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Evolução das práticas contábeis no Brasil nos últimos 30 anos: da Lei 6.404/76 à Lei 11.638/07; The evolution of the accounting practices in Brazil in the last thirty years: from Law nº 6.404/76 to Law nº 11.638/07

Geron, Cecilia Moraes Santostaso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2008 Português
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46.58%
A normatização da contabilidade no Brasil tem origem não só na Lei nº 6.404/76, que define as regras contábeis para as Sociedades por Ações, mas também na legislação fiscal, por meio do Regulamento do Imposto de Renda, pelas Instruções, Deliberações, Ofícios Circulares e outros documentos da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - CVM, pelas Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade emitidas pelo Conselho Federal de Contabilidade e, até mesmo, pelo Novo Código Civil. Além desse conjunto de órgãos normatizadores, existem ainda as regras ditadas por agências federais reguladoras como a Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL) e a Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica (ANEEL), por exemplo, não se esquecendo do Banco Central do Brasil, que tem poderes para definir regras para as instituições financeiras. Mais recentemente foi criado o Comitê de Pronunciamentos Contábeis (CPC), com o objetivo de centralizar a emissão de Pronunciamentos na área contábil que poderão ser adotados pelos diversos órgãos normatizadores. E, finalmente, em dezembro de 2007, a Lei nº 11.638 alterou substancialmente a Lei nº 6.404/76 em suas disposições de natureza contábil. Nesse cenário de tantos órgãos normatizadores, os diversos Pronunciamentos e Normas produzidos não são iguais entre si quando tratam de um mesmo assunto e...

Avaliação da conexão entre as normas e práticas contábeis e fiscais no Brasil; Valuation of connection between the rules and practice financial accounting and tax of Brazil

Ignacio, Sergio da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
A quebra das barreiras comerciais, o desenvolvimento do mercado de capitais e o aumento constante de capital externo no país impuseram às empresas elaborarem seus demonstrativos à luz de uma linguagem única, capaz de facilitar a comunicação entre os mercados mundiais e, nesse contexto, a convergência contábil, foi a resposta a essa necessidade. No Brasil esse processo iniciou-se, efetivamente, pela promulgação da Lei nº 11.638/2007. A promessa de desvinculação entre as normas contábeis e fiscais, dada pelo artigo 177, § 2º, da referida Lei, demonstra a preocupação em relação à interferência da legislação fiscal sobre as normas e práticas contábeis. Essa preocupação não é apenas uma prerrogativa do Brasil, mas segundo estudos internacionais, a relação entre essas normas é uma característica importante das diferenças contábeis no cenário internacional. Este trabalho busca, além de analise do processo de convergência contábil sob o enfoque da Teoria Institucional, avaliar o grau de conexão entre as normas e práticas contábeis e fiscais através do modelo proposto por Lamb et al. (1998), modificado por Nobes e Schwencke (2006). Inicialmente o estudo analisa o processo de institucionalização das normas internacionais no Brasil...

A relevância da informação contábil e o processo de convergência para as normas IFRS no Brasil; The value relevance of accounting Information and the Brazilian convergence process toward IFRS

Lima, João Batista Nast de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Este estudo investiga a relevância das informações contábeis antes e depois do início do processo de convergência para as normas internacionais de contabilidade no Brasil. Foram analisadas 2.277 observações trimestrais de todas as empresas que compuseram a carteira teórica do Ibovespa durante um período de 15 anos, entre 1995 e 2009. Especificamente, pretendeu-se analisar essa questão sobre três perspectivas distintas. A primeira perspectiva, com um enfoque de curto prazo, analisa a reação do mercado de capitais brasileiro associada à divulgação das demonstrações contábeis em três diferentes momentos: antes, durante e após a transição do padrão contábil brasileiro (BR_GAAP) para o padrão híbrido (BR_GAAP/IFRS). A metodologia utilizada para essa perspectiva foi o estudo de eventos. Adicionalmente, o estudo objetiva tratar as empresas analisadas de maneira heterogênea, conforme sugerido por Holthausen (2003) e Lopes e Walker (2008). Assim sendo, nessa primeira perspectiva ocorre a segmentação da amostra da pesquisa de acordo com alguns sinalizadores que indicam maior propensão das empresas em fornecer informações contábeis de maior qualidade, independentemente do regramento contábil do Brasil. Ou seja...

