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Towards the abatement of environmental mercury pollution: An electrochemical characterization

Giannetti, B. F.; Moreira, W. A.; Bonilla, S. H.; Almeida, CMVB; Raboczkay, T.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 213-220
Português
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37.02%
Electrochemical experiments in acetic acid-acetate buffer (pH 4.5) are conducted in order to understand metallic and ionic mercury adsorption processes on the pyrite surface. The nature as well as the extent of the spontaneous interaction between pyrite and mercuric ions was evaluated. The spontaneous reduction of mercury species onto pyrite surface was confirmed. These results represent a first step for the use of mining wastes rich in pyrite for mercury pollution abatement. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Assessment of the performance of asphalt rubber layers on noise abatement

Freitas, Elisabete F.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2008 Português
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37.28%
Layers with a very high content of rubber have shown to be very effective on noise abatement despite their reduced durability. On the contrary, layers with a rubberized asphalt binder have shown to be durable, but their performance regarding noise abatement is not consensual yet. This paper aims at assessing the effect of the use of layers with rubberized asphalt binder on noise abatement. For this purpose seven road sections with different surface types, among which five gap graded and three with rubberized asphalt have been selected. In these road sections the tyre-road noise generated by a heavy truck and two light vehicles at three levels of speed were measured by means of pass-by tests. Surface texture tests were also performed. The results focused on the noise level variation versus speed, the average noise level for each speed level versus type of surface and the average noise level variation with regards to a reference surface. Mixtures with rubberized asphalt did not show a significantly better performance. In fact, the same performance may be achieved with other type of gap graded thin mixtures. The results obtained might be better explained if other parameters than the rubberized asphalt binder are taken into account. Further research on the effect of porosity and texture on noise generation is being done. It is intended to perform absorption tests in all the surfaces analysed in order to study this issue in depth and fully understand the effect of the rubber on noise generation.

Factors Affecting Levels of International Cooperation in Carbon Abatement Projects

Dinar, Ariel; Rahman, Shaikh Mahfuzur; Larson, Donald; Ambrosi, Philippe
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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The Clean Development Mechanism, a provision of The Kyoto Protocol, allows countries that have pledged to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to gain credit toward their treaty obligations by investing in projects located in developing (host) countries. Such projects are expected to benefit both parties by providing low-cost abatement opportunities for the investor-country, while facilitating capital and technology flows to the host country. This paper analyzes the Clean Development Mechanism market, emphasizing the cooperation aspects between host and investor countries. The analysis uses a dichotomous (yes/no) variable and three continuous variants to measure the level of cooperation, namely the number of joint projects, the volume of carbon dioxide abatement, and the volume of investment in the projects. The results suggest that economic development, institutional development, the energy structure of the economies, the level of country vulnerability to various climate change effects, and the state of international relations between the host and investor countries are good predictors of the level of cooperation in Clean Development Mechanism projects. The main policy conclusions include the importance of simplifying the project regulation/clearance cycle; improving the governance structure host and investor countries; and strengthening trade or other long-term economic activities that engage the countries.

Should Marginal Abatement Costs Differ Across Sectors? The Effect of Low-Carbon Capital Accumulation

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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37.61%
The optimal timing, sectoral distribution, and cost of greenhouse gas emission reductions is different when abatement is obtained though abatement expenditures chosen along an abatement cost curve, or through investment in low-carbon capital. In the latter framework, optimal investment costs differ in each sector: they are equal to the value of avoided carbon emissions, minus the value of the forgone option to invest later. It is therefore misleading to assess the cost-efficiency of investments in low-carbon capital by comparing levelized abatement costs, that is, efforts measured as the ratio of investment costs to discounted abatement. The equimarginal principle applies to an accounting value: the Marginal Implicit Rental Cost of the Capital (MIRCC) used to abate. Two apparently opposite views are reconciled. On the one hand, higher efforts are justified in sectors that will take longer to decarbonize, such as urban planning; on the other hand, the MIRCC should be equal to the carbon price at each point in time and in all sectors. Equalizing the MIRCC in each sector to the social cost of carbon is a necessary condition to reach the optimal pathway...

