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Access to tuberculosis diagnosis in Itaborai City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the patient`s point of view

MOTTA, M. C. S.; VILLA, T. C. S.; GOLUB, J.; KRITSKI, A. L.; RUFFINO-NETTO, A.; SILVA, D. F.; HARTER, R. G.; SCATENA, L. M.
Fonte: INT UNION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS LUNG DISEASE (I U A T L D) Publicador: INT UNION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS LUNG DISEASE (I U A T L D)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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65.63%
SETTING: Itaborai Municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate access to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for users of the Family Health Program (FHP) and Reference Ambulatory Units (RAUs). DESIGN : A cross-sectional study was conducted in Itaborai City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between July and October 2007, a sample of 100 TB patients registered consecutively with the TB Control Program was interviewed using the primary care assessment tool. The two highest scores, describing `almost always` and `always`, or `good` and `very good`, were used as a cut-off point to define high quality access to diagnosis. RESULTS: FHP patients were older and had less education than RAU interviewees. Sex and overcrowding did not differ in the two groups. Patient groups did not differ with regard to the number of times care was sought at a unit, transport problems, cost of attending units and availability of consultation within 24 h. Adequate access to diagnosis was identified by 62% of the FHP patients and 53% of the RAU patients (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In Itaborai, Rio de Janeiro, TB patients believe that the FHP units provide greater access to TB diagnosis than RAUs. These findings will be used by the Department of Health to improve access to diagnosis in Itaborai.; International Clinical...

Why Does the Productivity of Education Vary across Individuals in Egypt? Firm Size, Gender, and Access to Technology as Sources of Heterogeneity in Returns to Education

Herrera, Santiago; Badr, Karim
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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65.74%
The paper estimates the rates of return to investment in education in Egypt, allowing for multiple sources of heterogeneity across individuals. The paper finds that, in the period 1998-2006, returns to education increased for workers with higher education, but fell for workers with intermediate education levels; the relative wage of illiterate workers also fell in the period. This change can be explained by supply and demand factors. On the supply side, the number workers with intermediate education, as well as illiterate ones, outpaced the growth of other categories joining the labor force during the decade. From the labor demand side, the Egyptian economy experienced a structural transformation by which sectors demanding higher-skilled labor, such as financial intermediation and communications, gained importance to the detriment of agriculture and construction, which demand lower-skilled workers. In Egypt, individuals are sorted into different educational tracks, creating the first source of heterogeneity: those that are sorted into the general secondary-university track have higher returns than those sorted into vocational training. Second...

Options to Increase Access to Telecommunications Services in Rural and Low-Income Areas

Muente-Kunigami, Arturo; Navas-Sabater, Juan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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65.76%
Recent evidence suggests that increasing overall service coverage and promoting access to telecommunications services have a high economic benefit. Overall, it is estimated that a ten percent increase in mobile telephony penetration could increase economic growth by 0.81 percent in developing countries, whereas a ten percent increase in broadband penetration could increase economic growth by 1.4 percent. In rural and low-income areas in particular, not only do basic telephony services and broadband access allow population to connect with relatives and friends, but they have also introduced a dramatic increase in productivity and in many cases have become the only way for small and medium enterprises in rural areas to access national and, in some cases, global markets. Moreover, the impact of access to telecommunications in rural areas on health, education, disaster management, and local governments has allowed better and more rapid responses, improved coordination, and more effective public management. It is therefore worthwhile to take a second look at all possible policy options...

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : South Africa Country Report

Isaacs, Shafika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In all the different facets of the ICTs for education prism, South Africa boasts more than a decade of accumulated experience from its wide range of projects and programs pioneered by noteworthy champions across the stakeholder spectrum of communities, the private sector, civil society, donor, development, and government agencies. A variety of tested models on ICT access, digital content development, teacher training and professional development, optimal usage, partnerships, and resource mobilization have encouraged significant learning among innovators, practitioners, and policymakers. The scale of all these interventions to date has led to at least 22 percent computer penetration in all public schools. While South Africa has a policy on e-education only for the schools and Further Education and Training (FET) college sectors...

Equity, Access to Health Care Services and Expenditures on Health in Nicaragua

Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Cortez, Rafael; Tanabe, Kimie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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65.64%
Nicaragua has embarked on an ambitious health sector program, which has contributed to significant progress in the health sector over the past decade. Health indicators show gradual but steady improvements: access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation facilities has improved, as have other related performance indicators such as life expectancy, infant/child mortality, immunization rates, and child nutrition among others. Despite these achievements, there are still large inequities in access and quality of health services across socioeconomic groups and regions. Poor individuals living in rural areas (especially in the Central and Atlantic regions), the indigenous population, and individuals living in households engaged in agriculture have average access to health care services and preventive care. The lack of risk mitigation mechanisms such as insurance and social security is causing users in Nicaragua to spend, out-of-pocket, a significant share of their income on health care, especially to buy medications and other non-consultation items such as medical tests. Long distances...

