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Measuring Household Usage of Financial Services : Does it Matter How or Whom You Ask?

Cull, Robert; Scott, Kinnon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
In recent years, the number of surveys of access to and use of financial services has multiplied, but little is known about whether the data generated are comparable across countries, or within the same country over time. This paper reports results from a randomized experiment in Ghana to test whether the identity of the respondent and the inclusion of product-specific cues in questions affect the reported rates of household usage of financial services. The analysis shows that rates of household usage are almost identical when the head reports on behalf of the household and when the rate is tabulated from a full enumeration of household use. Randomly selected informants (i.e., non-heads of the household) provide a less complete summary of household use of financial services than the other two methods. The findings also show that for credit from formal institutions, informal sources of savings, and insurance, usage rates are higher when questions are asked about specific financial products rather than about the respondent s dealings with types of financial institutions. In short...

Mongolia : Accounting and Auditing

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
This report provides an assessment of corporate sector accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Mongolia. For purposes of this report, the corporate sector includes all private sector and state-owned enterprises. The report uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks and draws on international experience and good practices in the field of accounting and audit regulation to evaluate institutional capacity and make policy recommendations. Since 1993, the World Bank and other development partners of Mongolia have provided financial and technical support to help Mongolia develop a legal framework, facilitate accounting education and adoption of IFRS and ISA by enterprises, constitute a new professional body, establish the examination of certified public accountants, and strengthen accounting and auditing in both public and private sectors. As a result, Mongolia has made significant changes from the old accounting for planned economic system to a new market-oriented accounting system that follows international good practices. All key economic sectors in Mongolia rely on high-quality financial information...

Country Studies Provide Powerful Lessons in Financial Consumer Protection

Rutledge, Sue
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Until the financial crisis of 2007, the global economy was adding an estimated 150 million new consumers of financial services each year. Rates of increase have since slowed but the growth continues. Most new consumers are in developing countries where consumer protection and financial literacy are still in their infancy. This is particularly true in countries that have moved from central planning to market economies where protecting consumers is necessary to ensure stable and competitive financial markets and give new consumers confidence in the formal financial systems. The global financial crisis has highlighted the importance of consumer protection and financial literacy for the stability of the financial sector. In the US, the rapid growth of complex residential mortgage products, combined with securitized instruments which were sold to poorly informed parties, has caused much turmoil. Financial institutions worldwide have been obliged to write off trillions of dollars of assets. In Europe and Central Asia (ECA) too...

Slovakia : Technical Note on Consumer Protection in Financial Services, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
As financial markets develop and deepen, one of the key issues for the fair, open and efficient operation of the markets is the protection of consumers rights in financial services. Be they bank depositors or borrowers or investors in insurance policies, securities or investment or pension funds, financial consumers need the ability to accurately understand the terms and conditions of their contracts and take action if the terms of contracts have been violated. The Note is the second report in a pilot program to analyze consumer protection in financialservices.The objectives of the Note are three-fold, to: (1) present a set of draft good practices for assessing consumer protection in financial services; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Slovakia compared to the draft practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection in financial services in Slovakia. The Technical Note wasprepared at the request of the Slovak Ministry of Finance, with the valuable support of the National Bank of Slovakia and other government agencies...

Georgia : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
A number of in-depth studies were conducted between the time of the preparation of the first draft CFAA report in May 2002 and the final mission in February 2003. These included a PER, CPAR and an IMF Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) mission. Each of these missions identified a number of serious weaknesses and made recommendations to address them. Some of these weaknesses had been identified in the CFAA report and others represented new findings. These new findings and their associated recommendations have been reflected in the final CFAA report, sometimes by explicit inclusion, other times by reference. As a result, this final report has a strong emphasis on the internal control framework and fiduciary risks and presents specific short- and medium-term recommendations to mitigate them. In conducting its mission, the team noted that the availability and reliability of financial information beyond routine budget utilization data is severely limited, precluding analysis in a number of areas. Improving the quality of reliable...