Long-Term Mitigation Strategies and Marginal Abatement Cost Curves : A Case Study on Brazil

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane; de Gouvello, Christophe
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. This paper investigates the ability of marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves to inform this decision, reanalysing a MAC curve developed by the World Bank on Brazil. Misinterpreting MAC curves and focusing on short-term targets (e.g., for 2020) would lead to under-invest in expensive, long-to-implement and large-potential options, such as clean transportation infrastructure. Meeting short-term targets with marginal energy-efficiency improvements would lead to carbon-intensive lock-ins that make longer-term targets (e.g., for 2030 and beyond) impossible or too expensive to reach. Improvements to existing MAC curves are proposed, based on (1) enhanced data collection and reporting; (2) a simple optimization tool that accounts for constraints on implementation speeds; and (3) new graphical representations of MAC curves. Designing climate mitigation policies can be done through a pragmatic combination of two approaches. The synergy approach is based on MAC curves to identify the cheapest mitigation options and maximize co-benefits. The urgency approach considers the long-term objective (e.g....

Optimal Use of Carbon Sequestration in a Global Climate Change Strategy : Is there a Wooden Bridge to a Clean Energy Future?

Lecocq, Franck; Chomitz, Kenneth
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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s. Whether it should be part of a global climate mitigation strategy, however, remains controversial. One of the key issues is that, contrary to emission abatement, carbon sequestration might not be permanent. But some argue that even temporary sequestration is beneficial as it delays climate change impacts and "buys" time for technical change in the energy sector. To rigorously assess these arguments, the authors build an international optimization model in which both sequestration and abatement can be used to mitigate climate change. They confirm that permanent sequestration, if feasible, can be overall part of a climate mitigation strategy. When permanence can be guaranteed, sequestration is equivalent to fossil-fuel emissions abatement. The optimal use of temporary sequestration, on the other hand, depends mostly on marginal damages of climate change. Temporary sequestration projects starting now, in particular, are not attractive if marginal damages of climate change at current concentration levels are assumed to be low.

The Cost Structure of the Clean Development Mechanism

Rahman, Shaikh M.; Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper examines the cost of producing emission reduction credits under the Clean Development Mechanism. Using project-specific data, cost functions are estimated using alternative functional forms. The results show that, in general, the distribution of projects in the pipeline does not correspond exclusively to the cost of generating anticipated credits. Rather, investment choices appear to be influenced by location and project type considerations in a way that is consistent with variable transaction costs and investor preferences among hosts and classes of projects. This implies that comparative advantage based on the marginal cost of abatement is only one of several factors driving Clean Development Mechanism investments. This is significant since much of the conceptual and applied numerical literature concerning greenhouse gas mitigation policies relies on presumptions about relative abatement costs. The authors also find that Clean Development Mechanism projects generally exhibit constant or increasing returns to scale. In contrast...

A framework for economic analysis of greenhouse abatement options

Riedy, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 140381 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Economic analysis has been central to the development of greenhouse abatement policy in Australia. Current Australian policy is to remain outside the Kyoto Protocol, while still attempting to meet the emission targets established under the Protocol. Australia’s failure to ratify the Protocol has incurred international criticism; it is therefore appropriate to examine the validity of the economic analysis used to support this policy position. This paper reviews approaches to economic analysis that have been prominent in the greenhouse policy debate in Australia, including computable general equilibrium modelling, bottom-up energy sector modelling and policy specific cost benefit analysis. Alternative approaches that have received less attention in Australia are also reviewed. Flaws in existing economic analyses include a failure to consider the net cost to society of greenhouse abatement measures, a tendency to exclude abatement benefits, inadequate consideration of ethical and moral issues, a lack of accessibility and the assumption that economic systems are in an optimal equilibrium state. In response to these flaws, an alternative approach to economic analysis termed ‘integrated abatement planning’ is developed. Integrated abatement planning draws on the principles of least cost planning and integrated resource planning to identify least cost greenhouse abatement measures. A primary tool is the marginal abatement cost curve...

