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Entrepreneurship in Post-Conflict Transition : The Role of Informality and Access to Finance

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora F.; Panos, Georgios A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.84%
The authors examine the factors affecting the transition to self-employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using the World Bank Living Standard Measurement Survey panel household survey for the years 2001-2004. In the beginning of the sample, the country changed its legal framework, with the primary aim to promote labor market flexibility and to encourage entrepreneurial activity. The analysis identifies individuals that switched to self-employment (employers and own account) during the sample period and the viability of this transition, in terms of business survival for more than one year. The results suggest an important role for financing constraints. Specifically, wealthier households are more likely to become entrepreneurs and survive in self-employment. After controlling for household wealth, having an existing bank relationship increases the likelihood of starting a business with hired employees and increases the chances of survival for the new entrepreneur. By contrast, overseas - and in some cases domestic - remittances decrease the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur.

Improving Access to Jobs and Earnings Opportunities : The Role of Activation and Graduation Policies in Developing Countries

Almeida, Rita; Arbelaez, Juliana; Honorati, Maddalena; Kuddo, Arvo; Lohmann, Tanja; Ovadiya, Mirey; Pop, Lucian; Sanchez Puerta, Maria Laura; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.93%
Throughout the developing world there is a growing demand for advice on the design of policies to facilitate access of the most vulnerable individuals to jobs, while reducing their dependency from public income support schemes. Even though these policies are common to both the activation and graduation agendas, a separation is needed as the graduation of beneficiaries out of poverty is a much more ambitious agenda. This paper proposes a simple policy framework highlighting the most common barriers for productive employment. It also reviews the topic of incentive compatibility of income support schemes and employment support programs that are used to address them. The paper finds that, especially in middle income countries, activation and active labor market programs play an important role connecting individuals to jobs and improving earnings opportunities. In low income countries, these programs are far from being a panacea to graduate beneficiaries out of poverty. Furthermore, only scant evidence is available on the pathways to graduation and significant knowledge gaps remain. More cross-disciplinary research is needed to strengthen the evidence base and develop recommendations for different contexts and capacity levels.

Developing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Jordan : The Route to Shared Prosperity

Nasr, Sahar; El Abd, Yara
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.97%
The Arab uprisings and the global financial and economic slowdown have negatively impacted the Jordanian economy and highlighted demands for a more level economic playing field and equity in access to economic and social opportunities. Already challenged in providing jobs to the more than 60,000 youth who enter the labor market annually, Jordan has seen unemployment rising. Youth and women were most affected, with unemployment, reaching 22.8 percent and 22.3 percent, respectively. Moreover, regional disparities continue to pose additional challenges. Limited private sector jobs are available in the outlying governorates, where employment relies largely on the civil service and other public sector jobs. At the same time, the private sector is hampered by difficulties in the business environment and inadequate access to finance. Job creation and economic inclusion are key priorities for Jordan today these goals will be advanced by improving access to finance, enhancing competitiveness, and fostering sustainable, private sector-led growth.

From Double-Dip Recession to Fragile Recovery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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55.82%
After the double-dip recession, as a group the six South East European countries (SEE6)- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia-are now making a fragile recovery. Last year the recession in the Eurozone had adverse impact on external demand and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in SEE6 and the severe winter and a summer drought crippled agriculture and affected trade, energy, and economic activity overall. However, the recovery in SEE6 is still tentative. In some countries nonperforming loans, sluggish credit recovery, continued deleveraging, and fiscal consolidation are exerting a drag and recovery in SEE6 is unlikely to accelerate as long as the Eurozone remains in recession. The SEE6 region is projected to grow 1.7 percent in 2013, signaling the end of the 2012 double-dip recession. Even though growth will in general be fragile, it will be on the upswing in all six countries. Kosovo again is expected to have the highest growth (3.1 percent), thanks to major public investments and a significant inflow of remittances. Against the backdrop of this tentative and fragile recovery...

Affordability of Public Transport in Developing Countries

Carruthers, Robin; Dick, Malise; Saurkar, Anuja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
The analysis reported here was prompted by a realization that there was little reliable and consistent information on what proportion of household income is spent on urban public transport. The information available uses inconsistent definitions of what costs are included and how income is measured, making comparisons between cities difficult. The authors report here on about a dozen studies that have addressed the issue of affordability. Though different measures are used in different countries, making it difficult to compare the results between cities, from the studies in South America, South Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, East Asia and Australasia summarized here, the authors make clear that the affordability of urban transport is considered an issue of importance throughout the developing world. There is also evidence that the high cost of urban transport is having a negative impact on the lives of the urban poor - either through restricting their access to jobs that are within feasible walking or cycling distance...

