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Informal wages in an economy with active labor courts

Araujo, Luis; Ponczek, Vladimir P.
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
In most developing countries, job regulations and the justice branch interfere on several aspects of labor contracts. Inspired by this fact, we build a model that explores the role of labor courts in the determination of the di¤erence between formal and informal wages. We show that the presence of active labor courts in an environment where labor relations are subject to asymmetries of information reproduces features documented by the empirical literature. The main implications of our model are tested using Brazilian data.

Swiss ball to relieve pain of primiparous in active labor

Gallo,Rubneide Barreto Silva; Santana,Licia Santos; Marcolin,Alessandra Cristina; Quintana,Silvana Maria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Swiss ball has been widely used in different health sectors. It is considered effective to relieve pain and to help labor evolution, however there are few studies. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of the Swiss ball on pain relief and active labor duration of primiparous. METHODS: This is a randomized and controlled study with 40 primiparous divided in control group and ball group, who carried out pelvic mobility exercises for 30 minutes during active labor. Pain was measured by the numeric categorical scale, before and after therapy, by an assistant researcher. Labor duration was investigated by means of the partograph. RESULTS: There has been significant pain decrease in the study group (p<0.001). There has been no difference between groups in labor duration (p=0.37). CONCLUSION: The Swiss ball was an effective tool to relieve pain in the beginning of this period and should be encouraged by health professionals assisting parturients.

Unemployment and Worker-Firm Matching : Theory and Evidence from East and West Europe

Munich, Daniel; Svejnar, Jan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The paper tests three hypotheses about the causes of unemployment in the Central-East European transition economies and in a benchmark market economy (Western part of Germany). The first hypothesis (H1) is that unemployment is caused by inefficient matching. Hypothesis 2 (H2) is that unemployment is caused by low demand. Hypothesis 3 (H3) is that restructuring is at work. Our estimates suggest that the west and east German parts of Germany, Czech Republic and Slovakia are consistent with H2 and H3. Hungary provides limited support to all three hypotheses. Poland is consistent with H1. The economies in question hence contain one broad group of countries and one or two special cases. The group comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic and (possibly) East Germany. These countries resemble West Germany in that they display increasing returns to scale in matching and unemployment appears to be driven by restructuring and low demand. The East German case is complex because of its major active labor market policies and a negative trend in efficiency in matching. In some sense...

Armenia - Labor Market Dynamics : Volume 1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
This study is intended to help Armenian policymakers better understand the main factors behind modest labor market outcomes and to identify policy options to create more and better jobs. The report is based on data from administrative statistics, labor force surveys, and household surveys. The objective of the study is to determine the main factors behind poor labor market outcomes in Armenia: high unemployment of long duration despite rapid economic growth. To do so, it will assess, first, the key characteristics of the demand for labor. These include (a) the impact of macroeconomic policies on job growth; (b) wage flexibility and unit labor costs; (c) cost-of-doing-business factors, including costs, risks, and barriers to competition faced by firms; and (d) employment promotion legislation and labor market institutions. Recommendations are made on policies that can promote an effective and sustainable increased demand for labor; second, the key characteristics of the supply of labor, including the impact of long-term demographic developments and labor migration...

Jobs for Brazil’s Poor : Social Protection Programs and Labor Supply Impacts on the Poor in Brazil

Robalino, David; de la Brière, Bénédicte; Lindert, Kathy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
The World Bank is carrying out a program of Analytic and Advisory Activities (the Labor AAA) focused on the interface between social protection programs and labor supply and productivity. This focus relates to the debates in Brazil surrounding the issue of helping transfer beneficiaries graduate from poverty and from dependence on transfer incomes. The AAA is structured along two pillars. Pillar I addresses questions related to the impacts of explicit and implicit public transfers on labor supply and savings decisions. In particular, what is the effect of public transfers such as Bolsa Familia and those related to the social insurance system (pensions and unemployment) on work incentives, early entry and retirement, sector choice, and ultimately, public expenditures, human capital accumulation and growth. Pillar II focuses on program design and evaluation. The and goal is to identify how the portfolio of transfer and active labor market programs can be optimized to enhance the employability of the poor, help promote their graduation from poverty...

