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Expanding Access to Finance : Good Practices and Policies for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises

Malhotra, Mohini; Chen, Yanni; Criscuolo, Alberto; Fan, Qimiao; Hamel, Iva lIieva; Savchenko, Yevgeniya
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
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66.09%
This book on micro, small, and medium enterprise (MSME) finance is intended primarily for government policy makers. It presents a policy framework whereby governments can support increased access by MSME to financial services based on empirical evidence and practices. MSME complain that lack of access to finance constrains their growth and competitiveness. Indeed, financial sector policies often work against the ability of commercial financial institutions to serve MSME, albeit often unintentionally. In many countries, lack of competition in the banking sector limits pressure on banks to reach out to MSME client segments. High risk and high transaction costs-real or perceived-associated with bank lending to MSME likewise constrain access. Often, supervisory and capital adequacy requirements penalize banks for lending to enterprises that lack traditional collateral. Attempts by governments to address these constraints and offset the inequalities in financial sector policy generally have not achieved the desired results. This book lays out a market-based policy framework for governments that focuses on delivery of financial services to MSME on commercial terms. The framework guides governments in focusing scarce resources on developing an inclusive financial sector policy; building sound financial institutions; and investing in a supportive information infrastructure...

Increasing Access to Rural Finance in Bangladesh : The Forgotten "Missing Middle"

Ferrari, Aurora
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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66.18%
Increasing access to rural finance is often the last frontier for financial sector development in developing countries. Financial institutions aiming to operate in rural areas in these countries usually have to deal with high transaction costs, low population densities, remote areas, and a heavy focus on agriculture, with related weather and commodity risks. Although Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, its high population density lowers transaction costs considerably. This report seeks to: measure the quantity and quality of access to finance by rural micro, small, and medium-size enterprises (MSMEs) and marginal, small, and medium-size farmesr (MSMFs). In Bangladesh these are also referred to as the missing middle -- a segment not served by banks or microfinance institutions (MFIs). The report also identifies constraints that financial institutions face in serving MSMEs and MSMFs. The institutions analyzed in detail include, Bangladesh Krishi Bank (BKB), Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank (RAKUB), MFIs...

Timor Leste : Access to Finance for Investment and Working Capital

Conroy, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.07%
This study argues the need for a policy environment supporting both urban informal sector dynamism and rapid transition from subsistence to monetization in agriculture. Such policies must include measures facilitating access to financial services for households, which are the backbone of the informal and subsistence economies. The economy of Timor-Leste is divided between a farm sector in which as many of 80 percent of workers remain, with most of these still dependent on subsistence production, and a non-farm sector in which micro- and small enterprises are an overwhelming majority. Most urban enterprises operate in an informal environment, while in both the farm and non-farm sectors the household is the basic unit of economic activity.

Financial Access 2009 : Measuring Access to Financial Services around the World

Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Fonte: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/The World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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86.02%
Financial Access 2009 introduces the latest data from a survey of financial regulators in 139 countries. It presents indicators of access to savings, credit, and payment services in banks, and in regulated nonbank financial institutions. It is intended for a broad audience of policymakers, researchers, practitioners, multilateral and bilateral investors, in order to guide monetary policy, monitor systemic risks, and collect information on the values of deposits and credit. This report reviews three interventions: disclosure requirements, interest rate caps, and methods to address excessive lending that can result in consumer indebtedness. Improved transparency and disclosure allow borrowers to make informed choices and can facilitate competition in financial markets, eventually leading to lower prices and improved products. Policies to restrict interest rates or credit quantity, especially in consumer credit, seem to have limited effect but require further analysis.

Niger - Rural Financial Services : Expanding Financial Access to the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.1%
The main objective of this study is to identify the major impediments to access to financial services in rural areas, and provide practical recommendations to address the identified problems. The study aims to inform on rural finance policies and innovative instruments by examining both supply and demand sides including an identification of non-financial issues that restrict development of the rural financial sector. Addressing the lack of rural access to financial services in the Niger development process continues to figure prominently on the Government agenda without, however, a systematic action plan and strategy. Adopting ad hoc solutions (such as the creation of an agricultural development bank) without addressing the structural issues that limit access to financial services will, unfortunately, not yield any positive long lasting results.

