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Afghanistan : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes - Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
This report is based on a review of the strengths and weaknesses of corporate accounting and auditing practices in Afghanistan. It forms part of a joint initiative between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC), which covers a set of twelve internationally recognized core standards and codes relevant to economic stability and private and financial sector development. The review involved the assessment of actual practices and an analysis of the effectiveness of monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, in the area of corporate accounting and auditing in Afghanistan. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) served as benchmarks for evaluating comparability of locally applicable accounting and auditing requirements. The review used a diagnostic template developed by the World Bank to facilitate collection of information. The information was complemented by the findings of a due diligence exercise...

Republic of Tunisia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Tunisia. The analysis of practices is based among others on the review of a sample of 16 financial statements prepared in accordance with Tunisian accounting standards, including 6 listed enterprise sector companies, 3 listed credit institutions and 3 insurance undertakings (of which 2 are listed). The assessment uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation. As Tunisia deepens its partnership with the EU and becomes more integrated in the world market, the country monitors the development of the acquis communautaire and enacts legislation that draws upon it. This report recommends changes to law and regulations to align the statutory framework with evolving internationally accepted practices. As the new regulations come into force, priorities will then turn toward building the monitoring, supervisory, and disciplinary regimes necessary to ensure effective compliance.

Restructuring Public Financial Management Institutional Arrangements : A Case for Separation of Accounting from Auditing Functions, Government of Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.35%
This Policy Note focuses on how the Government of Bangladesh can respond in the context of growing demand for better financial management performance, by strengthening the accounting and auditing functions of the government through a distinct cadre. The note also proposes the broader role of the accounting and auditing function in view of contemporary reform in the areas of public financial management and necessary institutional framework that needs to be in place before separation takes place. In addition to these, the note also provides the Government with updated information on the current state of the accounting function vis-a-vis the accounting and auditing cadre and the essential pre-requisites that would need to be addressed before full separation of the cadre is initiated. It sets out policy decisions that need to be taken on a priority basis to accelerate the separation process.

Lessons Learned from the World Bank’s Accounting and Auditing ROSC Program

Hegarty, John; Gielen, Frédéric; Hirata Baros, Ana Cristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This paper addresses challenges to the successful implementation of international accounting and auditing standards which have been observed by the World Bank when carrying out the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) accounting and auditing assessments. It describes the ROSC program, outlines the methodological approach followed, identifies problems common across several jurisdictions, and makes suggestions for initiatives that could enhance the implementation of international standards. The ROSC results show that governments have primarily concentrated on adopting legislation mandating or allowing the use of international standards, and the private sector has sought to increase the competence of individuals and firms to apply international standards. This paper provides an overview of the main program of Bank diagnostic work in the field of private sector financial reporting: (ROSC) It summarizes some of the main findings of the 38 assessments that have been carried out to date, with specific reference to the challenges to the successful implementation of international accounting and auditing standards. Attention is drawn to the need for international consensus on a comprehensive framework of principles for the regulation of accounting and auditing that also addresses issues of implementation...

Energy Accounting and Optimization for Mobile Systems

Dong, Mian
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multicore system like modern smartphones and tablets. This work provides the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offers the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. This work further provides a utility optimization formulation of energy management and shows, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). This work shows an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting...

Efectos de la reforma contable en los estados financieros consolidados de los grupos españoles que no aplican normativa NIIF al 1 de enero de 2008 y 2010; Effect of changes in accounting policies and criteria on consolidated financial statements among Spanish groups that did not apply the IFRS at 1 january 2008 and 2010

Legaz Ortiz, Javier
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
RESUMEN: En este trabajo se analiza el efecto de los cambios en las políticas y criterios contables sobre los estados financieros consolidados y sus ratios de gestión, a 1 de enero de 2008, de los grupos españoles no cotizados que no aplicaron las NIIF como consecuencia de la adaptación de la nueva normativa contable (PGC 2007). Con este objetivo, se examinaron las cuentas anuales consolidadas de los 100 mayores grupos españoles. Los resultados obtenidos ofrecen evidencia sobre la existencia de impactos significativos en la mayoría de las variables analizadas. Asimismo, el tamaño de los grupos no fue un factor diferenciador en los resultados, sin embargo, su sector de actividad si lo fue, en particular, el inmobiliario. Por consiguiente, el hecho de que el legislador permitiera no presentar información comparativa, opción aplicada mayoritariamente, puede considerarse una decisión que ha perjudicado a sus usuarios. Este mismo estudio se ha replicado al analizar, a 1 de enero de 2010, los efectos de la introducción de las nuevas Normas de Formulación de Cuentas Anuales Consolidadas, obteniendo impactos no significativos en la mayoría de las variables analizadas; ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the effect of changes in accounting policies and criteria on consolidated financial statements and management ratios...

El Salvador : Accounting and Auditing; El Salvador - Informe sobre el cumplimiento de normas y codigos (ROSC) : contabilidad y auditoria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within El Salvador's corporate sector. It used International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drew on international experience and good practices in those fields. Both statutory requirements and actual practices were analyzed as part of this review. The purpose of this ROSC is to assist the Government of El Salvador in strengthening the private sector's accounting and auditing practices and financial transparency. The development objectives these efforts address are (a) fostering the growth and accountability of the private sector, (b) ensuring adequate market regulation with respect to the provision of essential services, and (c) making the business environment more attractive for foreign direct investment (FDI). The recommendations of this ROSC are intended to serve as the basis for a country action plan to be developed by the Government of El Salvador in collaboration with in-country stakeholders and with the assistance of the World Bank and other donors.