Measuring Financial Capability : Questionnaires and Implementation Guidance for Low-, and Middle-Income Countries

Kempson, Elaine; Perotti, Valeria; Scott, Kinnon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This manual is designed to provide guidance to institutions, researchers, and survey firms on how to measure financial capability in middle, and low income countries using a new survey instrument that was developed and tested, from start to finish, in middle- and low-income countries. This new survey was developed as part of a larger project financed by the Russia Financial Literacy and Education Trust Fund (RTF) and implemented by the World Bank that encompassed both measurement of financial capability and evaluation of financial literacy programs. The development of the new RTF Financial Capability Survey (FCS) was done in collaboration with a team of external experts and teams from a total of 12 low- and middle-income countries. The full description of how the survey was developed can be found in Kempson, Perotti, and Scott (2013) along with findings from the first wave of surveys that have been done. In this manual we briefly summarize reasons why the FCS might be of interest to a country, provide a detailed outline of the issues related to implementing the survey successfully...

Croatia : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 1. Key Findings and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
As financial markets develop and deepen, one of the key issues for a fair, open and efficient market is effective consumer protection and financial literacy. The European Union takes the approach that an effective regime of financial consumer protection should allow consumers to have access to: sufficient information to make informed decisions about their financial choices; cost-effective recourse mechanisms to redress violations of financial service contracts; and programs of consumer education and financial literacy that empower them to understand their financial rights and obligations. This review has found that the quality of consumer protection in financial services in Croatia has improved in recent years. In particular, the approval of the 2007 Consumer Protection Act incorporated many of the EU Directives related to financial consumer protection. In addition, the National Council on Consumer Protection was established in 2008 to advise the Government on its national strategy for consumer protection in the coming years. A nation-wide baseline survey of financial literacy would provide useful information in designing programs in financial education and consumer awareness. As pioneered in the United Kingdom...

Financial (Dis-)Information : Evidence from an Audit Study in Mexico

Gine, Xavier; Martinez Cuellar, Cristina; Mazer, Rafael Keenan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
An audit study was conducted in peri-urban Mexico to understand the quality of information and products offered to low-income potential customers. Trained auditors visited multiple financial institutions seeking credit and savings products. Consistent with Gabaix and Laibson (2006), staff voluntarily provides little information about avoidable fees, especially to auditors trained to reveal little knowledge about the market. In addition, clients are almost never offered the cheapest product, most likely because staff is incentivized to offer more expensive products that are thus more profitable to the institution. This suggests that disclosure and transparency policies may be ineffective if they undermine the commercial interest of financial institutions.

Kyrgyz Republic : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
The Diagnostic Review for Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy (CPFL) provides a detailed assessment of the institutional, legal and regulatory framework for consumer protection in two segments of the financial sector: banking and microfinance. The review was undertaken in response to a request for technical assistance in the field of financial consumer protection made by the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic (NBKR) in November 2012.

Adjusting the capital asset pricing model for the short-run with liquidity proxies, while accounting for denials and deceptions in financial markets

Mooney, John J., IV
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; William Sharpe's 1964 capital asset pricing model relies heavily on an accurate assessment of the asset's sensitivity to the broader market, termed _. By modifying the classic approach to incorporate liquidity of the asset, designated _', short-term return estimates may be improved. Specifically, in this research, the limit order book is used as a short-term proxy for liquidity assessments. Unfortunately, precise data were unavailable to test: however, detailed realistic examples are outlined in order to explore both rationale and critiques of the adjusted model. In light of the adjusted CAPM, modern market conditions, such as the rise in both high-frequency trading and alternative trading systems, are investigated to determine their impact on the model and asset pricing. Parallels can be drawn to appreciate these implementation obstacles under such information operation paradigms as denial, deception, and counterdeception. These topics, the protection of critical information from leakage, as well as the advancement and detection of deliberate misinformation, are increasingly critical for asset pricing. Furthermore, in response to these implementation obstacles, short-term asset pricing research is explored under both the efficient and adaptive market hypotheses. In conclusion...

Jamaica : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The Bank conducts Country Financial Accountability Assessments (CFAA) in all borrower countries. The specific objectives of the CFAA are to review the key aspects of public financial management at the national level: a) flow of funds to government entities and Bank projects, including planning, cash management, and budgeting; b) accounting and financial reporting; and c) auditing of public sector activities. The Bank carried out field work for a CFAA in Jamaica in May 2000. This CFAA makes the following recommendations: 1) Inefficient in the government's planning process and its subsequent integration into the budget process result in an inefficient execution of the budget, monitored mainly by cash flows rather than outputs. 2) Current budget formulation formats need to be simplified in order to increase their usefulness and assure more accurate estimates. 3) The government's decentralized cash management arrangements should be tightened to allow for greater central control over the amount of outstanding cash balances. 4) The government accounting function is more advanced than many Caribbean countries. However...