Active Labor Market Programs for Youth : A Framework to Guide Youth Employment Interventions

Cunningham, Wendy; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Laura; Wuermli, Alice
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
Youth are three times more likely to be unemployed than adults, even in economies with strong economic growth. This note is a tool to provide policymakers and youth-serving organizations with a framework to better diagnose short- to medium-run constraints facing the stock of unemployed youth and to design evidence based youth employment interventions. The note only addresses youth employment; strategies to affect wages, productivity, underemployment, or job quality are not directly discussed. This note presents youth-oriented Active Labor Market Programs (ALMPs) that conform to one of two criteria. Each intervention either has been shown to have predominately positive impact, as measured by rigorous impact evaluations, or has weaker evidence of impact-rigorous evaluations with mixed evidence of impact or strong positive monitoring data-and is theoretically sound. Cost-effectiveness information is presented when available. The note focuses on programs that are appropriate to address constraints faced by youth from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Impact Evaluation : Techniques for Evaluating Active Labor Market Programs

Dar, Amit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
Over the past 40 years, "active" labor market programs (ALMPs) have emerged as an important employment policy tool. Their objective is primarily economic - to increase the probability that the unemployed will find jobs or that the underemployed will increase their productivity and earnings. ALMPs include job search assistance, training and retraining, and job creation programs (public works, micro-enterprise development, and wage subsidies). With economic reform, increasing liberalization of markets and growing concerns about the problems of unemployment, ALMPs have increasingly become an attractive option for policymakers. Expenditure on these programs has, however, not increased substantially over the 1990s, remaining fairly constant at around 0.7% of GDP. This reflects to some extent the ambivalence of policymakers about the effectiveness of ALMPs. A frequently asked question is, "Are these programs effective?" This note will focus on impact evaluations of ALMPs. It will discuss the objectives and importance of rigorous evaluations...

Republic of Lebanon--Good Jobs Needed : The Role of Macro, Investment, Education, Labor and Social Protection Policies

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This report develops a strategy to support employment creation in Lebanon and improve labor market opportunities for its work force. The analysis is based on a new survey of the labor force and employers, and a General Equilibrium Model of the Lebanese economy, both developed in the context of this Technical Cooperation Program. The policy recommendations are the result of consultations with counterparts and different stakeholders. The report is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 summarizes the main findings of the analysis and policy recommendations. Chapter 2 analyzes the main characteristics of the Lebanese labor market and identifies key issues that require attention. Chapter 3 focuses on ways to improve macroeconomic conditions and investment opportunities in order to enhance growth potential and promote the creation of high quality jobs. Chapter 4 discusses how current initiatives regarding active labor market programs (ALMPs) could be transformed into an integrated system of employment and training services that would be managed and monitored by the public employment agency (the National Employment Office) but implemented by private providers that would help individuals access jobs - whether wage or self-employment. Chapter 5 deals with the labor market distortions created by social insurance and regulations on types of contracts...

Building Effective Employment Programs for Unemployed Youth in the Middle East and North Africa

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Kuddo, Arvo; Semlali, Amina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This study surveys active labor market programs (ALMPs) in selected countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, identifies key challenges to their effective and efficient delivery, and proposes a policy framework for reforming public service provision. This study draws on data collected through surveys administered to public social, employment, and education agencies in selected MENA countries to identify key constraints and options for reforming publicly provided employment programs. Recent political transitions arising from the Arab Spring have contributed to the deterioration of labor market outcomes in the MENA region. In this context, ALMPs could become an important policy lever to address some of the challenges facing labor markets. These include: joblessness, skills mismatches, lack of labor market mobility, large and expanding informal sector, and lack of formal employment networks. The study also provides specific details on the beneficiaries, targeting, and expenditures of ALMPs during this same period.

Active Labor Market Programs : How, Why, When, and To What Extent are they Effective?

Brown, Alessio J.G.; Koettl, Johannes
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Active labor market programs (ALMPs) aim to keep workers employed, bring them into employment, increase their productivity and earnings, and improve the functioning of labor markets. ALMPs to retain employment, for example, work-sharing schemes, should be used only for short periods during severe recessions. More cost-effective and useful during recoveries are ALMPs to create employment, which strengthen outsiders labor market attachment and support the outflow out of unemployment. Training programs are especially effective over the long term, particularly the more they target disadvantaged outsiders. ALMPs that improve labor market matching are highly beneficial, but effective only in the short run. ALMPs in general might be more cost effective over the long term (3-10 years) and some may even be self-financing, suggesting that long-term evaluations are needed to better ascertain the impact of individual policies.

Profiling the Unemployed : A Review of OECD Experiences and Implications for Emerging Economies

Loxha, Artan; