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Sustainable Energy for All 2013-2014 : Global Tracking Framework

World Bank; International Energy Agency
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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105.81%
In declaring 2012 the international year of sustainable energy for all, the United Nations (UN) general assembly (2011) established at the personal initiative of the UN secretary general- three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030. Those goals are to ensure universal access to modern energy services (including electricity and clean, modern cooking solutions), to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and to double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Some 70 countries have formally embraced the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, while numerous corporations and agencies have pledged tens of billions of dollars to achieve its objectives. As 2012 drew to a close, the UN general assembly announced a decade of sustainable energy for all stretching from 2014 to 2024. Sustaining momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives will require a means of charting global progress over the years leading to 2030. Construction of the necessary framework has been coordinated by the World Bank and Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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115.79%
The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Tracking Access to Electricity

Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna; Portale, Elisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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85.76%
Access to electricity in flexible, reliable, and sustainable forms brings a range of social and economic benefits, enabling people to leap from poverty to a better future, enhancing the quality of household life, and stimulating the broader economy. Modern energy is essential for the provision of health care; clean water and sanitation; and reliable and efficient lighting, heating, cooking, mechanical power, transportation, and telecommunications. To support the achievement of these goals, a starting point must be set, indicators developed, and a framework established to track those indicators until 2030. The World Bank and International Energy Agency have led a consortium of 15 international agencies to produce data on access to electricity for the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework. Launched in 2013, the framework defines electricity access as the presence of an electricity connection in the household as typically reported through household surveys.

Tracking Access to Nonsolid Fuel for Cooking

Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna; Portale, Elisa; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Bonjour, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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95.75%
The World Health Organization estimates that in 2012 about 4.3 million deaths occurred because of exposure to household air pollution caused by smoke from the incomplete combustion of fuels such as wood, coal, and kerosene. Inefficient energy use in the home also poses substantial risks to safety, causing burns and injuries across the developing world. To support the achievement of these goals, a starting point must be set, indicators developed, and a framework established to track those indicators until 2030. The World Bank and International Energy Agency have led a consortium of 15 international agencies to produce data on access to nonsolid fuel for the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework. Launched in 2013, the framework defines access to modern cooking solutions is as the use of nonsolid fuels for the primary method of cooking. Nonsolid fuels include (i) liquid fuels (for example, kerosene, ethanol, or other biofuels), (ii) gaseous fuels (such as natural gas, LPG, and biogas), and (iii) electricity. These are in contrast to solid fuels such as (i) traditional biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and dung), (ii) processed biomass (pellets, briquettes); and (iii) other solid fuels (such as coal and lignite).

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to communities in Africa that lack access to electricity. By 2030 the program aims to enable the private sector to reach 250 million people who now depend on fuel-based lighting. The case study for Africa is important, because the continent faces a huge rural electricity deficit. Global electrification in 2010 was estimated to be about 83 percent. The deficit of 17 percent encompasses some 1.2 billion people. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Lighting Africa succeeded as a catalyst for the off-grid lighting market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Another success is apparent in the spectacular trajectory of solar lantern sales in Kenya. On the climate front...

Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in South Asia

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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95.76%
In declaring 2012 the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services,1 to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990 2010 (SE4ALL 2012). To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous, yet practical, given available databases, technical measures. This note is based on that frame¬work (World Bank 2014). SE4ALL will publish an updated version of the GTF in 2015.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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85.76%
Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

EE+EA

CLASP
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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85.8%
The World Bank (WB) has for many years been financing and conducting work to increase access to modern energy services among energy poor communities, and its efforts vary greatly from project to project, based largely on client-country context, requests, and needs. In mid-2014, CLASP evaluated a selection of recent WB EA projects to identify opportunities to expand and more effectively integrate and operationalize EE, a process and set of principles we refer to as EA+EE.