Decentralized Energy Services to Fight Poverty : Outcome Driven Engagement of Small and Medium-size Enterprises in the Provision of Energy Services in IDA Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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55.84%
The Department for International Development (DFID)-Funded Energy Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Program was created to support SMEs by helping countries unblock the factors that prevent their potential in the delivery of energy services. With thirteen energy projects in twelve countries and one regional program in Africa, the implementation of the program started considerably slower than expected but has demonstrated potential to make an impact in a relatively neglected area of delivering energy services to the poor. Lack of access to sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy affects as much as 90 percent of the population of many developing countries. Some 2 billion people are without electricity; a similar number remain dependent on fuels such as animal dung, crop residues, wood, and charcoal to cook their daily meals. Widespread inefficient production and use of traditional energy sources, such as fuel-wood and agricultural residues, pose economic, environmental, and health threats. Uneven distribution and use of modern energy sources, such as electricity, petroleum products, and liquefied or compressed natural gas, pose important issues of economics, equity, and quality of life. The Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) Energy SME program focused on off-grid electrification and biomass use as many communities and households that have yet to be electrified are relatively isolated...

Improving Energy Access to the Urban Poor in Developing Countries

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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65.66%
The case studies documented in this report aim to inform the energy access community (including practitioners, civil society groups, project planners, end users) about best practices of successful energy access initiatives targeted at slum dwellers. Eight case studies focusing on electrification and household energy were selected from India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Brazil, all countries that have had varying success in providing access to modern energy services for slum dwellers. The cases had to meet all or some of the following criteria: 1) limited to developing countries; 2) demonstrate innovative methods of improving energy access, including collaborative stakeholder engagement; 3) at least one example of small local energy service providers; 4) contributed to community development by promoting local skill development and income generation; and 5) representative of electricity and different sources of household energy. The case studies describe the existing conditions in the slum, type of energy service provided...

Women Managers and the Gender-Based Gap in Access to Education

Amin, Mohammad; Islam, Asif
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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65.78%
Several studies explore the differences in men’s and women’s labor market participation rates and wages. Some of these differences have been linked to gender disparities in education attainment and access. The present paper contributes to this literature by analyzing the relationship between the proclivity of a firm to have a female top manager and access to education among women relative to men in the country. The paper combines the literature on women’s careers in management, which has mostly focused on developed countries, with the development literature that has emphasized the importance of access to education. Using firm-level data for 73 developing countries, the analysis finds strong evidence that countries with a higher proportion of female top managers also have higher enrollment rates for women relative to men in primary, secondary, and tertiary education.

The Impact of Expanding Access to Early Childhood Services in Rural Indonesia

Brinkman, Sally Anne; Hasan, Amer; Jung, Haeil; Kinnell, Angela; Pradhan, Menno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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65.65%
This paper uses three waves of longitudinal data to examine the impact of expanding access to preschool services in rural areas of Indonesia on two cohorts of children. One cohort was children aged 4 at the start of the project and was immediately eligible for project-provided services when they began operation in 2009. The other cohort was children aged 1 at the start of the project and became eligible for project-provided services two years later. The paper presents intent-to-treat estimates of impact in the short term (first year of the project) and medium term (three years after the project started), using experimental and quasi-experimental methods. For the cohort of 4-year-olds, while the magnitude of the enrollment impact is similar across children from different backgrounds, the impact on child outcomes is larger for children from more disadvantaged backgrounds in the short and medium terms. However, for this cohort of children, it seems that project-provided playgroups encouraged substitution away from existing kindergartens...

The Impact of Private Sector Internship and Training on Urban Youth in Kenya

Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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55.85%
This study uses a randomized experiment to evaluate the impacts of the training and internship program piloted in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu counties by the Kenya Private Sector Alliance and the Government of Kenya with support from the World Bank’s Kenya Youth Empowerment Project. The program provided three months of classroom-based technical training coupled with three months of internships in private firms to vulnerable youths between ages 15 and 29 years, with vulnerable being defined as those out of school and/or with no permanent job. The analysis in this paper is based on survey data collected before the program started (July 2012) and 15 months after the program ended (July 2014). The results of the impact evaluation show that the program has been successful in placing youths in paid jobs and has contributed to an increase of 15 percent in current employment among male participants. The evaluation also found that the program has had positive effects on wage earnings, especially those of females and among older males...