Lucros contábil e fiscal: efeitos do regime tributário de transição - RTT; Accounting income and taxable income: effects of Transition Tax Regime (RTT)

Mello, Helio Rieger de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
A Lei nº 11.638/07 iniciou a convergência da contabilidade brasileira para as normas internacionais do IASB. A MP 449/08, a Lei nº 11.941/09 e os órgãos de regulação contábil continuaram essa adequação, promovendo, entre outras, duas relevantes modificações: i) a definitiva separação entre a contabilidade societária e a tributária; e ii) a implementação da ampla hegemonia da essência sobre a forma - dito de outro modo, a prevalência da visão econômica na contabilidade financeira -, enquanto se manteve na contabilidade fiscal, majoritariamente, a predominância da perspectiva civil, que de forma inversa, privilegia a forma. Como é sabido, apesar de a contabilidade tributária partir da societária, as regras da primeira se assentam na legislação que normatiza sua matéria, enquanto a contabilidade societária segue o Pronunciamento Conceitual Básico da Contabilidade. E o lucro, uma das mais importantes concepções formuladas pela contabilidade, é adotado pelo Fisco Federal como base de cálculo do IRPJ e da CSLL. Como os efeitos das novas regras contábeis causariam impacto positivo, nulo ou negativo no lucro tributário, a partir de 2008, foi instituído o Regime Tributário de Transição-RTT, com o objetivo de neutralizar-se todos os novos critérios de reconhecimento de receitas...

Accounting for Infrastructure Regulation : An Introduction

Rodriguez Pardina, Martin; Schlirf Rapti, Richard; Groom, Eric
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The Enron crisis offered a dramatic reminder to regulators around the world that reliable accounting standards are essential for markets to work efficiently and fairly. Harvey Pitt, chairman of the regulatory agency responsible for the monitoring of accountants in the United States (the Securities and Exchange Commission) from 2001 to 2003, argued that the crisis revealed two problems with accounting that needed to be addressed by the regulators. The first problem is that the accountants may have gotten some of the accounting wrong. The second, and more important, problem is that they may have gotten a lot of the accounting right. This volume describes a set of rules with which utilities monopolies should be able to comply without threat to a fair return on their business, while at the same time ensuring the accountability of all players. Regulators in many member countries of the organization for economic co-operation and development and in the electricity sector in many developing countries use these rules. There is no reason why they should not be of value to regulators of all public service providers that enjoy strong residual monopoly rights. Ultimately...

The Kyrgyz Republic : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation to assess the quality of financial information and make policy recommendations. The main finding of this report is that enhancements in accounting and auditing legislation have often not been carried through to improvements in practice. Greater efforts need to be made to apply and enforce legal requirements properly. Compounding this challenge is the lack of compliance with existing public disclosure requirements and there is a need for greater public availability of financial information. Otherwise, even if accounting and auditing improves, users will not be able to access and make use of this information, reducing the overall benefits to society and the potential for private-sector-led economic growth. The Kyrgyz economy has achieved moderate growth (5.4 percent in 2004...

Accounting and Auditing : Romania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This assessment of accounting and auditing practices in Romania is part of a joint initiative by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to prepare Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment that influence the quality of corporate financial reporting, and includes a review of both statutory requirements and actual practice. It uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and best practices. This assessment updates the findings of the previous accounting and auditing ROSC conducted in Romania in 2002 and published in 2003. It is important to note that there has been significant growth in the credit environment including significant increases in the granting of foreign currency denominated credit. The proportion of loans denominated in foreign currency has risen recently to 50 per cent of all loans granted. Provisions to convert outstanding loan amounts into local currency under certain thresholds often exist in foreign currency denominated loan contracts. These provisions aim to address the potential credit risk arising from the foreign exchange risk borne by the borrowers. While the National Bank of Romania is monitoring the situation closely and requiring higher bank reserves for loans denominated in foreign currency (to curb the growth of such loans)...

Kingdom of Morocco : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This report provides an assessment of Moroccan accounting and auditing standards and practices, and the institutional capacity necessary to ensure high-quality financial reporting. The law gives accounting standard-setting responsibility to the National Accounting Council (Conseil National de la Comptabilité). Since the Council was established in 1989, Moroccan accounting standards have improved greatly. However, further progress is impeded by weaknesses in the accounting standard-setting process and, more so, by implementation issues. The Bank Al-Maghrib, Insurance and Social Welfare Directorate (Direction des Assurances et de la Prévoyance Sociales), and Securities Commission (Conseil Déontologique des Valeurs Mobilières) are responsible for monitoring the quality of financial information and the enforcement of accounting standards for credit institutions, insurance companies, and listed companies, respectively. While the Bank Al-Maghrib has established an institutional framework for bank monitoring that is more advanced than that of other sectors...