Brazil : Access to Financial Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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66.09%
This study seeks to evaluate present levels of access to financial services, and government policies adopted which impact upon access. Based on these findings, it explores options for increased future access to financial services in Brazil. The first section highlights the core conclusions to emerge from the study, which would have implications for government policy. The second section provides a guide to the thematic scope, and content of the study, and the third section describes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of each section. The overarching message to emerge from this study is that increased financial access would be promoted, by sound overall macroeconomic, and financial sector policy. Beyond that, the Government could, and should undertake regulatory reforms to enable financial markets to function more smoothly, and undertake targeted policies to improve access. However, care should be taken to ensure that such targeted policies allow the excluded groups efficient participation in financial markets. This would direct the focus towards a review of incentives...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malawi - Access to Financial Services

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.18%
This technical note the Malawi 2007 Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) reviews the current challenges of increasing access to financial services in Malawi. After a cursory assessment of the state of the financial sector in chapter one, it summarizes the key challenges of rural financial sector development (chapter two); then discusses the opportunities that branchless banking technology offers (chapter three), the options for strengthening the financial infrastructure (chapter four) and the role of government in increasing access (chapter five). It concludes with recommendations on how authorities may seek to realize these opportunities (chapter six).

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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75.86%
The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services in the Developing World

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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66.11%
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a major role in economic development, particularly in emerging countries. Access to finance remains a key constraint to SME development in emerging economies. Closing the credit gap for formal SMEs will be less daunting than for informal SMEs. The SME finance gap is the result of a mismatch between the needs of the small firms and the supply of financial services, which typically are easier for larger firms to access. Deficiencies in the enabling environment and residual market failures have motivated government interventions to foster SME access to financing. The stocktaking exercise confirms the rise in various parts of the world of specific business models aimed at providing financial services to SMEs in a cost-effective manner. Effective SME financing models can be implemented in different country and market environments, but greater outreach is achieved in the most developed environments for the financial sector. Although SME banking and microfinance models are successfully being rolled out in an increasing number of countries and regions...

Access to Finance for Smallholder Farmers

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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66.14%
The percentage of smallholders with access to finance is equally difficult to quantify. According to estimates, even promising approaches to expanding smallholder lending, such as value chain finance, are reaching fewer than 10 percent of smallholders, primarily those in well-established value chains dedicated to higher value cash crops. International Finance Corporation (IFC) has been engaged for several years in learning efforts through diverse partnerships to obtain insights into the challenges of agricultural finance. The evidence of microfinance institution (MFI) involvement in financing commercial and semi-commercial smallholders remains anecdotal and lacks specifics on what makes MFI lending to these segments feasible, and what restricts their reach and effectiveness. This IFC study aims to identify and disseminate lessons emerging from the work of MFIs that have implemented agricultural operations targeting agricultural smallholders in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) to support replication and expansion of scalable approaches. Through this research...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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66.11%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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66.09%
This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Egypt : Enhancing Access to Finance for Micro and Small Enterprises

Nasr, Sahar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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66.19%
This operation provides a $300m line of credit (Financial Intermediary Loan) through Egypt's Social Fund for Development (SFD), the apex body for micro and small enterprise finance, which would on-lend on commercial terms to eligible Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), potential microfinance institutions (MFIs), and banks. The project objective is to increase micro and small enterprise credit sustainably and broaden the outreach of finance through innovative delivery mechanisms and financial products. It plans to contribute to a sustainable improvement in inclusive access to finance for micro and small enterprises on a commercial basis. The Project went to the Board in March 2010 and is planned to be completed at the end of 2015. This note is based on the Project Appraisal Document (PAD). The project is well underway as of the date of this note but it is too early for any implementation lessons to be collected. Overall, lack of access to finance has been a major factor constraining the growth of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Egypt. Microenterprise lending in Egypt is supported by a fragmented set of hundreds of NGOs distinct from the mainstream financial sector. SFD finances 390 NGOs that are on-lending to microenterprises...

Are Pakistan's Women Entrepreneurs Being Served by the Microfinance Sector?

Safavian, Mehnaz; Haq, Aban
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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66.31%
Fostering the entrepreneurship of women is important for Pakistan's economic growth and inclusion agenda, and access to financial services is an important component of starting and growing a business for women entrepreneurs. Most women?owned businesses are small, household?based cottage industries; microfinance products should be a natural source of start?up and working capital finance for this clientele. Microfinance portfolio data suggest that although Pakistan's sector has shown improvement in reaching women, it still lags its regional peers, only 59 percent of microfinance clients are women. The original purpose of this work was to determine whether women entrepreneurs have access to, and are using, microfinance loans as a source of finance for their businesses. However, the findings of the report go beyond the narrow objective of understanding whether microfinance institutions (MFIs) are reaching Pakistan's businesswomen. As the research unfolded, the evidence suggested that not only are women entrepreneurs not being served, but also that the outreach to women in general is potentially more limited than previously assumed and that the issues of consumer protection and responsible lending practices in Pakistan might merit further exploration. The report raises and addresses two distinct issues. First...

The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services : Kazakhstan's Postal Finance Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Kazakhstan. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the postal network and state and privately-owned banks are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and microfinance. While this country case on Kazakhstan can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Within Central Asia and the other countries of the former Soviet Union, Kazakhstan's postal network is widely regarded as a leader and pioneer in postal innovation, setting an example for other postal operators in the region. An in-depth assessment of Kazakhstan's postal network development options could also be a model to guide other postal networks.

