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Trends in Household Coverage of Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Diallo, Amadou; Foster, Vivien; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.17%
Household surveys have long been used to estimate poverty and inequality trends, as well as trends in education and health indicators, but they have not been used to the same extent to assess trends in the access to or coverage of modern infrastructure services. In this paper, we use Demographic and Health Surveys from a larger sample of sub-Saharan African countries in order to collect comparable information across countries on coverage of piped water, flush toilets, electricity, and landline telephones over time. The results suggest that coverage rates for electricity, flush toilets have improved slightly over the last decade. Coverage of piped water has declined, at the same time as coverage of landline (as well as cellular) telephone has increased rapidly. The decline has been primarily in the urban areas while the infrastructure coverage has either increased or remained stable in rural Africa. For all four services, among the poorest households coverage remains virtually inexistent. If business as usual continues...

How "Natural" are Natural Monopolies in the Water Supply and Sewerage Sector? Case Studies from Developing and Transition Economies

Nauges, Céline; van den Berg, Caroline
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.19%
Using data from the International Benchmarking NETwork database, the authors estimate measures of density and scale economies in the water industry in four countries (Brazil, Colombia, Moldova, and Vietnam) that differ substantially in economic development, piped water and sewerage coverage, and characteristics of the utilities operating in the different countries. They find evidence of economies of scale in Colombia, Moldova, and Vietnam, implying the existence of a natural monopoly. In Brazil the authors cannot reject the 0 hypothesis of constant returns to scale. They also find evidence of economies of customer density in Moldova and Vietnam. The results of this study show that the cost structure of the water and wastewater sector varies significantly between countries and within countries, and over time, which has implications for how to regulate the sector.

Output-Based Aid in Morocco (Part 1) : Extending Water Services to the Poor in Urban Areas

Beauchêne, Xavier Chauvot de
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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55.99%
Morocco is a middle-income country with good water infrastructure that provides access to safe drinking water and sanitation to the majority of the urban population. In 2005, Morocco made it a priority to extend service to poor peri-urban settlements, and encouraged operators and local governments to reduce connection fees for their inhabitants. These connection fees had been priced at marginal cost, which represented a major obstacle for poor populations to connect to piped service. The government and the operators of water utilities in Casablanca, Meknes, and Tangiers consequently requested a grant from the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) to pilot the introduction of performance-based subsidies to encourage service expansion under an innovative output-based aid (OBA) approach. Initial results show that this approach is helping to refocus service provision on household demand, which has increased accountability, strengthened partnerships between local authorities and operators, and made monitoring of service delivery a priority. The World Bank is now working with the government to plan a scale-up program.

Using Credit Ratings to Improve Water Utility Access to Market Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa

Advani, Rajesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.04%
Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) is working to leverage domestic private sector expertise and resources to deliver services that benefit the poor. The aim is to help an estimated 1.5 million poor people gain sustained access to improved water supply and sanitation services and leverage over US$80 million in investments by donors, governments, and the domestic private sector through three main activity lines: building water and sanitation business models for the poor; public-private partnerships in non-traditional markets; and, banking the unbanked water and sanitation providers. Encouraging creditworthy utilities to finance a portion of their investment program using commercial debt will improve the allocation of public funds for investment. Taking steps to address performance issues that hinder access to credit could see significantly more investment in water by the private sector, resulting in improved access in urban areas.

Access, Affordability, and Alternatives : Modern Infrastructure Services in Africa

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Wodon, Quentin; Diallo, Amadou; Pushak, Taras; Uddin, Helal; Tsimpo, Clarence; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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55.88%
Africa lags well behind other developing regions in infrastructure access. The limited gains of the 1990s have not increased much in the 2000s. There is clear evidence that many countries are failing to expand services fast enough to keep ahead of rapid demographic growth and even faster urbanization. As a result, if present trends continue, Africa is likely to lag even further behind other developing regions, and universal access will be more than 50 years away in many countries. However, there is variation in performance across countries, even within the low and middle income brackets. A significant number of countries have succeeded in increasing the number of people who have access to water, electricity, and sanitation, by an annual average of 5-10 percent. Further investigation is warranted to explain what determines the superior performance of these countries.