Hungary : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Hungary using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS),International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the relevant portions of European Union (EU) law (also known as the acquis communautaire) as benchmarks. It also draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation.

Lessons Learned from the World Bank’s Accounting and Auditing ROSC Program

Hegarty, John; Gielen, Frédéric; Hirata Baros, Ana Cristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This paper addresses challenges to the successful implementation of international accounting and auditing standards which have been observed by the World Bank when carrying out the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) accounting and auditing assessments. It describes the ROSC program, outlines the methodological approach followed, identifies problems common across several jurisdictions, and makes suggestions for initiatives that could enhance the implementation of international standards. The ROSC results show that governments have primarily concentrated on adopting legislation mandating or allowing the use of international standards, and the private sector has sought to increase the competence of individuals and firms to apply international standards. This paper provides an overview of the main program of Bank diagnostic work in the field of private sector financial reporting: (ROSC) It summarizes some of the main findings of the 38 assessments that have been carried out to date, with specific reference to the challenges to the successful implementation of international accounting and auditing standards. Attention is drawn to the need for international consensus on a comprehensive framework of principles for the regulation of accounting and auditing that also addresses issues of implementation...

Republic of Tajikistan : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
This report describes the results of a ROSC assessment of the accounting, financial reporting and auditing requirements and practices of the Republic of Tajikistan's enterprise and financial sectors. The report assesses the quality of the Tajik financial reporting framework and makes policy recommendations for improvement. With a gross national income per capita of US$430, Tajikistan remains the poorest country in the former Soviet Union. Despite various reforms over the past several years, the business climate still lags behind other transition countries. Many of the country's problems stem from the 1992-1997 civil war, which so damaged the country's economic infrastructure that it precipitated a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Although there has been moderate domestic growth since 1997, real output is currently just over 50 percent of the 1989 level. The Republic of Tajikistan's small financial system is dominated by a few banks. The level of financial activity is among the lowest in the world...

Republic of Kazakhstan : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This report on the report on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) in Kazakhstan provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Kazakhstan. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation, including in European Union (EU) Member States, to assess the framework for financial reporting and to make policy recommendations. The policy recommendations aim to help the Kazakhstan Government to support the country's integration into the global economy, in particular through strengthening the corporate sector's accounting, financial reporting and auditing practices. The financial sector, which is dominated by private commercial banks, has been one of the fastest growing sectors in Kazakhstan. However, while lending to the private sector has increased...

Brazil : Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes--Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes: Accounting and Auditing (ROSC A&A) has been prepared under the Financial Sector Assessment Program in Brazil. The report assesses the status of implementation of 2005 ROSC A&A policy recommendations, highlights recent improvements in Brazil's corporate financial reporting framework, and sheds light on emerging issues regarding the institutional underpinnings of accounting and auditing practices that require further upgrading in line with international good practices. In addition to maintaining appropriate macroeconomic policies, there is an extensive agenda to implement wide ranging structural reforms to promote growth, increase productivity, and raise living standards. Brazil's low domestic savings and limited domestic long-term financing markets remain a major impediment to the investment in infrastructure that is required to sustain high economic growth. Given the increased role played by the financial system, especially as more families and businesses have access to banking credit and capital markets...

Bhutan - Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Bhutan has registered rapid economic growth in the recent past. But the private sector's contribution to this growth has not been significant. Recognizing that the private sector can play an important role as an engine of growth, the Royal Government of Bhutan (RGoB) mapped out strategies to encourage the private sector to participate in the Kingdom's growth. An important strategy outlined under Bhutan's Tenth Five-Year-Plan (10FYP) is to enhance employment opportunities by encouraging private sector development, which will broaden the employment base. This strategy is also in line with another major 10FYP objective of vitalizing industry, in which the private sector is envisaged to play a major role. Bhutan's financial sector has hitherto been very small and underdeveloped, owing to the lack of adequate development in the private sector and the small size of the economy. The RGoB assessed that the lack of a clear institutional framework is one the major factors responsible for the slow growth and weak performance of industries in Bhutan...

Moldova : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Financial reporting and auditing practices in Moldova's corporate sector are currently in a period of transition from providing for tax calculation and statistical needs to convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA). This report draws upon recent international experience in developed economies and EU accession countries as well as expected amendments to EU Directives. The review found that, except in the banking sector, the current level of compliance with financial reporting obligations is inadequate, and that the quality of the financial reporting is low. In that context, the report recommends the following actions: (i) the capacity of regulatory agencies for enforcing accounting standards and financial reporting requirements to all entities of public interest - including large state-owned enterprises - should be increased; (ii) a public registry should be set-up for all public-interest companies to file their financial statements; and (iii) an independent oversight board of auditors should be established under the soon-to-be-issued new Audit Law...

