikofaktor für die Entwicklung einer Alzheimer Demenz (AD) dar (Ownby et al 2006). Um die Relation von Depression und Neurodegeneration zu untersuchen sind auch neuropsychologische Verfahren geeignet. Rapp und Kollegen (2005) zeigten, dass Personen mit einer LOD und vaskuläre Risikofaktoren, Defizite der Exekutivfunktionen hatten, wohingegen Personen mit einer EOD Gedächtniseinschränkungen aufwiesen. Neben Gedächtnismaßen eignen sich jedoch auch die Riechfähigkeit (Berg 2008) und Amyloidpeptide im Serum (Song et al 2011) zur AD-Früherkennung. Ausgehend von den Vorbefunden wurde erwartet, dass Personen mit einer EOD aufgrund anhaltender neurotoxischer Effekte auf hippocampale Strukturen schlechtere Gedächtnisleistung aufweisen. Dahingegen sollten Personen mit LOD bei erhöhtem kardiovaskulären Risiko Defizite in den Exekutivfunktionen aufweisen...

Azerbaijan Demographic Change : Implications for Social Policy and Poverty

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
This note provides an overview of demographic changes in Azerbaijan and their policy implications. Azerbaijan's population is younger than the populations of most countries in the region. It is estimated that the population in Azerbaijan will increase from about 7.2 million in 1990 to 10.6 million by 2050. Nevertheless, Azerbaijan is beginning to experience the aging of its population, after having undergone a dramatic decline in fertility from about 5.5 children per woman in the 1950s, to just over two children per woman at present. This trend, combined with increasing life expectancy, underlies the growing rise in the percentage of elderly persons, and the eventual slowdown in the growth of the working-age population. This note provides an overview of key demographic changes unfolding in Azerbaijan, highlights their linkages with social spending, and draws policy implications for labor force participation, productivity, and ultimately for Azerbaijan's development and poverty reduction trajectory. The major driver of Azerbaijan's demographic shift is an aging population. The country has already undergone a dramatic decline in its fertility rate...

Dynamic Parameters of Balance Which Correlate to Elderly Persons with a History of Falls

Muir, Jesse W.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; p<0.05), while three measures of balance were significantly worse in fallers as compared to older persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement). Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score (“B-score”) algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly “non-fallers” had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (p<0.001). A weighted amalgam of postural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling...

The Relationship between Postural Deformation and Standing Balance in Elderly Person

Maejima, Hiroshi; Takeishi, Kiyohisa; Sunahori, Hitoshi; Yamawaki, Akiko; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Osamu
Fonte: JAPANESE PHYSICAL THERAPY ASSOCIATION Publicador: JAPANESE PHYSICAL THERAPY ASSOCIATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Falling due to unstable standing balance is considered to be the main cause of bone fractures, which lead elderly persons to becoming bedridden. Thus, the standing balance of elderly persons is being given increasingly greater attention. On the other hand, postural deformation caused by deformation in the spine and lower leg joints is considered to have an effect on standing balance. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect of postural deformation on the following three categories of standing balance; 1) the ability to immobilize Center of Gravity (COG) in standing statically, 2) the ability to control COG during movement and 3) the postural response induced by postural sway. Fifty elderly persons (age:77.7 ± 6.4 years old, fifty females) participated in this study. Postural deformation was measured using a Spinal Mouse, a device for non-invasive measurement of spinal curvature and photographic image in sagittal plane. In line with to Nakata's classification of postural deformation, subjects were classified by extension type, S-character deformation type, flexion type, hands on the knee type and normal group. In order to assess the ability to immobilize COG in static standing, Center of Pressure (COP) in static standing was measured for 30 sec. In order to assess the ability to control COG during movement...

Dynamic Parameters of Balance Which Correlate to Elderly Persons with a History of Falls

Muir, Jesse W.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian; Magaziner, Jay; Rubin, Clinton T.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Poor balance in older persons contributes to a rise in fall risk and serious injury, yet no consensus has developed on which measures of postural sway can identify those at greatest risk of falling. Postural sway was measured in 161 elderly individuals (81.8y±7.4), 24 of which had at least one self-reported fall in the prior six months, and compared to sway measured in 37 young adults (34.9y±7.1). Center of pressure (COP) was measured during 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes opened. In the elderly with fall history, all measures but one were worse than those taken from young adults (e.g., maximal COP velocity was 2.7× greater in fallers than young adults; p<0.05), while three measures of balance were significantly worse in fallers as compared to older persons with no recent fall history (COP Displacement, Short Term Diffusion Coefficient, and Critical Displacement). Variance of elderly subjects' COP measures from the young adult cohort were weighted to establish a balance score (“B-score”) algorithm designed to distinguish subjects with a fall history from those more sure on their feet. Relative to a young adult B-score of zero, elderly “non-fallers” had a B-score of 0.334, compared to 0.645 for those with a fall history (p<0.001). A weighted amalgam of postural sway elements may identify individuals at greatest risk of falling...

Oral health care activities performed by caregivers for institutionalized elderly in Barcelona-Spain

Borrell, Carme; Costa de Lima, Kenio; Casals-Peidro, Elías; Pérez, Glória; Cornejo Ovalle, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Objectives: To describe the frequency of brushing teeth and cleaning of dentures, performed by caregivers, for institutionalized elderly people. Methods: A cross-sectional study in a sample of 196 caregivers of 31 health centers in Barcelona. The dependent variables were frequency of dental brushing and frequency of cleaning of dentures of the elderly by caregivers. The independent variables were characteristics of caregivers and institutions. We performed bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses. Robust Poisson regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with the dependent variables and to assess the strength of the association. Results: 83% of caregivers were women, 79% worked on more than one shift, 42% worked only out of necessity, 92% were trained to care for elderly persons, 67% were trained in oral hygiene care for the elderly, and 73% recognized the existence of institutional protocols on oral health among residents. The variables explaining the lower frequency of brushing teeth by caregivers for the elderly, adjusted for the workload, were: no training in the care of elderly persons (PRa 1.7 CI95%: 1.6-1.8), not fully agreeing with the importance of oral health care of the elderly (PRa 2.5 CI95%: 1.5-4.1) and not knowing of the existence of oral health protocols (PRa 1.8 CI95%: 1.2-2.6). The variables that explain the lower frequency of cleaning dentures...

Historical and current predictors of self-reported health status among elderly persons in Barbados

Hambleton,Ian R.; Clarke,Kadene; Broome,Hedy L.; Fraser,Henry S.; Brathwaite,Farley; Hennis,Anselm J.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
OBJECTIVE: To understand the relative contribution of past events and of current experiences as determinants of health status among the elderly in the Caribbean nation of Barbados, in order to help develop timely public health interventions for that population. METHODS: The information for this prevalence study was collected in Barbados between December 1999 and June 2000 as part of the "SABE project," a multicenter survey in seven urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean that evaluated determinants of health and well-being in elderly populations (persons 60 and older). We used ordinal logistic regression to model determinants of self-reported health status, and we assessed the relative contribution of historical socioeconomic indicators and of three current modifiable predictor groups (current socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle risk factors, and disease indicators), using simple measures of association and model fit. RESULTS: Historical determinants of health status accounted for 5.2% of the variation in reported health status, and this was reduced to 2.0% when mediating current experiences were considered. Current socioeconomic indicators accounted for 4.1% of the variation in reported health status, lifestyle risk factors for 7.1%...