Global Expeiences on Expanding Water and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor : Accompanying Volume

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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56.27%
In 2006-07, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) initiated research to identify barriers to service delivery for the urban poor. The findings of the research have been presented in the Guidance Notes on Improving Water Supply and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor in India. The Urban Global Practice Team of WSP decided to expand the ambit of this research to a global context as the learnings were relevant to experiences across Africa, Latin America, and East Asia and the Pacific. The Guidance Notes are based on an in-depth research of various initiatives from across the world (including South Asian, African, Latin American, and East Asian and the Pacific countries) and consultations with urban poor communities. The present volume is a documentation of this research and supports the Guidance Notes on Services for the Urban Poor. Section 1 of this report consists of 19 case studies. Section 2 describes consultations with urban poor communities. The main aim of the consultations was to record the issues they confronted related to water supply and sanitation.

Approaches to Conducting Political Economy Analysis in the Urban Water Sector

Manghee, Seema; Poole, Alice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.15%
Progress in urban water supply and sanitation has been slow over the past few decades. The sector suffers from issues of equity and efficiency. Today, more than 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of water, and 2.5 billion lack improved sanitation. Those average figures mask huge disparities between the rich and the poor, the poor consistently have less access to reliable services than the non-poor. Even those who do have networked service often suffer from irregular service and poorly maintained infrastructure. A search of more than 12,000 observations on the water utility benchmarking website, the International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET), indicates that 37 percent of water utilities in the developing world do not even cover operations and maintenance costs from their internal revenue. Overall, political economy analysis provides a practical and useful operational tool that World Bank task team leaders and other urban water specialists can employ in their sector and project work.

Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009

Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell; van Ginneken, Meike
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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56.2%
This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the factors affecting the efficiency of use of resources, and makes recommendations. Water supply includes the supply, distribution, and usage of water for drinking, food preparation, and hygiene. Sanitation is defined as the sanitary disposal of liquid waste and the promotion of hygienic practices. The review covers the period from 2002 to 2009, a period of reconstructing after a decade of upheavals. Since 2002, democracy and a stable environment for development have been re-established in the country, especially since the 2007 presidential elections. Sierra Leone remains one of the poorest countries in the world.

Does Infrastructure Reform Work for the Poor? A Case Study on the Cities of La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia

Vivien Foster; Osvaldo Irusta
Fonte: World Publicador: World
Português
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46.25%
From 1994 onward, Bolivia undertook a major reform of its infrastructure sectors. The authors examine the impact of the reforms from the perspective of poor households in the adjacent cities of La Paz and El Alto, particularly in terms of access to services. Different policies adopted across the infrastructure sectors led to diverging outcomes. In the water and sewerage sector, the concessionaire was placed under legal obligation to meet connection targets in low income neighborhoods, while customers were given the facility to spread payment of connection charges over a two year period and opt for a lower cost "condominial connection." As a result the rate of expansion of services increased by 70 percent relative to the pre-reform period. In the telecommunications sector, fixed and cellular services tell very different stories. On the one hand, fixed line services remained inaccessible to the poor due to the membership fee of US$1,500 charged by the cooperative, or the alternative nonmember option of paying a US$23 monthly rental fee. On the other hand...

East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : A Call for Action

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.27%
This study summarizes the main challenges to scaling up access to sustainable sanitation services in the urban areas of three countries in the East Asia and Pacific region-Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam-and proposes the main steps these countries need to take to redress the status quo. The report is divided into four chapters. The first chapter provides an overview of the current level and quality of access to urban sanitation in the region. The second chapter examines the causes leading to the current state of urban sanitation, using four thematic areas: people, technology, institutions and finance. The third chapter identifies those factors that need to be in place to trigger a different way of doing business in the sector and that may ultimately lead to transformational changes. The final chapter proposes recommendations on how countries can upgrade and scale up urban sanitation services.