Malawi : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
In recent times, the Government of Malawi has undertaken various initiatives to strengthen the country's financial accountability framework. These include the following: A Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) introduced progressively since 1995 to develop a strategic approach to budgeting over the medium-term, to improve resource allocations in accordance with emerging poverty reduction priorities, and to integrate the investment and recurrent sides of the dual budget; A cash budget system introduced in 1996 as a temporary measure to increase fiscal discipline and which remains in place as the central tool for budget implementation. An Integrated Financial Management Information System (IFMIS) project initiated in 1996 with the objectives of providing timely and accurate financial information; providing a standardized integrated financial management reporting system for the Government of Malawi at various operational levels; providing the Accountant General with a Government-wide upgraded computerized accounting system; and improving and strengthening financial control; A review of the Finance and Audit Act...

Senegal : Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Senegal - Evaluation de la gestion des finances publiques et des pratiques comptables du secteur prive

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.9%
This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) examines the financial management in both the public and private sectors, aimed as an evaluation, not an audit, and, identifies financial risks within current practices, and procedures in Senegal. It does not however, intend to suggest an accurate, final allocation of public resources, though it facilitates implementation of action plans that reinforce the Government's reform agenda. Within the context of the Country Assistance Strategy (CAS), this CFAA supports the technical and financial partnerships which contribute to the economic, and financial reforms being implemented in the country, and, is an integral part of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. One concern is risk evaluation involving the public sector and their partners in budget formulation, preparation, and implementation. Of critical importance is the improvement of public financial management, namely within: external financing; budget preparation and implementation, including internal controls; public accounting and reporting practices; treasury management practices; and wage controls. The CFAA proposes recommendations...

Out-of-Court Debt Restructuring

Garrido, Jose M.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This study provides a conceptual framework for the analysis of the questions of out-of-court debt restructuring from a policy-oriented perspective. The starting point of the analysis is given by the World Bank principles for effective insolvency and creditor rights systems. The study offers an overview of out-of-court restructuring, which is not seen as fundamentally opposed to formal insolvency procedures. Actually, the study contemplates different restructuring techniques as forming a continuum to the treatment of financial difficulties. The study discusses the advantages and disadvantages of all the debt restructuring techniques, and concludes, in this regard, that a legal system may contain a number of options a menu that can cover different sets of circumstances. In the end, the law may offer a toolbox with very different instruments that the parties may use depending on the specific facts of the case. The study also provides a checklist that can be used to examine the features of a legal system that bear a direct influence on debt restructuring activities.

Colombia - National Level Public Financial Management and Procurement Report : Status of the Public Financial Management and Procurement System; Colombia - Informe de la gestion financiera publica y sistema de contratacion

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
This Public Financial Management Performance Report (PFMPR) analyzes the performance of Colombia's public financial management (PFM) institutions, systems and processes. It documents areas where performance is close to or follows international good practice, as well as opportunities to further enhance PFM contribution to the goals of strengthening fiscal discipline, enabling more efficient allocation of resources, increasing operational efficiency, and fostering transparency. It is expected that the identified opportunities will strengthen further the Government of Colombia's programs of continuous PFM improvement, as provided for under the National Development Plan pillar regarding a state at the service of its citizens: efficient and effective Government. The main challenges cited in the report could also be an important reference to future development plans and PFM reforms. Ensuring the sustainability and trajectory of PFM programs becomes even more critical in the context of public expenditure policies to deal with the current international economic crisis. The study is based on the 28 high-level indicators and 69 individual dimensions that compose the PFM performance measurement framework. Each indicator seeks to measure performance of a key PFM element against a scale from A to D. The highest score is warranted for an individual indicator if the core PFM element meets the relevant objective in a complete...

