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Orçamento criança e adolescente : a experiência do Distrito Federal

Almeida, Riezo Silva
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.83%
Dissertação (mestrado)- Universidade de Brasília, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2010.; A presente dissertação tem como objetivo compreender como se estrutura o orçamento público destinado a crianças e adolescentes, com a experiência do Distrito Federal . A Constituição de 1988 introduziu novos instrumentos que tem rebatimento no orçamento público. Possíveis implicações nesse orçamento, em especial o destinado ao público infanto- juvenil, têm papel relevante na formulação e execução de políticas públicas. Considerando-se a metodologia desenvolvida por instituições não governamentais, aborda-se o orçamento como instrumento de garantia dos direitos da criança e do adolescente. Nessa perspectiva, analisam-se os recursos públicos destinados à essa parcela da população, no período de 2005 a 2009 e, com base nessas análises, conclui-se ser necessário o maior controle do orçamento público pela sociedade civil, tanto na fase de elaboração como na fase da execução. Assim se estabelece uma estratégia para que políticas públicas de atenção à criança e ao adolescente sejam efetivamente implantadas, tornando eficaz o mandamento constitucional da prioridade absoluta, estimulada à esse segmento populacional...

Ativismo judicial e materialização das políticas públicas infanto-juvenis na constituição da república: Fixação de planos ideais de atuação para os atores do Sistema de Garantia de Direitos (SGD)

Pereira Júnior, Marcus Vinícius
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
The research arose from the necessity of showing ways to be followed by the actors of the System Guaranteeing Rights of the Child and Adolescent (SGD), regarding the implementation of rights for young people, because the legislation in force in Brazil is currently considered a model around the world and, paradoxically, the fundamental rights of children and adolescents are not met, even with the constitutionally guaranteed priority. Thus, the study investigates the fundamentality rights for young people, enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic, as well as the ways of effectiveness of these rights through the actions of actors of the System Guaranteeing Rights, especially the judiciary. Focusing realized, studying theories of fundamental rights, especially Structuring a Theory of Law (Strukturiende Rechtslehre), Friedrich Müller, who emphasizes the need for analysis of social reality in the application of the rule of law. Study also the public budget and public policies concerning children and adolescents, with emphasis on preparation of budget laws and the process of discussion, deliberation, choice and implementation of public policies for children and teenagers. It then presents the typical functions of the members of System Guaranteeing Rights...

Haiti : Diagnostic and Proposals for Agriculture and Rural Development Policies and Strategies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.83%
The overall objective of the present study is to contribute to the knowledge-base that is urgently required for the implementation of sustainable rural development activities in Haiti. The study concentrated on the following two objectives: update knowledge and produce a series of maps of regional physical socio-economic and institutional characteristics of the rural sector at a reasonable level of spatial disaggregation to improve targeting of future interventions; and test and build consensus around specific priority recommendations of the Interim Cooperation Framework with respect to the regional dimension of growth and poverty alleviation. The study follows a dual path of interest in both poverty alleviation as well as economic growth potential. It is widely recognized that in countries like Haiti with engrained and widespread inequality, it is often impossible to abate poverty through growth strategies exclusively. To be realistic, therefore, policy and investment responses to rural needs have to support households' intrinsic strategies for getting out of poverty.

The Chrysler Effect : The Impact of the Chrysler Bailout on Borrowing Costs

Anginer, Deniz; Warburton, A. Joseph
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Did the U.S. government's intervention in the Chrysler reorganization overturn bankruptcy law? Critics argue that the government-sponsored reorganization impermissibly elevated claims of the auto union over those of Chrysler's other creditors. If the critics are correct, businesses might suffer an increase in their cost of debt because creditors will perceive a new risk, that organized labor might leap-frog them in bankruptcy. This paper examines the financial market where this effect would be most detectible, the market for bonds of highly unionized companies. The authors find no evidence of a negative reaction to the Chrysler bailout by bondholders of unionized firms. They thus reject the notion that investors perceived a distortion of bankruptcy priorities. To the contrary, bondholders of unionized firms reacted positively to the Chrysler bailout. This evidence suggests that bondholders interpreted the Chrysler bailout as a signal that the government will stand behind unionized firms. The results are consistent with the notion that too-big-to-fail government policies generate moral hazard in the credit markets.

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 4, Crosscutting Issues

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.83%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

Colombia : Poverty Report, Volume 2. Background Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.83%
The report appraises the impact of economic development, or lack thereof, on the welfare of the Colombian population, and the poor in particular, over the last two decades, and, identifies priority areas for public policy action, vis-e-vis the most vulnerable groups. The welfare assessment covers three key areas - income, access to social services, and personal security, while it also compares welfare indicators between urban, and rural areas, and across other regional partitions. Questions are raised on the depths of poverty, and, on the Government's responsiveness to the incidence of poverty. Findings suggest that despite substantial long-term progress, a recent setback fostered an extreme urban poverty, and, although during the period social indicators reflect positive social development trends, homicide and domestic violence for the poor, and property crime for the non-poor have escalated to unprecedented rates, where the burden of crime is disproportionately borne by poor women. This violence disrupts the market economy...