Nicaragua : A Review of Accounting and Auditing Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This ROSC analyzes accounting, financial reporting and auditing practices within the corporate sector in Nicaragua, using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drawing on international experience and good practice in those fields. Nicaragua remains among the poorest countries of the Western Hemisphere, with 46 percent of its five million people living below the poverty line. The 2008 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$6.4 billion translates into a per-capita GDP of approximately US$1,000. After average GDP growth of about 3.6 percent during 2005-08, the global financial and economic crisis lead to a contraction in real GDP of 1.5 percent in 2009. Going forward, if the private sector is to serve as an engine of growth for the Nicaraguan economy, the country needs to follow high-level accounting and auditing practices and the highest standards of corporate governance. This ROSC supports three main development objectives: (a) improving Nicaragua's investment climate; (b) ensuring the stability and fostering the development of the local financial sector and (c) advancing governance and financial accountability in both the private and public sectors. The report seeks to help the authorities address these issues by: (i) improving the technical skills of accounting and audit practitioners...

Haiti : A Review of Accounting and Audit Practices; Haiti - Une Revue des Pratiques Comptables et d'Audit en Haiti : rapport sur l'Application des Normes et Codes (ROSC)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Haiti. It supports the Government's efforts to: (a) improve financial sector stability and development; (b) encourage a business climate conducive to private investment and local companies' access to credit and long-term finance; and (c) enhance the governance and accountability of public enterprises. For the purpose of this study, the benchmarks that have been used include the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA). The report also draws on international experience and good practice in accounting and auditing, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean. The main focus of the review is the institutional framework and professional environment that underpin private sector accounting and audit practices.

Argentina - Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) : Accounting and Auditing; Argentina - lnforme Sobre El Cumplimiento de Normas y Codigos (ROSC) : Contabilidad y Auditoria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Insolvency Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Strengthening corporate financial reporting is important for Argentina, as the country seeks to foster confidence in the local business community in order to stimulate investments, both local and foreign. In addition, strong corporate accounting practices enable local banks and financial institutions to monitor adequately their businesses risks, credit and otherwise, which is essential at a time when the Argentine banking sector emerges from the crisis triggered by the events of December 2001. Sound accounting and auditing is therefore essential to the stability of Argentina's banking sector. This report analyzes Argentina's corporate financial reporting and auditing practices with a view to supporting the Government's strategy to: (a) improve the investment climate for Argentine companies; (b) foster trade competitiveness by aligning the standards of reporting and governance with practices that are prevalent among the country's main trading partners; and (c) ensure greater transparency in both the private and public sectors. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)...

Honduras : Accounting and Auditing; Informe sobre el cumplimiento de normas y codigos (ROSC) : contabilidad y auditoria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Honduras in support of the Government's efforts to : (a) improve the business environment and make it more attractive for domestic and foreign direct investment; (b) enhance financial transparency and governance in the corporate sector; and (c) foster economic integration within the Latin America and Caribbean Region (LCR). For the purpose of this study, relevant benchmarks have been used, including the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA). The report also draws on international experience and good practice in those fields, particularly in LCR. Accounting and auditing (A&A) standards and practices in Honduras have been improving; however, continued efforts to align these with international ones are still needed. The review focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector (which includes private companies and state-owned enterprises) and how they influence the quality of corporate financial reporting.

Reaction to new mergers & acquisitions accounting rules and its impacts in the USA

Ribeiro, Humberto; Crowther, David
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The business combinations are a long-running controversial accounting issue. Two methods of accounting have been generally accepted in practice since World War 11 in the USA, but recently, in 2001, FASB banned pooling of interests and elected the purchase method as the single one for Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A). Although some restrictions on managers' discretion over accounting numbers are expected, some accounting discretion will remain (Watts and Zimmerman, 1990). This managerial discretion can be used to meet financial reporting objectives. The accounting choice has value implications. Several studies have found that both acquirer and target companies select an accounting method based upon certain financial and non-financial characteristics (Davis, 1990). The percentage of insiders' ownership, accounting-based compensation plans, leveraged-based lending agreements, the company size and some other specific characteristics determine which accounting method is selected (Dunne, 1990). For instance, managers at companies with compensations based upon earnings favoured pooling of interest method because it benefited earnings and return on investment (Gagnon, 1967; Aboody et al., 2000). The aim of this paper is to study managers' reactions to new M&A accounting rules and its impacts on the financial reporting and on the M&A activity in the USA Therefore...