Work History and the Access to Contributory Pensions in Uruguay : Some Facts and Policy Options

Bucheli, Marisa; Forteza, Alvaro; Rossi, Ianina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Incomplete and highly fragmented work histories threaten to leave many contributors of the pension schemes in Latin America without the minimum pension guarantee or even without access to the ordinary pension. We propose a methodology to assess this risk, identify vulnerable groups and study potential determinants of the history of contributions using information from the work history records of the social security institutions. We apply this methodology to the largest social security institution of Uruguay, the Banco de Previsión Social, and show that the majority of contributors to this institution might not comply with the minimum number of years of contribution that is currently required to access an ordinary pension when they reach the retirement age.

The Big Business of Small Enterprises : Evaluation of the World Bank Group Experience with Targeted Support to Small, and Medium-Size Enterprises, 2006-2012

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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55.78%
The World Bank Group promotes small and medium-size enterprise (SME) growth through both systemic and targeted interventions. A critical challenge is to root the many activities now undertaken in this broad space in a clear understanding of the characteristics and dynamics of SMEs role in the broader economy; and their actual and potential contribution to jobs, growth, and shared prosperity. A closely related challenge is to formulate clear strategies that connect interventions to intended outcomes and are accompanied by solid measurement systems that provide evidence of results and allow learning. Targeting means focusing benefits on one size-class of firms to the exclusion of others. Targeted support for SMEs is a big business for the World Bank Group, averaging around $3 billion a year in commitments, expenditures, and gross exposure over the 2006-12 periods. In the context of broader reforms, targeted small and medium-size enterprise (TSME) support can be a powerful tool and, given the size of the recent program...

The Identification for Development Agenda; Its Potential for Empowering Women and Girls

Dahan, Mariana; Hanmer, Lucia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
Gender inequality and related issues remain a major global challenge, particularly for developing countries. Despite considerable progress on gender equality over recent decades, key gender gaps remain in endowments (health and education), in access to jobs and economic opportunities, and in voice and agency. Lack of data limits ability to assess gender gaps and measure progress toward eliminating them. Successfully addressing the incompleteness of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems can help fill some of these vital data gaps. In addition, having official personal identification (ID) is an important stepping-stone for women and girls - enabling them to access services, claim their entitlements as citizens, and increase their voice and agency through participation in voting and other politics. Global initiatives such as identification for development (ID4D) promote opportunities to provide women with access to foundational documentation such as birth certificates and expansion of other ways to establish their legal identity. In addition...

Memo to the Mayor : Improving Access to Urban Land for All Residents - Fulfilling the Promise; Memorando para el alcalde : mejorar el acceso a tierras urbanas para todos los residents - el cumplimiento de una promesa

Lipman, Barbara; Rajack, Robin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.69%
As the world is urbanizing, many cities are grappling with a population that is growing rapidly, thereby increasing demand for land and housing. This pressure on land and housing markets often is exacerbated by inappropriate or inadequate policies. The result is a supply of well-located land and housing that falls well short of demand and the proliferation of poorly serviced informal settlements, many of which are located far from jobs, city services and amenities. This paper discusses the major policy levers local leaders may have at their disposal to improve access to land and housing and thereby change the landscape of cities for the better. It discusses common obstacles administrative, political, and financial and options for overcoming them. In particular, the report: (1) takes a fresh look at some traditional mechanisms such as land regulation, property taxation, and public-private partnerships; (2) reintroduces some innovative land tools community land trusts, guided development, transfer of development rights...

Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment Report : Vitalizing the Private Sector, Creating Jobs, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
The objective of the Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Bhutan in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. This ICA consists of two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the main results. Volume 2 presents a more detailed analysis of each of the three main themes of the report: labor productivity and skills, access to finance, and business government relations, and is supplemented by a chapter on the gender dimensions of the investment climate. Volume 2 also includes the supporting econometric analysis of the enterprise survey data. The purpose of Volume 2 is to provide additional detail on the underlying data and analysis which supports the main results summarized in Volume 1. In Volume 2, Chapter 1 sets the Bhutanese context and background, explains what's new in the second Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment, and presents the overall findings of the 2010 report. Chapter 2 reviews the characteristics of the investment climate in Bhutan...

Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment Report : Vitalizing the Private Sector, Creating Jobs, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Investment Climate Assessment (ICA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.79%
The objective of the Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) is to evaluate the investment climate in Bhutan in all its operational dimensions and promote policies to strengthen the private sector. This ICA consists of two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the main results. Volume 2 presents a more detailed analysis of each of the three main themes of the report: labor productivity and skills, access to finance, and business government relations, and is supplemented by a chapter on the gender dimensions of the investment climate. Volume 2 also includes the supporting econometric analysis of the enterprise survey data. The purpose of Volume 2 is to provide additional detail on the underlying data and analysis which supports the main results summarized in Volume 1. In Volume 2, Chapter 1 sets the Bhutanese context and background, explains what's new in the second Bhutan Investment Climate Assessment, and presents the overall findings of the 2010 report. Chapter 2 reviews the characteristics of the investment climate in Bhutan...

Emerging Developments and Challenges in the Arab World

Akhtar, Shamshad
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
The events of the last few weeks are a watershed for Tunisia, Egypt, and other Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The ongoing political events will resonate regionally and globally and, if followed by sound transitions to better governance structures, these events provide a unique opportunity to change MENA's political and social landscape. The root cause of the political turmoil in MENA is fatigue with longstanding authoritarian rule and weak political and economic governance as confirmed by public concerns over voice, social justice, accountability and access to services. The MENA region also has its strengths: its youth, resource base and the resilience shown during the global crisis. The economic and social impact will be significant in the short term with slippages in economic growth, fiscal revenues and tourism and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) receipts. Large parts of the population lack adequate access to jobs, land, services, finance and justice. They may be further affected as inflationary pressures grow depending...

World Bank Group Assistance to Low-Income Fragile and Conflict-Affected States : An Independent Evaluation

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Fragile and conflict-affected states (FCS) have become an important focus of World Bank Group assistance in recent years as recognition of the linkages between fragility, conflict, violence, and poverty has grown. Addressing issues of recurring conflict and political violence and helping build legitimate and accountable state institutions are central to the Bank Group's poverty reduction mission. This evaluation assesses the relevance and effectiveness of World Bank Group country strategies and assistance programs to FCS. The operationalization of the World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development (2011 WDR) is also assessed, to see how the framework has been reflected in subsequent analytical work, country assistance strategies, and the assistance programs. The evaluation framework was derived from the concepts and priorities articulated in recent WDRs, policy papers, and progress reports issued by Bank Group management, to draw lessons from FCS. The framework is organized around the three major themes emerging from the 2011 WDR: building state capacity, building capacity of citizens, and promoting inclusive growth and jobs. The evaluation focuses on International Development Association (IDA)-only countries, which are deemed to have certain characteristics such as very low average income and no access to private finance...

Pakistan - Towards an Integrated National Safety Net System : Assisting Poor and Vulnerable Households, An Analysis of Pakistan's Main Cash Transfer Program

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
The vision of Pakistan's social protection strategy to reach the poor and vulnerable (2007) is 'to develop an integrated and comprehensive social protection system, covering all the population, but especially the poorest and the most vulnerable'. Consistent with this vision, the goals of the strategy are identified as: 1) to support chronically poor households and protect them against destitution, food insecurity, exploitation and social exclusion; 2) to protect poor and vulnerable households from the impacts of adverse shocks to their consumption and well-being that, if not mitigated, would push non poor households into poverty, and poor households into deeper poverty; and 3) to promote investment in human and physical assets, including health, nutrition, and education, by poor households capable of ensuring their resilience in the medium run and of interrupting the intergenerational cycle of poverty. This vision is fully consistent with the World Bank's social protection and labor strategy for 2012-2022...

Women, Business, and the Law 2014 : Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality; Les femmes, l'entreprise, et le droit, 2014 : lever les obstacles au renforcement de l'egalite hommes-femmes

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: London: Bloomsbury Publicador: London: Bloomsbury
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
In the past 50 years women's legal status has improved all over the world. But many laws still make it difficult for women to fully participate in economic life whether by getting jobs or starting businesses. Discriminatory rules bar women from certain jobs, restrict access to capital for women-owned firms and limit women's capacity to make legal decisions. Gender differences in laws affect both developing and developed economies, and women in all regions. Women, business, and the law measures restrictions on women s employment and entrepreneurship as well as incentives for women s employment in 143 economies. Women, business, and the law and the World Bank's global financial inclusion global findings database show that in economies with a default full community of property regime, there are on average 10 percentage points more female owned accounts at formal financial institutions than in economies with a default separation of property regime. This report has shown that although much progress has been made in recent decades in gradually dismantling many of the legal restrictions which have hampered women from more fully contributing to national prosperity...