Vietnam - The Role of Postal Networks in Expanding Access to Financial Services Country case : Vietnam's postal finance services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This paper discusses the role of the postal network in expanding access to financial services in Vietnam. It reviews the public postal operator within the postal sector and within the broader context of the communications sector. The roles of the Vietnam postal network and post bank are also reviewed from the perspective of the financial sector development, with particular focus on payments systems development and micro finance. While this country case on Vietnam can stand alone, it is an integral part of this large study of the potential of postal networks to coordinate with financial service providers in 7 countries (Egypt, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Romania, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Vietnam) and 5 regions (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and Northern Africa). Five years after its introduction, the Vietnamese Postal Savings Corporation (VPSC) can look back on an impressive record of successes. With its 920 post offices (of 3,000), VPSC operates the second-largest financial service network in the country. It developed as a channel for mobilizing small household deposits...

Does Access to Finance Matter in Microenterprise Growth? Evidence from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
In less-developed economies such as Bangladesh, the farm sector is the major source of employment and income, while the rural nonfarm sector provides as an additional source of income. But the rural nonfarm sector increasingly plays an important role in fostering the development of the rural economy. A significant share of this sector is made up of microenterprise activities, which requires investment and access to adequate funds. This paper investigates the role access to finance plays in promoting the efficiency and growth of microenterprise activities. The findings suggest that households engaged in microenterprise activities, in addition to farm and other nonfarm activities, are much better off (in terms of income, expenditure and poverty) than those not engaged in such activities. Fewer than 10 percent of the enterprises have access to institutional finance (formal banks or microcredit), although the rate of return on microenterprise investments is more than sufficient (36 percent per year) to repay institutional loans. The research suggests that credit constraints may reduce the enterprises' profit margin by as much as 13.6 percent per year. As the returns to microenterprise investment are found to be high...

Improving Access to Banking : Evidence from Kenya

Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun; Senbet, Lemma; Valenzuela, Patricio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
Using household surveys and bank penetration data at the district-level in 2006 and 2009, this paper examines the impact of Equity Bank -- a leading private commercial bank focusing on microfinance -- on access to banking in Kenya. Unlike other commercial banks in Kenya, Equity Bank pursues distinct branching strategies that target underserved areas and less-privileged households. Equity Bank presence has a positive and significant impact on households' use of bank accounts and bank credit, especially for Kenyans with low income, no salaried job, and less education and those who do not own their own home. The findings are robust to using the district-level proportion of people speaking a minority language as an instrument for Equity Bank presence. It appears that Equity Bank's business model -- providing financial services to population segments typically ignored by traditional commercial banks and generating sustainable profits in the process -- can be a solution to the financial access problem that has hindered the development of inclusive financial sectors in many African countries.

Bringing Finance to Pakistan's Poor : Access to Finance for Small Enterprises and the Underserved

Nenova, Tatiana; Thioro Niang, Cecile; Ahmad, Anjum
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
Access to financing is now widely acknowledged as a path to meaningful economic inclusion and reduction in poverty. Policy efforts to increase access to finance in Pakistan have taken time to bear fruit, but now access is indeed expanding quickly in certain financial sectors (microfinance, remittances), albeit from a very low base. Nevertheless, policy measures cannot single-handedly increase financial access; financial institutions' willingness to expand access in Pakistan has been stinted by slow technologic advances, weak legal foundations, and unsuitable financial processes and products. Poor socioeconomic conditions, gender bias, and low levels of basic education and financial literacy remain barriers, but perhaps the single strongest driver of low demand for financial access has been income. The primary purpose of this study is to measure and describe the state of financial service provision to underserved segments of the market in Pakistan, particularly those with low incomes and small enterprises, and to identify ways to improve investment and create inclusive markets that meet the needs of underserved people and enterprises.

Cambodia : Study on Access to Financial Services for Small and Medium Agribusiness Enterprises in Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Agriculture has been a mainstay of the Cambodian economy. It has seen significant growth throughout the 2000s and showed a significant resilience against external shocks during the 2008-09 economic and financial crises. Agribusiness enterprises do not operate in isolation from the rest of the economy. The state of production of agricultural raw materials, the state of the financial sector, and the nature of the financial sector's engagement with the real sector activities, as well as broader issues that affect private sector development all impact the development of the agribusiness sector. The current study seeks to analyze some of these linkages. It focuses specifically on the role the financial sector has played in the growth and development of the agribusiness sector. The study builds on the existing analytical work on agricultural and small and medium enterprise (SME) finance in Cambodia. The study was carried out in three major phases. The first phase was to determine a methodology to gather new information on linkages between agribusinesses and financial institutions. The second phase involved a survey of financial institutions (banks...