The McKibbin-Wilcoxen proposal for global greenhouse abatement

McKibbin, Warwick J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 28876 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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[Conclusion]: The Kyoto Protocol complicates the process of achieving a realistic approach to greenhouse gas abatement. It has created a great deal of uncertainty about how and whether countries are going to achieve the strict quantity targets that have been set by 2008 to 2012. The international community had an opportunity to put in place a credible instruments based approach that would begin to reduce emissions at low cost wherever possible, in addition to giving flexibility to the time frame and burden sharing arrangements. Policy makers now have to turn to economic instruments within a target regime that has many potential risks. For the world economy it has presented many crucial challenges. Our goal from here should be to make the system that develops as de-centralized as possible and to ensure that Australia doesn’t commit to a significant loss in economic well-being while we wait for the United States to ratify the treaty. The best way forward for Australia would be a domestic version of the McKibbin-Wilcoxen proposal with allowance for sinks (where possible) in which the permit price is fixed (and modest) and the market is used to determine the extent of abatement at a known cost.; no

CO2 Abatement from RES Injections in the German Electricity Sector: Does a CO2 price help?

WEIGT, Hannes; DELARUE, Erik; ELLERMAN, A. Denny
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The overlapping impact of the Emission Trading System (ETS) and renewable energy (RE) deployment targets creates a classic case of interaction effects. Whereas the price interaction is widely recognized and has been thoroughly discussed, the effect of an overlapping instrument on the abatement attributable to an instrument has gained little attention. This paper estimates the actual reduction in demand for European Union Allowances that has occurred due to RE deployment focusing on the German electricity sector, for the five years 2006 through 2010. Based on a unit commitment model we estimate that CO2 emissions from the electricity sector are reduced by 33 to 57 Mtons, or 10% to 16% of what estimated emissions would have been without any RE policy. Furthermore, we find that the abatement attributable to RE injections is greater in the presence of an allowance price than otherwise. The same holds for the ETS effect in presence of RE injection. This interaction effect is consistently positive for the German electricity system, at least for these years, and on the order of 0.5% to 1.5% of emissions.

CO2 abatement from renewables in the German electricity sector : does a CO2 price help?

WEIGT, Hannes; ELLERMAN, Denny; DELARUE, Erik
Fonte: Elsevier Science Bv Publicador: Elsevier Science Bv
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.18%
The overlapping impact of the Emission Trading System (ETS) and renewable energy (RE) deployment targets creates a classic case of interaction effects. Whereas the price interaction is widely recognized and has been thoroughly discussed, the effect of an overlapping instrument on the abatement attributable to an instrument has gained little attention. This paper estimates the actual reduction in demand for European Union Allowances that has occurred due to RE deployment focusing on the German electricity sector, for the five years 2006 through 2010. Based on a unit commitment model we estimate that CO2 emissions from the German electricity sector are reduced by 35 to 60 Mtons, or 10% to 18% of what estimated emissions would have been without any RE policy but with the CO2 price remaining in place at the observed level. Furthermore, we find that the abatement attributable to RE injections is greater in the presence of an allowance price than otherwise. The same holds for the ETS effect in presence of RE injection. This interaction effect is consistently positive for the German electricity system, at least for the considered years, and on the order of 0.5% to 1.5% of emissions.; This article is based on EUI RSCAS WP; 2012/18 [Loyola de Palacio Chair] Climate Policy Research Unit

Do emission trading schemes facilitate efficient abatement investments? : an experimental study

VAN KOTEN, Silvester
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Cap-and-trade programs, such as the EU carbon Emission Trading Scheme, are currently the most prominent market-based method used to reduce carbon emissions. Cap-and-trade programs are, on theoretical grounds, considered to be a cost-efficient method. Experimental evidence, however, shows that experimental subjects make highly inefficient abatement choices and that permit allocation methods (allocating permits for free or against payment) bias subjects to too much or too little abatement. The experimental evidence thus suggests that cap-and-trade programs may in practice be more costly than theory predicts. This study, however, challenges this interpretation and shows that, when they are price takers (as in thick markets) and have ample opportunities for learning, subjects quickly learn to make accurate decisions and that these decisions are not affected by the permit allocation method.