Household Energy for Cooking

Ekouevi, Koffi
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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95.86%
Reliance on solid fuels for cooking is an indicator of energy poverty. Access to modern energy services - including electricity and clean fuels - is important for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It can also reduce womens domestic burden of collecting fuelwood and allow them to pursue educational, economic, and other employment opportunities that can empower them and lead to increased gender equality. Similarly, the use of clean cooking and heating fuels in efficient appliances can reduce child mortality rates. Without access to modern energy services, the likelihood of escaping poverty is very low. Interventions to improve energy access to the poor have focused mainly on electricity access and have often neglected nonelectricity household energy access. Household energy for cooking in particular has received little policy attention in the overall energy sector dialogue, and consequently its lending volume remains low, in spite of the magnitude of the development challenges it represents. The objective of this note is to assist task teams with broad project design principles related to household energy for cooking. It follows five main reports produced by the World Bank Group over the last three years: (1) Household Cookstoves...

Energy and poverty: A proposal to harness international law to advance universal access to modern energy services

Bradbrook, A.; Gardam, J.
Fonte: T.M.C. Asser Press Publicador: T.M.C. Asser Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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95.81%
Although the Millennium Development Goals, declared by the General Assembly in the Millennium Declaration in 2000, do not refer specifically to energy, in reality none of the goals can be attained without universal access to modern energy services. Recent reports from the United Nations have drawn attention to the link between energy and poverty, and have shown that the access to modern energy services is essential for lifting peoples out of poverty and fundamentally improving their quality of life on an everyday basis.This article examines the nature and magnitude of the situation in less developed states lacking universal access to modern energy services and considers the current, limited national and international law in this area. The article then argues that it is international law that must play the major role in ensuring that universal access to energy services is realized. It considers what type of international instrument might best serve the purpose of achieving progress in improving modern energy services for those in poverty. Finally, the article provides a draft of such an instrument, together with an explanatory commentary, as a prototype of the steps that could be taken by the international community to achieve progress in this area if there is sufficient political will.; Adrian J. Bradbrook and Judith G. Gardam

From right to light: a human rights-based approach to universal access to modern energy services.

Solis, Manuel Peter Samonte
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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125.91%
The thesis re-introduces the human rights-based approach to achieve universal access to modern energy services to offer an integrated and coherent legal strategy and implementation framework that brings renewable energy technology and rural electrification under the common logic and language of human rights. Although access to modern energy services is indispensable to providing basic needs, eradicating poverty and meeting sustainable development goals, 1.3 billion people remain without access to electricity and 2.6 billion people are still without access to clean cooking facilities. Essentially, the challenge lies in how to enhance access to modern energy services, particularly for those who are in impoverished rural areas of the developing world, while achieving universal coverage and sustainable development at the same time. In response, the United Nations called the world’s attention to this challenge and launched the ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ initiative that focuses on three interlinked objectives: 1) enhancing universal access to modern energy services; 2) improving the rate of energy efficiency; and 3) increasing renewable energy use. Beyond catalysing global awareness, however, the critical stage of turning the vision into reality with concrete commitments to action beckons. The imperative of developing a coherent and appropriate legal response is vital to advancing international and national development agenda and goals. For this reason...

Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : A Case Study from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Lack of access to electricity is one of the major impediments to growth and development of the rural economies in developing countries. That is why access to modern energy, in particular to electricity, has been one of the priority themes of the World Bank and other development organizations. Using a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of some 20,000 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of households' grid connectivity. Based on rigorous econometric estimation techniques, this study finds that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. For example, the gain in total income due to electrification can be as much as 30 percent and as low as 9 percent. Benefits go up steadily as household exposure to grid electrification (measured by duration) increases and eventually reach a plateau. This paper also finds that rich households benefit more from electrification than poor households. Finally, estimates also show that income benefits of electrification on an average exceed cost by a wide margin.