Is There a Distress Risk Anomaly? Corporate Bond Spread as a Proxy for Default Risk

Anginer, Deniz; Yildizhan, Celim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.83%
Although financial theory suggests a positive relationship between default risk and equity returns, recent empirical papers find anomalously low returns for stocks with high probabilities of default. The authors show that returns to distressed stocks previously documented are really an amalgamation of anomalies associated with three stock characteristics -- leverage, volatility and profitability. In this paper they use a market based measure -- corporate credit spreads -- to proxy for default risk. Unlike previously used measures that proxy for a firm's real-world probability of default, credit spreads proxy for a risk-adjusted (or a risk-neutral) probability of default and thereby explicitly account for the systematic component of distress risk. The authors show that credit spreads predict corporate defaults better than previously used measures, such as, bond ratings, accounting variables and structural model parameters. They do not find default risk to be significantly priced in the cross-section of equity returns. There is also no evidence of firms with high default risk delivering anomalously low returns.

Subnational Insolvency : Cross-Country Experiences and Lessons

Liu, Lili; Waibel, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.94%
Subnational insolvency is a reoccurring event in development, as demonstrated by historical and modern episodes of subnational defaults in both developed and developing countries. Insolvency procedures become more important as countries decentralize expenditure, taxation, and borrowing, and broaden subnational credit markets. As the first cross-country survey of procedures to resolve subnational financial distress, this paper has particular relevance for decentralizing countries. The authors explain central features and variations of subnational insolvency mechanisms across countries. They identify judicial, administrative, and hybrid procedures, and show how entry point and political factors drive their design. Like private insolvency law, subnational insolvency procedures predictably allocate default risk, while providing breathing space for orderly debt restructuring and fiscal adjustment. Policymakers' desire to mitigate the tension between creditor rights and the need to maintain essential public services...

Millennium development goals: progress towards the right to health in Latin america and the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.83%
Includes bibliography; Enormous differences in health within and between countries intertwine closely with degrees of social disadvantage, and when People's health is at the mercy of their individual situations, health-care inequalities can entail dramatic individual risks and costs. Promoting health equity can also be defended on the grounds that it simultaneously fosters economic development, since investments in health and its determinants contribute to economic growth, productivity and prosperity. On the other hand, economic growth by itself without appropriate policies to ensure reasonable fairness in the way its benefits are distributed, and lacking social protection systems, contributes little to health equity. According to a well-established normative definition (Whitehead, 1991), health inequities can be understood as differences that are unnecessary and avoidable and, furthermore, unjust. This is why the Millennium Development Goals and their indicators are so important. They establish a civilizing minimum" of well-being for all citizens, set out a road map and a deadline for efforts to open up greater opportunities to those denied them and, as an ethical imperative, provide a catalyst to rally the forces of solidarity in society behind public policies capable of attaining them. In 2005...

Miocene marine-continental correlations in the Lisbon area and some discussion related to personnal experience

Antunes, M. T.
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/12/2010 Português
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25.93%
Sandpit exploitation near Lisbon allowed collecting of many Miocene, non marine fossils. These sands are part of the mostly marine Miocene series in the Lower Tagus basin. The particularly favourable situation led several researchers to deal with marine-continental correlations. Difficulties often concern methodologic aspects. Some poorly based interpretations exerced a lasting influence. A critical approach is presented. Analysis requires data. Methods based upon models often lead to the temptation of fitting data in order to confirm a priori conclusions, or of mixing up data as if of equal statistic value while they have not at all the same weight. Erroneous interpretations' uncritical repetition for many years "upgraded" them into absolute truth. Another point is endemism vs. europeism. Miocene mammals from Lisbon compared well with corresponding French, contemporaneous taxa, while this was apparently not true for Spanish ones. Too much accent had been put on the endemic character of Spanish, or even regional, mammalian faunas. Nationalist bias and sensationalism also weigh, albeit negatively. Meanwhile nearly all the more evident examples as the rhinoceros Hispanotherium are discredited as Iberian endemisms. Taxa may appear as endemic just because they have not yet been found elsewhere. At least for the medium to large-sized mammals...

Federal Intervention to Enhance Shareholder Choice

Bebchuk, Lucian Arye; Ferrell, Frank A.
Fonte: Virginia Law Review Association Publicador: Virginia Law Review Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
The modern approach to corporate reorganizations begins in a curious place. Everywhere else in corporate law, we focus on those who control the firm and on when others should be able to go to court and reverse their decisions. With respect to corporate reorganizations, however, we ignore these questions and instead focus on priority rights. Our lodestar is the real estate foreclosure. A real estate foreclosure is an actual sale of a physical asset, and the proceeds of the sale are distributed to old creditors and shareholders according to nonbankruptcy priorities. A reorganization is also a sale, albeit a hypothetical one, and the proceeds of the sale (usually in the form of new claims against the reorganized firm) are again distributed to the old creditors and shareholders. Hence, nonbankruptcy priorities should be respected here as well. According to this conventional wisdom, the primary challenge in the law of corporate reorganizations lies in devising a process that allows us to respect priority rights when there is not an actual foreclosure with competing bids. In this paper, we show that this conventional understanding of corporate reorganizations is wrong. It might seem that the primary question when all cannot be paid in full is who gets what...