Colombia - National Level Public Financial Management and Procurement Report : Public Financial Management Performance; Colombia - Informe de la gestion financiera publica y sistema de contratacion

World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
This Public Financial Management Performance Report (PFMPR) analyzes the performance of Colombia's public financial management (PFM) institutions, systems and processes. It documents areas where performance is close to or follows international good practice, as well as opportunities to further enhance PFM contribution to the goals of strengthening fiscal discipline, enabling more efficient allocation of resources, increasing operational efficiency, and fostering transparency. It is expected that the identified opportunities will strengthen further the Government of Colombia's programs of continuous PFM improvement, as provided for under the National Development Plan pillar regarding a state at the service of its citizens: efficient and effective Government. The main challenges cited in the report could also be an important reference to future development plans and PFM reforms. Ensuring the sustainability and trajectory of PFM programs becomes even more critical in the context of public expenditure policies to deal with the current international economic crisis. The study is based on the 28 high-level indicators and 69 individual dimensions that compose the PFM performance measurement framework. Each indicator seeks to measure performance of a key PFM element against a scale from A to D. The highest score is warranted for an individual indicator if the core PFM element meets the relevant objective in a complete...

Company in Distress?; Directors Needn't Be--Mitigating Risks at the Board

Rechden, Claudio N.; Miller, Kalina B.
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Brief
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Investors see value in nominating members to the boards of companies they have invested in. Through board members, they can help improve the company's operations, define corporate strategy, adjust inefficiencies, improve governance, and ultimately increase the expected return on their investment. The authors examine the shift in the relative position of stakeholders when a company enters the penumbra of insolvency. In good times, directors rightly think of the shareholders as the parties to whom their duties to the company (and legal responsibilities) most directly extend. But once the enterprise s very survival as a going concern comes into question, the profile and legal rights of creditors and other stakeholders take on greater importance. The board must be able to demonstrate that it is doing everything it can to maximize the enterprise value of the company, and hence the likelihood that the company will meet its obligations to parties with claims (on the cash flow and assets of the company) that come before the residual interest of shareholders. This paper lists other actions (including...

Honduras : Accounting and Auditing; Informe sobre el cumplimiento de normas y codigos (ROSC) : contabilidad y auditoria

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Accounting and Auditing Assessment (ROSC); Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This report analyzes corporate financial reporting and auditing practices in Honduras in support of the Government's efforts to : (a) improve the business environment and make it more attractive for domestic and foreign direct investment; (b) enhance financial transparency and governance in the corporate sector; and (c) foster economic integration within the Latin America and Caribbean Region (LCR). For the purpose of this study, relevant benchmarks have been used, including the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and the International Standards on Auditing (ISA). The report also draws on international experience and good practice in those fields, particularly in LCR. Accounting and auditing (A&A) standards and practices in Honduras have been improving; however, continued efforts to align these with international ones are still needed. The review focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector (which includes private companies and state-owned enterprises) and how they influence the quality of corporate financial reporting.

Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy : Lessons from Nine Country Studies

Rutledge, Susan L.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
The recent turmoil in financial markets worldwide has emphasized the need for adequate consumer protection and financial literacy for long-term stability of the financial sector. This Working Paper aims to summarize key lessons from reviews of consumer protection and financial literacy in nine middle-income countries of Europe and Central Asia (Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, the Russian Federation and Slovakia). All the country assessments used a systematic common approach, based on a set of Good Practices for Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy developed by the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia Region. The objective of the Working Paper is to contribute to the international dialog on strengthening financial consumer protection and financial literacy in emerging markets.A financial consumer protection regime should meet three objectives. First, consumers should receive accurate, simple, comparable information of a financial service or product, before and after buying it. Second...

Principles for Effective Insolvency and Creditor-Debtor Rights Systems, Revised 2015

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Insolvency Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Effective creditor/debtor rights and insolvency systems are an important element of financial system stability. The World Bank Group accordingly has been working with partner organizations to develop principles for insolvency and creditor/debtor rights systems. The Principles for Effective Insolvency and Creditor/Debtor Rights Systems (the Principles) are a distillation of international best practice on design aspects of these systems, emphasizing contextual, integrated solutions and the policy choices involved in developing those solutions.Based on the experience gained from the use of the Principles, and following extensive consultations, the publication has been thoroughly reviewed and updated in 2005, 2011 and 2015. The revised Principles contained in this document have benefited from wide consultation and, more importantly, from the practical experience of using them in the context of the Bank’s assessment and operational work.