Applying Abatement Cost Curve Methodology for Low-Carbon Strategy in Changning District, Shanghai

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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The speed and scale of urbanization provide an unprecedented opportunity in the coming years to invest in clean energy technologies to contain carbon emissions from the country's sprawling cities. Therefore, supporting low carbon cities is one of the government's top priorities. Shanghai municipal and changning district governments are firmly committed to the transition to a low-carbon city and requested for the World Bank's support in making changning district and Shanghai leaders in designing novel and efficient ways to achieve carbon-intensity-reduction targets. This report documents the methodology of and key findings from applying abatement cost curves and scenarios to set low-carbon targets and define cost-effective low-carbon investment programs in Changning district, Shanghai. At the request of changning district government, the Bank team supported a Shanghai energy conservation institution, assisted by an international firm, in conducting a comprehensive survey of buildings in Hongqiao area in the changning district...

How Inertia and Limited Potentials Affect the Timing of Sectoral Abatements in Optimal Climate Policy

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Meunier, Guy; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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27.66%
This paper investigates the optimal timing of greenhouse gas abatement efforts in a multi-sectoral model with economic inertia, each sector having a limited abatement potential. It defines economic inertia as the conjunction of technical inertia -- a social planner chooses investment on persistent abating activities, as opposed to choosing abatement at each time period independently -- and increasing marginal investment costs in abating activities. It shows that in the presence of economic inertia, optimal abatement efforts (in dollars per ton) are bell-shaped and trigger a transition toward a low-carbon economy. The authors prove that optimal marginal abatement costs should differ across sectors: they depend on the global carbon price, but also on sector-specific shadow costs of the sectoral abatement potential. The paper discusses the impact of the convexity of abatement investment costs: more rigid sectors are represented with more convex cost functions and should invest more in early abatement. The conclusion is that overlapping mitigation policies should not be discarded based on the argument that they set different marginal costs (`"different carbon prices"') in different sectors.

When Starting with the Most Expensive Option Makes Sense : Use and Misuse of Marginal Abatement Cost Curves

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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37.66%
This article investigates the use of expert-based Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC) to design abatement strategies. It shows that introducing inertia, in the form of the "cost in time" of available options, changes significantly the message from MACCs. With an abatement objective in cumulative emissions (e.g., emitting less than 200 GtCO2 in the 2000-2050 period), it makes sense to implement some of the more expensive options before the potential of the cheapest ones has been exhausted. With abatement targets expressed in terms of emissions at one point in time (e.g., reducing emissions by 20 percent in 2020), it can even be preferable to start with the implementation of the most expensive options if their potential is high and their inertia significant. Also, the best strategy to reach a short-term target is different depending on whether this target is the ultimate objective or there is a longer-term target. The best way to achieve Europe's goal of 20 percent reduction in emissions by 2020 is different if this objective is the ultimate objective or if it is only a milestone in a trajectory toward a 75 percent reduction in 2050. The cheapest options may be sufficient to reach the 2020 target but could create a carbon-intensive lock-in and preclude deeper emission reductions by 2050. These results show that in a world without perfect foresight and perfect credibility of the long-term carbon-price signal...