Dual Credit Markets and Household Access to Finance; Evidence from a Representative Chinese Household Survey

Cull, Robert; Gan, Li; Gao, Nan; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Policy Research Working Paper; Publications Research
Português
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65.67%
Using a new and representative data set of Chinese household finance, this paper documents household access to and costs of finance, along with their correlates. As in most developing countries, informal finance is a crucial element of household finance, and wealth tends to be associated with better access to formal and informal finance. Better financial knowledge shifts loan portfolios toward formal sources relative to informal ones. Connections to the Communist Party are associated with significantly better access to finance in rural areas but not in urban areas. A larger social network is positively associated with access to informal finance. Controlling for household characteristics, rural residents pay interest rates on loans similar to urban residents. Younger residents pay higher rates, while households on firmer economic footing face lower rates. Taking financial classes and college education is associated with higher interest rates for urban residents, suggesting perhaps that financial knowledge coincides with greater demand for credit in areas with more economic opportunity. Overall...

The Illusion of Inclusion : Women's Access to Rights in Northern Kenya

Ayuko, Bonita; Chopra, Tanja
Fonte: World Bank, Nairobi Publicador: World Bank, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Law and Justice Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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65.7%
This paper shows how official laws concerning justice for women, can be difficult to apply when they are not socially acknowledged, contextualized, or received, and therefore have minimal impact on women's lives. It demonstrates that the inclusion of women through international conventions, domestic legal reform, and gender quotas in participatory processes, is illusory. While these are all important instruments in women's empowerment, the paper calls upon access to justice practitioners and policy makers to place equal emphasis on fostering the practical implementation of laws and to emphasize opportunities for increased equality in informal systems.

A Good Start--Scaling-Up Access to Quality Services for Young Roma Children : Case Study of the Roma Education Fund Pilot Project

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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65.72%
This report is a case study of the Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) project 'a good start: scaling-up access to quality services for young Roma children' (hereafter, 'A Good Start' or 'AGS'), implemented by local partner organizations of the Roma Education Fund. It follows the companion report 'toward an equal start: closing the Early Learning Gap for Roma Children in Eastern Europe' (World Bank, 2012), which provided an assessment of the preschool and early learning gap between Roma and their non-Roma neighboring children using the UNDP/World Bank/EC regional Roma survey (2012) data. The objective of this report is to learn from the practical experiences by the AGS project and thus to provide practical insights for policy makers and program managers designing Early childhood and care services promoting inclusion of Roma children and their families. The annex at the end of this case study provides an overview of some other practical resources. By no means a comprehensive list, it includes information on early childhood education and care training materials and projects...

Ready for Growth : Solutions to Increase Access to Finance for Women-Owned Businesses in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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75.75%
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is at one of the most critical turning points in its modern history. The Arab spring was driven by the desire for economic opportunity and justice in the face of poverty and unemployment. The development of strong economies that enable both women and men to enhance their livelihoods is crucial for the future of the region. The growth and success of women-owned businesses is one of the most profound changes in the business world today. There is no doubt that women are an emerging market force. However, many businesswomen are not accessing commercial credit, an essential driver of business success. Lack of access to finance and financial services is repeatedly identified as the major constraint for women business owners. This report 'ready for growth: solutions to increase access to finance for women-owned business in the Middle East and North Africa', is designed to shed a light on those barriers. It is the result of a unique International Finance Corporation (IFC) partnership with vital voices and the Middle East and North Africa Businesswomen's Network (MENA BWN). Its purpose is to fill a critical gap in our knowledge of what women-owned businesses need in terms of financial products and services. Building on our knowledge of how commercial banks currently reach the women's market...

Kenya : Reaching the Poor through the Private Sector, A Network Model for Expanding Access to Reproductive Health Services

Montagu, Dominic; Prata, Ndola; Campbell, Martha M.; Walsh, Julia; Orero, Salomon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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65.59%
This study, carried out in the summer of 2003, measured the effectiveness of a Kenyan program dedicated to increasing the availability of reproductive health services to the poor through training and networking of private medical providers. The Kisumu Medical and Educational Trust (KMET) program focuses on family planning services and encourages providers to add these services to the normal range of consultations, commodity sales, and clinical care they already provide. The central question addressed in this study is whether it is possible to offer reproductive health services through a network of private sector, for-profit providers without exacerbating inequity in access to these services.. The study also looked at a pool of potential clients of KMET members to evaluate which wealth group benefits from the subsidy given to private providers through KMET. And finally, an analysis of actual KMET clients was used to better understand the program's success in providing quality reproductive health care.