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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105.78%
This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Indonesia : Toward Universal Access to Clean Cooking

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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85.75%
Indonesia's household cooking fuels have undergone a dramatic shift in recent years, owing primarily to the government's highly successful Kerosene-to- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Conversion Program; yet the impact in poorer rural areas has been limited. Switching to LPG, electricity, and other modern fuels would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking solutions, but these fuels are expensive, requiring costly stoves and delivery infrastructure that are beyond reach for most rural households. By contrast, many types of biomass can be freely collected from the local environment or purchased for significantly less than other fuels. Thus, large-scale fuel switching in rural areas is unlikely to occur until rural economies become substantially more developed. This means that an estimated 40 percent of households will continue to rely on traditional biomass energy, especially fuel wood, to meet their daily cooking needs for years to come. This report is structured according to the directional organization of the study. Chapter two presents an overview of household cooking fuels in Indonesia...

Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in Sub-Saharan Africa

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.8%
In declaring 2012 the 'International Year of Sustainable Energy for All,' the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services, to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990-2010 (SE4ALL 2012). The SE4ALL objectives are global, with individual countries setting their own national targets in a way that is consistent with the overall spirit of the initiative. Because countries differ greatly in their ability to pursue the three objectives, some will make more rapid progress in one area while others will excel elsewhere, depending on their respective starting points and comparative advantages as well as on the resources and support that they are able to marshal. To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International energy agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF)...

Solar-diesel Hybrid Options for the Peruvian Amazon : Lessons Learned from Padre Cocha

Wang, Xianodong; Vallvé, Xavier
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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85.75%
Seven million Peruvians - 23 percent of the country's population - lack access to modern energy services. Most of these residents are located in the Peruvian Amazon, where 95 percent of people have no electricity supply. In the sparsely populated department of Loreto, Peru's vast northernmost region, more than one-third of residents lack access to energy services which could generate income and foster economic activity.

Latin America and the Caribbean Region Energy Sector : Retrospective Review and Challenges

Byer, Trevor; Crousillat, Enrique; Dussan, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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95.76%
During the 90s, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR) supported by the World Bank, implemented a market-oriented reform in the energy sector to promote competition, economic regulation and greater private sector participation, as the main instruments to improve the quality, reliability and efficiency of energy services, and improve the government's fiscal position and increase affordable access to modern energy services for the poor. This report comprises an assessment of the energy sector reform in the region: its achievements, difficulties, lessons learnt and current status; an assessment of the future needs of the energy sector investment and financing requirements, constraints, and challenges; and a review of the role of development agencies in supporting the region's energy needs. The study is not a systematic analysis of the reform experience and needs of individual countries, which is not deemed necessary to define an energy strategy for the region, but rather an analysis of the main themes that are common to most countries...

Energy Access and Productive Uses for the Urban Poor : Final Report on Ghana Scoping Study

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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105.87%
The aim of the scoping study was to gain an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern energy services and income generation from productive activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development - Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to create and sustain a network of energy practitioners to support development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) as users and providers of modern energy services for slum upgrading programs.'. Using ability to adopt safer and modern energy forms as a criterion in assessing the effective deployment of safer and modern energy forms, the study concluded that the high propensity to save is an opportunity for their deployment if they can be sensitized about the benefits of using modern energy forms, which many of the slum dwellers are not aware of. Most enterprise owners could also capitalize on the credit policies of the financial institutions they saved with to adopt the modern energy forms. Lack of education and limited awareness about the benefits of using clean...

China : Accelerating Household Access to Clean Cooking and Heating

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.78%
The China Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a collaborative effort of the Chinese government and the World Bank, aims to scale up access to clean cooking and heating stoves for poor, primarily rural households, who are likely to continue using solid fuels beyond 2030. More than half of China's population still relies on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating; many of these households, located mainly in rural areas, are likely to continue using solid fuels in the near future. Switching to modern energy alternatives would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking and heating solutions and should be encouraged; yet such fuels are more expensive than solid fuels, requiring more costly stoves and delivery infrastructure. Effective strategies to scale up the dissemination of clean burning, fuel-efficient stoves for household cooking and heating can mitigate the health hazards associated with the burning of solid fuels. It is estimated that Household Air Pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use results in more than a million premature deaths each year in China. Scaled-up access to clean and efficient stoves is consistent with China's strategy to promote energy conservation...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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125.92%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...