How Access to Urban Potable Water and Sewerage Connections Affects Child Mortality

Shi, Anqing
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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66.23%
Using a city-level database of global Urban Indicators, the author finds that: 1) Improved access to urban potable water and sewerage connections is consistently associated with low child mortality. 2) Government involvement in providing water services, especially locally, significantly reduces child mortality. 3) Private or parastatal participation in providing sewerage connections is associated with low child mortality. $) Rapid urban growth and high levels of poverty within the city are correlated with high child mortality.

Kyrgyz Republic; Insights on Household Access to Water Supply and Sanitation

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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66.12%
This note has been prepared as part of the work program on multi-dimensional poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic to raise awareness of poverty dimensions, which in turn should help accelerate the development of water supply and sanitation services, and necessary reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic. The note analyzes the quality and reliability of the Integrated Households Survey (KIHS) data to measure access to water supply and sanitation services. The household survey was conducted by the National Statistics Committee (NSC) of the Kyrgyz Republic. It is representative at the national, rural/urban, and oblast levels. Using survey data we analyze the consumption of water supply and sanitation services at the household level with a focus on access, quality, and expenditures.

The Future of Water in African Cities : Why Waste Water? Urban Access to Water Supply and Sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Background Report

Dominguez Torres, Carolina
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
The main purpose of this paper is to explain the patterns of access to water supply and sanitation facilities in urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa since the late 90's, and its relation with the performance of service providers in the case of improved water supply. It also seeks to explore the institutional context of the water supply and sanitation sectors. The paper concludes that services providers in Sub-Saharan Africa have been unable to keep up with urban population growth. Service providers are overwhelmed by the pace of urban population growth as they face high distributional losses, low billing collection, overstaffing, and under recovery of costs. The institutional frameworks are yet to be completed as there is vast political inference in service provision and regulation, as well as obstacles for effectively undertake public private partnerships. The paper is organized as follows. Section one presents definitions of water supply sources and sanitation, as well as the sources of data used for the analysis. Section two discusses the current and projected trends of urbanization...

Situation Analysis : Sanitation Scenario in Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh

More, Pravin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Excreta and wastewater contain high concentrations of pathogens. Poor excreta and wastewater handling and disposal leads to excreted pathogens entering the environment. This coupled with lack of adequate personal and domestic hygiene; in-sanitary conditions at community level and discharge of untreated wastewater pose high risk to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.2 million people die annually from diarrheal diseases and that 10 percent of the population of the developing world are severely infected with intestinal worms related to improper waste and excreta management (WHO 2000). Improving access to sanitation facilities and management of liquid waste continues to be a major challenge for all ULBs in India. According to census 2001, about 285 million people (54.79 million households) lived in urban areas. Nearly 26 percent of these households lacked access to sanitation facilities (and most were forced to defecate in the open). In the same year, 32 percent of 2.79 million urban households in Madhya Pradesh lacked access to sanitation facilities. Madhya Pradesh...

India : Municipal Financing Requirements - Water, Sewerage, and Solid Waste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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56.08%
This report presents the main results from cost models that were developed as an input to the High Powered Expert Committee on Urban Development in order to estimate the investment, operations, and maintenance requirements for urban water, sanitation and municipal solid waste in India. The cost models are designed as tools that allow linking the various building blocks of the cost estimation to one another, and tests the impact of the main model assumptions on the overall investment requirements. A cross-country comparison is also conducted to benchmark the key service standards adopted in the models against international experience. The report addresses the challenge of India's fast growing urban population and the high backlog in urban service delivery. Infrastructure deficits in urban areas are large and growing. Universal water access for urban population in India has yet to be realized. The report uses the cost models to discuss India's municipal financing needs, urban water supply services, urban sewerage services...