The Right Skills for the Job? Rethinking Training Policies for Workers

Almeida, Rita; Behrman, Jere; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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65.77%
This book addresses the question of how to build and upgrade job relevant skills. Specifically, the authors focus on three types of training programs relevant for individuals who are leaving formal general schooling or are already in the labor market: pre-employment technical and vocational education and training (TVET); on-the-job training (OJT); and training-related active labor market programs (ALMPs). ALMPs are usually of shorter duration and target individuals who are seeking a second chance and who do not have access to TVET or OJT; these are often low-skilled unemployed or informal workers. Contrary to training-related ALMPs, pre-employment TVET is usually offered within the formal schooling track and tends to be administered by the ministries of education. The book discusses the main justifications for these programs and how they relate to market failures that can lead to underinvestment in training and misalignment between supply and demand for skills. Unfortunately, governments are also prone to failure and many of the programs that countries have adopted today are part of the problem and not the solution. This book proposes options to improve the design and implementation of current skills development systems. Clearly, the authors cannot cover all issues in detail. Training methods among TVET...

FYR Macedonia Gender Diagnostic : Gaps in Endowments, Access to Economic Opportunities and Agency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia has closed several gaps in gender inequalities, particularly in education and health, but key disparities persist in access to economic opportunities and agency, particularly among certain ethnic groups. This report provides an overview of gender disparities in several outcomes related to human and physical endowments, access to economic opportunities, and agency. In addition, it offers potential explanations of these gaps and, in the process, identifies knowledge gaps to be addressed in future research. On average, FYR Macedonia has achieved gender equality in health and in education; however, gender disparities persist for certain population subgroups. However, women are more likely than men to choose general programs or social sciences as their primary field of education. Both men and women are unlikely to undertake additional training following their initial education, but each for different reasons: women are more likely than men to cite family obligations as a key factor in this decision (19 percent of women compared to 1.5 percent of men) as women devote a much larger percentage of their time to domestic activities. In addition...

An Assessment of Skills in the Formal Sector Labor Market in Bangladesh : A Technical Report on the Enterprise-Based Skills Survey 2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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55.86%
Education and skill development have played a crucial role in economic growth, poverty reduction and social transformation in Bangladesh, particularly the inclusion of women in the labor force in the last decade. Bangladesh has made impressive gains in improving access to education, reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of gender parity at the primary and secondary levels. Increased access to secondary education among girls over the past twenty years appears to have produced a powerful agent of social mobility as it is likely that many of the young girls who benefitted from the female stipends in the early 90s have now entered the labor market and may be enjoying higher earnings than older female cohorts. The widespread entry of women into the labor market has been a leading factor in the rapid expansion of the garment industry. With around USD 15 billion in export value in 2010, the readymade garment industry is currently Bangladesh's most important industry sector (McKinsey and Company 2011). In this context...

Moldova : Gender Disparities in Endowments and Access to Economic Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.59%
This assessment provides a broad picture of gender disparities in Moldova in agency, education, health, and access to economic opportunities. The gender gap in education is small, yet it is greatest at higher levels of education. Moldova's health indicators are significantly underperforming compared to other Europe and Central Asia (ECA) countries, and male mortality is of greatest concern. Violence against women is one of the most frequent forms of human rights violations and is widely accepted by both women and men. Male and female labor force participation rates are low, and the gender gap is small. Moldova has one of the highest rates of human trafficking among neighboring countries and is primarily a source country. This paper is structured as follows: chapter one discusses factors which may shape the process of how men and women use their endowments and utilize economic opportunities. Chapter two covers human development disaggregated by gender, focusing on education and health. Chapter three examines the gender gap in employment and opportunities...

Acesso à Justiça em um projeto de extensão universitária – um estudo da conciliação extrajudicial na resolução de conflitos e mudança cultural; Access to Justice in a University Extension Project A Study of Extrajudicial Conciliation in Conflict Resolution and Cultural Change

Pádua, Idiene Aparecida Vitor Proença; Oliveira, Paulo de Tarso
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão Universitária Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Pró-Reitoria de Cultura e Extensão Universitária
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2015 Português
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65.59%
This article addresses the university extension in an experiment conducted in 2012 by academics and professionals in Office Social Legal School “Desembargador Ranulfo de Melo Freire”, Course of Law FESP-UEMG, campus Passos. The university, as well as a center of knowledge production, must assume their social responsibility, acting, to the possible extent, in meeting the essential needs of society, aiming at reducing inequality, promoting citizenship. However, the development of a region hardly happens in full form when there is an environment of unresolved conflicts. Although access to justice is a constitutionally guaranteed right, it is seen a deficiency in its realization. Thus found to be important policies of university initiative promoting the restoration of social peace through legal assistance and other alternative means of dispute resolution. The aim of this study is to analyze the PAIJUS program, which brings a proposal for cultural change and its consequences for human development and realization of the right to access to justice. The methodology used includes literature review, document analysis and semi-structured interview. The theoretical framework developed was based primarily in the thoughts of, among others, Buarque...