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Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.96%
Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues...

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Measuring Trends in Access to Modern Infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa : Results from Demographic and Health Surveys

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou Bassirou; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
A recent study for sub-Saharan Africa by Banerjee et al. (2007) uses Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 22 countries that have conducted at least two such surveys between 1990 and 2005 in order to collect comparable information across countries on access to modern and alternative infrastructure services over time. In addition to national, urban, and rural trends in access, the study includes a distributional analysis of how access rates have evolved since 1990. That is, households are divided into five quintiles of population according to their level of wealth, with wealth defined using a principal components analysis. The objective of this note is to provide a summary of key findings from the study regarding access trends to electricity, piped water, flush toilets, and landline telephones over the period 1990-2005.

PPI in Poor Countries : How to Increase Private Participation in Infrastructure Management and Investment

Leigland, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
To overcome huge shortfalls in access to infrastructure services, poor countries need much higher investment levels and more expertise to build, operate, and maintain infrastructure facilities. The private sector is one source for such resources, and projects involving private participation in infrastructure (PPI) have increasingly been used in developing countries. But PPI investment has been much lower in poor countries than in better-off developing countries-and has been more affected by the global financial crisis. How can PPI projects play a larger role in improving infrastructure service provision in these countries?

Using Credit Ratings to Improve Water Utility Access to Market Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa

Advani, Rajesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is working to leverage domestic private sector expertise and resources to deliver services that benefit the poor. The aim is to help an estimated 1.5 million poor people gain sustained access to improved water supply and sanitation services and leverage over US$80 million in investments by donors, governments, and the domestic private sector through three main activity lines: building water and sanitation business models for the poor; public-private partnerships in non-traditional markets; and, banking the unbanked water and sanitation providers. Encouraging creditworthy utilities to finance a portion of their investment program using commercial debt will improve the allocation of public funds for investment. Taking steps to address performance issues that hinder access to credit could see significantly more investment in water by the private sector, resulting in improved access in urban areas.

Access, Affordability, and Alternatives : Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Wodon, Quentin; Diallo, Amadou; Pushak, Taras; Uddin, Helal; Tsimpo, Clarence; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
Africa lags well behind other developing regions in infrastructure access. The limited gains of the 1990s have not increased much in the 2000s. There is clear evidence that many countries are failing to expand services fast enough to keep ahead of rapid demographic growth and even faster urbanization. As a result, if present trends continue, Africa is likely to lag even further behind other developing regions, and universal access will be more than 50 years away in many countries. However, there is variation in performance across countries, even within the low and middle income brackets. A significant number of countries have succeeded in increasing the number of people who have access to water, electricity, and sanitation, by an annual average of 5-10 percent. Further investigation is warranted to explain what determines the superior performance of these countries.

Identifying Traditional and Non-traditional Mechanisms for Reaching the Poor in Infrastructure Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
The improvement of infrastructure services has proven to be a powerful tool in poverty alleviation initiatives. Providing people with access to basic and reliable infrastructure services are tools for improving their standard of living and rising their productivity-thus endowing them with the opportunity for growth. This work aims to document the existing traditional and non-traditional mechanisms used by Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to reach the poor in infrastructure access and affordability, and to provide factual anecdotal case studies that represent this situation at a country, community, and utility specific/sensitive level. The specific objectives are: 1) to identify traditional and alternate mechanisms for targeting the poor or those designed by the poor in order to gain access to and maintain infrastructure services; and b) to design a framework of analysis in order to understand and analyze the various components that account for the traditional and non-traditional tools used to reach the poor (including social tariffs...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Access to Financial Services

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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65.88%
This technical note the Malawi 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) reviews the current challenges of increasing access to financial services in Malawi. After a cursory assessment of the state of the financial sector in chapter one, it summarizes the key challenges of rural financial sector development (chapter two); then discusses the opportunities that branchless banking technology offers (chapter three), the options for strengthening the financial infrastructure (chapter four) and the role of government in increasing access (chapter five). It concludes with recommendations on how authorities may seek to realize these opportunities (chapter six).

Barriers to Access to Payment Systems and Proposed Actions : Special-Purpose Note

Global Remittances Working Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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65.87%
This paper analyzes the difficulties for nonbank RSPs in their indirect access to the domestic payment system infrastructure. It presents the background (section three) and the current situation, giving examples from a few key sending markets (section four). The main factors underlying the current situation are outlined (section five), and several potential pragmatic solutions are presented as a basis for further discussion along with implementable action plans (section six). The paper concludes with possible next steps (section seven).