Colombia - Expanding Services to Low-Income Areas Comparing Private and Public Water Utilities

Sotomayor, Maria Angelica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
Colombia is one of the most active Latin American countries in incorporating private sector participation (PSP) in managing water utilities. One of the community's main concerns is that reforms that treat water and sanitation services as an economic asset rather than as a social good and that allow providers to apply commercial (profit-oriented) criteria, may tend to restrict access to the services for low-income users, because they are not perceived as attractive business clients by private entrepreneurs. The government is embarking on a water sector modernization program whose strategy is to promote PSP in water utilities. One of its objectives is to expand and improve the provision of services to the poor, so it was considered necessary to find out if the common perception of the population and the concern of the community that the private sector focuses on providing good services to the wealthy and neglects the poor, is anchored in reality and consistent with the performance of privatized utilities in Colombia. A study was carried out during project preparation to test this perception against actual experience.

Output-Based Aid in the Philippines : Improved Access to Water Services for Poor Households in Metro Manila

Menzies, Iain; Suardi, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
This project aims to provide access to water services through individual household connections to several low-income communities in Rizal province (Antipolo City, Baras, Rodriguez, and San Mateo) and Taguig city in the Manila Metropolitan region through collaboration with the concessionaire for Manila's east zone, the Manila Water Company (MWC). The GPOBA intervention supports Manila Water's flagship program, launched in 1998, the 'Water for the Community' or Tubig Para sa Barangay (TPSB) program, which provides a regular supply of clean, safe, and affordable drinking water to the urban poor. The scheme builds on the successful track record of the TPSB program and seeks to speed up rollout of individual connections to poor households through one-time subsidies to cover the cost of the connection fee.

Africa's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure : Access, Affordability, and Alternatives

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Morella, Elvira
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD) has produced continent-wide analysis of many aspects of Africa's infrastructure challenge. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa's Infrastructure: a time for transformation, published in November 2009. Meant for policy makers, that report necessarily focused on the high-level conclusions. It attracted widespread media coverage feeding directly into discussions at the 2009 African Union Commission Heads of State Summit on Infrastructure. Although the flagship report served a valuable role in highlighting the main findings of the project, it could not do full justice to the richness of the data collected and technical analysis undertaken. There was clearly a need to make this more detailed material available to a wider audience of infrastructure practitioners. Hence the idea of producing four technical monographs, such as this one, to provide detailed results on each of the major infrastructure sectors, information and communication technologies (ICT)...

Uganda - Environmental Sanitation : Addressing Institutional and Financial Challenges

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Over the past 10 years the government of Uganda has endeavored to increase latrine coverage and promote hygiene with a view to improving health outcomes. In 1997, in the Kampala declaration for sanitation, leaders from all of Uganda's districts pledged to improve sanitation. Then in 2001, three ministries, the Ministry of Water, Lands, and Environment; the Ministry of Education and Sports; and the Ministry of Health, signed a memorandum of understanding to clarify institutional responsibilities with respect to sanitation and hygiene and to improve implementation at the district and local levels. The three ministries agreed to put in place institutional arrangements to prioritize resources for excreta-related sanitation and hygiene programs. Although the main focus of this report is on excreta-related sanitation and hygiene, the 2006 joint sector review for water and sanitation also requested clarification of existing mandates for two specific aspects of environmental sanitation, namely solid waste management and drainage and asked whether these two issues should be included in the memorandum. Accordingly...

Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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55.75%
Urbanization is the single most important transformation that the African continent will undergo this century. More than half of Africa's population will live in its cities by 2040. In the face of rapid urbanization, there is a narrow window of opportunity to harness the potential of cities as engines of economic growth, and use this as a powerful leverage to achieve sustainable development and poverty reduction. Despite its rapid urban growth, Africa is less than halfway through the urbanization process and in some countries, a large number of people reside in rural areas. Rapid urbanization, if well managed, can curb urban sprawl, deteriorating access to services, greater inequality, and increased crime. The concentration of people in cities also elevates the risks and costs associated with extreme weather and natural disasters resulting from climate change. The World Bank Group's (WBGs) support will focus on three key areas: metropolitan areas and large cities; secondary and tertiary cities; and informal settlements. This will include both multi-sectoral investment programs that integrate a basket of services (for example...