Republic of Tajikistan : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This report describes the results of a ROSC assessment of the accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices of the Republic of Tajikistan's enterprise and financial sectors. The report assesses the quality of the Tajik financial reporting framework and makes policy recommendations for improvement. With a gross national income per capita of US$430, Tajikistan remains the poorest country in the former Soviet Union. Despite various reforms over the past several years, the business climate still lags behind other transition countries. Many of the country's problems stem from the 1992-1997 civil war, which so damaged the country's economic infrastructure that it precipitated a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Although there has been moderate domestic growth since 1997, real output is currently just over 50 percent of the 1989 level. The Republic of Tajikistan's small financial system is dominated by a few banks. The level of financial activity is among the lowest in the world...

Nepal - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing in Nepal is intended to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost- effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well- based knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Maldives - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing standards purpose is to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Maldives. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-based knowledge as to where local practices stand in comparison with internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. Annex A explains the methodology used for the study. Annex B provides a summary of international accounting and auditing standards referred to in this study. Annex C and D provide country accounting and auditing legislation, respectively. Lastly, Annex E includes a description of the benefits of accrual accounting.

Pakistan : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing is generally meant to help implement more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Pakistan and to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common, strongly-founded, knowledge as to where local practices stand against the internationally developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Bangladesh : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing for Bangladesh is meant generally to help implement more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Bangladesh and to provide greater stimulus for more cost effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand against the internationally developed norms of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Brazil : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes--Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) has been prepared under the Financial Sector Assessment Program in Brazil. The report assesses the status of implementation of 2005 ROSC A&A policy recommendations, highlights recent improvements in Brazil's corporate financial reporting framework, and sheds light on emerging issues regarding the institutional underpinnings of accounting and auditing practices that require further upgrading in line with international good practices. In addition to maintaining appropriate macroeconomic policies, there is an extensive agenda to implement wide ranging structural reforms to promote growth, increase productivity, and raise living standards. Brazil's low domestic savings and limited domestic long-term financing markets remain a major impediment to the investment in infrastructure that is required to sustain high economic growth. Given the increased role played by the financial system, especially as more families and businesses have access to banking credit and capital markets...

IFC Financials 2015; Private Sector Matters for Development

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Annual Report
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
International Finance Corporation (IFC or the Corporation) is the largest global development institution focused on the private sector in developing countries. The accounting and reporting policies of IFC conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (GAAP). IFC’s accounting policies are discussed in more detail in Section VI, Critical Accounting Policies, and in Note A to IFC’s Consolidated Financial Statements as of and for the year ended June 30, 2015 (FY15 Consolidated Financial Statements). Management uses Income available for designations (Allocable Income) (a non-GAAP measure) as a basis for designations of retained earnings. Allocable Income generally comprises net income excluding net unrealized gains and losses on equity investments and net unrealized gains and losses on non-trading financial instruments accounted for at fair value, income from consolidated entities other than AMC, and expenses reported in net income related to prior year designations.

Nicaragua : A Review of Accounting and Auditing Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This ROSC analyzes accounting, financial reporting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Nicaragua, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drawing on international experience and good practice in those fields. Nicaragua remains among the poorest countries of the Western Hemisphere, with 46 percent of its five million people living below the poverty line. The 2008 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$6.4 billion translates into a per-capita GDP of approximately US$1,000. After average GDP growth of about 3.6 percent during 2005-08, the global financial and economic crisis lead to a contraction in real GDP of 1.5 percent in 2009. Going forward, if the private sector is to serve as an engine of growth for the Nicaraguan economy, the country needs to follow high-level accounting and auditing practices and the highest standards of corporate governance. This ROSC supports three main development objectives: (a) improving Nicaragua's investment climate; (b) ensuring the stability and fostering the development of the local financial sector and (c) advancing governance and financial accountability in both the private and public sectors. The report seeks to help the authorities address these issues by: (i) improving the technical skills of accounting and audit practitioners...

Nepal : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing in Nepal is intended to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-based knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of fi nancial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Sri Lanka : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing is generally meant to assist with the implementation of more effective Public Financial Management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Sri Lanka. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common strongly founded knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce those variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements.

Maldives : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing standards is generally meant to assist with the implementation of more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Maldives. It is intended to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. The specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-based knowledge as to where local practices stand in comparison with internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the causes of the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. Annex A explains the methodology used for the study. Annex B provides a summary of international accounting and auditing standards referred to in this study. Annex C and D provide country accounting and auditing legislation, respectively. Lastly...

Bhutan : Public Sector Accounting and Auditing, A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
The objectives of this report are: (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common well-founded knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with the internationally developed standards of financial reporting and audit; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths to reduce the variances; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. The analysis in this report has been conducted in light of the strong measures being taken in the Kingdom of Bhutan to reform the accounting and auditing processes. The report addresses several issues such as: adopting international accounting standards in major public enterprises; implementing professional leadership in accounting and financial management; implementing a fully integrated, computerized government accounting system; drafting new acts on public financial management and combating corruption; strengthening the Royal Institute of Management (RIM); and providing training for finance...

Afghanistan - Public Sector Accounting and Auditing : A Comparison to International Standards

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Accountability Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
This assessment of public sector accounting and auditing is generally meant to help implement more effective public financial management (PFM) through better quality accounting and public audit processes in Afghanistan and to provide greater stimulus for more cost-effective outcomes of government spending. More specific objectives are (a) to provide the country's accounting and audit authorities and other interested stakeholders with a common firmly based knowledge as to where local practices stand in accordance with international standards of financial reporting and auditing; (b) to assess the prevailing variances; (c) to chart paths for improving the accordance with international standards; and (d) to provide a continuing basis for measuring improvements. The study has taken the international standards as axiomatic with any acceptable options incorporated in the standards. The study has not assessed whether the country should adopt a limited version of the standards, as the processes of developing the standards have already considered any acceptable options that can be incorporated into the text of the standards...