Pakistan : Path to Rapid Growth and Job Creation

Lopez-Calix, José
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.93%
Pakistan's rebound from the global financial crisis has been slow and fragile, and unless it changes course swiftly, it could face the prospects of a second balance of payments crisis in less than five years. Its recovery from the 2008-09 global financial crisis has been the weakest in South Asia, featuring a unique double-dip growth pattern. With high fertility, Pakistan will double the size of its already young population by 2025. The only way to convert this massive demographic bulge from a political and social burden to an exceptional dividend is through rapid and inclusive growth that creates millions of new and better jobs. In sum, the two main challenges are improving the types of jobs available and enabling people to move into those more productive activities. The binding constraints to Pakistan's growth are both emerging and structural. Emerging constraints include massive cuts in electricity access and macroeconomic instability, leading to high country risk and a sudden stop in external and domestic financing. Structural constraints include low access to domestic finance and government and market failures (micro risks) that impede investment...

Chile - County Gender Assessment : Expanding Women's Work Choices to Enhance Chile's Economic Potential

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
The Chile Country gender assessments (CGAs) identify gender-responsive policies and actions are strategic for poverty reduction, economic growth, human well-being, and development effectiveness. The report proposes priority policy objectives: increase female labor force participation, especially for low-income households, and reduce discontinuity in women's work experience. The report focus on the gender equality in the labor markets; improve access to financial services; expand access to business networks, business development services, and technology for women entrepreneurs. The potential impacts on economic growth gaps of increasing female labor force participation or reducing the gender gap.

Zambia Economic Brief, October 2013 : Zambia's Jobs Challenge--Realities on the Ground

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56%
Zambia shares its robust economic growth and capital inflows in the past few years with other Sub-Saharan countries, growth supported by high commodity prices that while declining are still at historical high levels. High commodity prices have induced large foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, mainly in extractive industries but also in services sector, supporting growth. Zambia's mining sector has benefited from FDI, receiving almost 1 billion dollar in 2011 alone. A large gap has emerged between available resources and likely spending in 2013. The government is responding with a full range of adjustments, including cutting recurrent spending (such as on travel and motor vehicles), cutting capital projects, and stepping up revenue collection. The government has raised fuel prices and reduced maize and fertilizer subsidies, but the medium-term fiscal impact of these initiatives is uncertain. These reforms aimed to create space for expanding better targeted spending programs. Zambia's economy has seen far too many unexpected policy changes in recent years. Persistent and even escalating perceptions of an uncertain policy environment can weaken investment...

Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.77%
Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to assess gender imbalances in the areas of economic participation in the labor market, agency, and access to justice; provide a framework for policies or interventions to the Government of Jordan (GoJ) on addressing imbalances; and provide a basis for implementing the activities included in the Gender Action Plan (GAP). The second objective is to develop and strengthen partnerships with GoJ agencies, Civil Society Organization's (CSOs), and academic institutions to promote collaboration on addressing gender-related issues impacting development, and in particular to develop mechanisms for cooperation on implementation of the GAP. This CGA will further explore...

SME Contributions to Employment, Job Creation, and Growth in the Arab World

Nasr, Sahar; Rostom, Ahmed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.98%
Recent economic and political developments have highlighted a challenge shared across the Arab region of generating employment, promoting inclusive growth, and improving competitiveness. In the short run, weakened macroeconomic fundamentals in the developing economies of the Middle East and North Africa are a key challenge. The region's main challenge is to achieve sustainable growth that delivers the quantity and quality of jobs needed. An inclusive and competitive private sector has proven to be one of the most effective and long-term solutions for this challenge. This paper provides an analytical framework to diagnose and identify key challenges to the growth of small and medium enterprises that is supported by a quantitative model based on the World Bank's Enterprise Surveys database. The findings reconfirm that the route to a sustained role for small and medium enterprises in job creation requires improving the credibility of reforms, the effectiveness of policies, and equitable enforcement. Although one size fits all is infeasible for Arab countries...