Marginal Abatement Cost Curves and the Optimal Timing of Mitigation Measures

Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Journal Article; Publications & Research
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37.42%
Decision makers facing abatement targets need to decide which abatement measures to implement, and in which order. Measure-explicit marginal abatement cost curves depict the cost and abating potential of available mitigation options. Using a simple intertemporal optimization model, we demonstrate why this information is not sufficient to design emission reduction strategies. Because the measures required to achieve ambitious emission reductions cannot be implemented overnight, the optimal strategy to reach a short-term target depends on longer-term targets. For instance, the best strategy to achieve European's −20% by 2020 target may be to implement some expensive, high-potential, and long-to-implement options required to meet the −75% by 2050 target. Using just the cheapest abatement options to reach the 2020 target can create a carbon-intensive lock-in and make the 2050 target too expensive to reach. Designing mitigation policies requires information on the speed at which various measures to curb greenhouse gas emissions can be implemented, in addition to the information on the costs and potential of such measures provided by marginal abatement cost curves.

Transition to a Low Carbon Economy in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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27.57%
Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish Government, supported by the UK Department for International Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an industrialized 'annex one' country for the purposes of international climate discussions, and an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland, developing insights via a suite of models that should provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These policymakers may find reassuring the main message that Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full package of technologically feasible and economically sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early action by the government.

International Climate Regime beyond 2012 : Are Quota Allocation Rules Robust to Uncertainty?

Lecocq, Franck; Crassous, Renaud
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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27.59%
Bringing the United States and major developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions will be the key challenge for the international climate regime beyond the Kyoto Protocol. But in the current quantity-based coordination, large uncertainties surrounding future emissions and future abatement opportunities make the costs of any commitment very difficult to assess ex ante, hence a strong risk that the negotiation will be stalled. The authors use a partial equilibrium model of the international allowance market to quantify the economic consequences of the main post-Kyoto quota allocation rules proposed in the literature and to assess how robust these consequences are to uncertainty on future population, economic, and emissions growth. They confirm that, regardless of the rule selected, the prices of allowances and the net costs of climate mitigation for all parties are very sensitive to uncertainty, and in some scenarios very large. This constitutes a strong barrier against adopting any of these schemes if no additional mechanism is introduced to limit the uncertainty on costs. On the other hand...

Pollution Charges, Community Pressure, and Abatement Cost of Industrial Pollution in China

Wang, Hua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate standards for pollution discharge, pay pollution charges, and are constantly under community pressure to further abate pollution. He creates a model and estimates implicit prices for pollution discharges from community pressure, which are determined jointly by the explicit price, the pollution levy. He finds that the implicit discharge price is at least as high as the explicit price. In other words, community pressure not only exists, but may be as strong an incentive as the pollution charge is for industrial firms to control pollution in China. The author's modeling approach also provides a way to estimate the marginal cost of pollution abatement. The empirical results show that the current marginal cost of abatement is about twice the effective charge rate in China.

Cincinnati Takes the Lead in LEED: Effects of a real estate tax abatement for LEED certification on development and green building

LaJeunesse, Katherine
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 360344 bytes; application/pdf
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Local governments have played an important role in the adoption of the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System. Many local governments offer incentives for the private sector to utilize this green building rating system, including density bonuses, expedited permitting, rebate of permit fees, and tax abatements. In May 2007, the City of Cincinnati, Ohio passed an ordinance that provides an automatic 15 year, 74% real estate tax abatement for commercial new construction that achieves LEED certification. Cincinnati’s LEED tax exemption program is unique because it combines a large tax break, available for a long period of time, for a relatively low level of achievement in the LEED rating system. The purpose of this project was to determine if Cincinnati’s LEED-CRA tax exemption program is encouraging LEED building within the City of Cincinnati and if it is promoting the use of green building practices through the LEED rating system. A comparison of the volume of LEED projects in Cincinnati and other large Ohio cities revealed that the instatement of the LEED-CRA tax abatement program is likely to have had an effect on the recent upward trend in LEED-registered projects in Cincinnati. Owners of LEED-registered projects and developers without LEED projects in the Cincinnati area were surveyed...