Kyrgyz Republic; Insights on Household Access to Water Supply and Sanitation

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
This note has been prepared as part of the work program on multi-dimensional poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic to raise awareness of poverty dimensions, which in turn should help accelerate the development of water supply and sanitation services, and necessary reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic. The note analyzes the quality and reliability of the Integrated Households Survey (KIHS) data to measure access to water supply and sanitation services. The household survey was conducted by the National Statistics Committee (NSC) of the Kyrgyz Republic. It is representative at the national, rural/urban, and oblast levels. Using survey data we analyze the consumption of water supply and sanitation services at the household level with a focus on access, quality, and expenditures.

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Dominguez Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization...

Peru - Recent Economic Development in Infrastructure : Volume1. Investing in Infrastructure as an Engine for Growth - Spending More, Faster and Spending Better

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.9%
This report provided the Government of Peru with a comprehensive strategic assessment of three key infrastructure sectors: water/sanitation, transport and electricity, and to propose selected recommendations on how the Government could improve the performance of these sectors. Peru's public expenditure framework shows some rigidities, a number of which were introduced when fiscal resources were scarce or, more recently, because of concerns about a possible risk of inflation. The implementation of the stimulus package has required a laborious transition to remove bottlenecks to faster public spending, sometimes at the risk of affecting the mechanisms that help ensure the quality of public expenditures. The Peruvian authorities have been able to accelerate public investments in infrastructure but little thinking has been dedicated to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of such investments. The report concludes that Peru should focus on: prioritizing infrastructure investments through improved planning...

Infrastructure in Latin America : An Update, 1980-2006

Calderón, César; Servén, Luis
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
This paper documents the trends in infrastructure in major Latin American economies over the last quarter century. Drawing from an expanded and updated data set, the paper sheds light on the region's infrastructure performance along four major dimensions. First, the paper documents the trends in the quantity of Latin America's infrastructure assets, using a comparative cross-regional perspective. Second, the paper presents a battery of indicators of the quality of infrastructure services, taking the same comparative perspective. Third, the paper reviews Latin America's performance in terms of the universality of access to infrastructure services. Lastly, the paper offers a detailed account of the trends in infrastructure investment in Latin America's six major economies since 1980, disaggregated by both sector of origin (public and private) and destination (power, transport and telecommunications).

Infrastructure Gap in South Asia : Inequality of Access to Infrastructure Services

Biller, Dan; Andres, Luis; Herrera Dappe, Matias
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.04%
The South Asia region is home to the largest pool of individuals living under the poverty line, coupled with a fast-growing population. The importance of access to basic infrastructure services on welfare and the quality of life is clear. Yet the South Asia region's rates of access to infrastructure (sanitation, electricity, telecom, and transport) are closer to those of Sub-Saharan Africa, the one exception being water, where the South Asia region is comparable to East Asia and the pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean. The challenge of increasing access to these services across the South Asia region is compounded by the unequal distribution of existing access for households. This study improves understanding of this inequality by evaluating access across the region's physical (location), poverty, and income considerations. The paper also analyzes inequality of access across time, that is, across generations. It finds that while the regressivity of infrastructure services is clearly present in South Asia, the story that emerges is heterogeneous and complex. There is no simple explanation for these inequalities...

Voting with their Feet? Access to Infrastructure and Migration in Nepal

Shilpi, Forhad; Sangraula, Prem; Li, Yue
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
Using bilateral migration flow data from the 2010 population census of Nepal, this paper provides evidence on the importance of public infrastructure and services in determining migration flows. The empirical specification, based on a generalized nested logit model, corrects for the non-random selection of migrants. The results show that migrants prefer areas that are nearer to paved roads and have better access to electricity. Apart from electricity's impact on income and through income on migration, the econometric results indicate that migrants attach substantial amenity value to access to electricity. These findings have important implications for the placement of basic infrastructure projects and the way benefits from these projects are evaluated.

Access to Water, Women’s Work and Child Outcomes

Koolwal, Gayatri; van de Walle, Dominique
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
Poor rural women in the developing world spend considerable time collecting water. How then do they respond to improved access to water infrastructure? Does it increase their participation in income earning market-based activities? Does it improve the health and education outcomes of their children? To help address these questions, a new approach for dealing with the endogeneity of infrastructure placement in cross-sectional surveys is proposed and implemented using data for nine developing countries. The paper does not find that access to water comes with greater off-farm work for women, although in countries where substantial gender gaps in schooling exist, both boys' and girls' enrollments improve with better access to water. There are also some signs of impacts on child health as measured by anthropometric z-scores.

Nigeria : Expanding Access to Rural Infrastructure Issues and Options for Rural Electrification, Water Supply and Telecommunications

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Over two thirds of Nigeria's population resides in rural areas. Increasingly, poverty in the country is wearing a rural face. From 28.3 percent in 1980, poverty among the rural population grew to 51.4 percent in 1985, has since risen to 69.8 percent in 1996. Poverty tends to affect men and women differently. Women are generally less educated, more vulnerable, deprived and powerless than their male counterparts. 1.2 Poor people experience insecurity and vulnerability (drought, desertification, flooding, deforestation, diseases, volatile commodity markets etc.); lack of empowerment to influence public policies according to their priorities; and lack of opportunities for income generation and benefits from markets. Access to education, safe water supply, sanitation, health, modern energy, telecommunications and roads are important in reducing vulnerability and increasing prosperity.

Liberalization and Universal Access to Basic Services : Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation, Financial Services, and Electricity

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; World Bank
Fonte: OECD and the World Bank, Paris Publicador: OECD and the World Bank, Paris
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
Access to basic services plays an important role in both individual well-being and a country's economic development. For this reason, general availability of these services to citizens, regardless of income level and geographical location, has generally been viewed as an important public policy goal. However, the precise definition of this goal and the means of attaining it have provoked controversy. This volume explores whether liberalization can contribute to achieving universal service goals and, if so, how, and looks at the types of complementary policies that may be required. It focuses on experience in four sectors: telecommunications, financial, water and sanitation, and energy services. For each sector, an overview paper and one or two case studies from developing countries examine the experience of governments in harnessing liberalization to meet social goals. It is hoped that this cross-sector view will yield general insights which a focus on a single sector may not, and help each sector to generate ideas by drawing upon experience in other sectors. A horizontal assessment also helps to determine how far the services negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO)...

How Relevant Is Infrastructure to Growth in East Asia?

Seethepalli, Kalpana; Bramati, Maria Caterina; Veredas, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
This paper seeks to shed some light on the extent to which infrastructure sub-sectors - energy, telecommunications, water supply, sanitation, and transport - contributed to growth in East Asia during 1985-2004. It also attempts to provide additional insights on whether the relationship between infrastructure and growth depends on five additional variables: the degree of private participation in infrastructure, the quality of governance, the extent of rural-urban inequality in access to infrastructure services, country income levels, as well as geography. The findings show that greater stocks of infrastructure were indeed associated with higher growth. However, a more nuanced look at the sensitivity of infrastructure impacts on the five additional variables yields different results, with some sectors supporting conventional expectations and others yielding mixed or counter-intuitive results. In particular, the telecom and sanitation sectors yield statistically significant results supporting the a priori hypotheses; electricity and water infrastructure provide mixed results; and road infrastructure consistently contradicts a priori expectations. The results are consistent with the widely-accepted idea in policy research that infrastructure plays an important role in promoting growth...

Poverty, Living Conditions, and Infrastructure Access : A Comparison of Slums in Dakar, Johannesburg, and Nairobi

Gulyani, Sumila; Talukdar, Debabrata; Jack, Darby
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
In this paper the authors compare indicators of development, infrastructure, and living conditions in the slums of Dakar, Nairobi, and Johannesburg using data from 2004 World Bank surveys. Contrary to the notion that most African cities face similar slum problems, find that slums in the three cities differ dramatically from each other on nearly every indicator examined. Particularly striking is the weak correlation of measures of income and human capital with infrastructure access and quality of living conditions. For example, residents of Dakar's slums have low levels of education and high levels of poverty but fairly decent living conditions. By contrast, most of Nairobi's slum residents have jobs and comparatively high levels of education, but living conditions are but extremely bad . And in Johannesburg, education and unemployment levels are high, but living conditions are not as bad as in Nairobi. These findings suggest that reduction in income poverty and improvements in human development do not automatically translate into improved infrastructure access or living conditions. Since not all slum residents are poor...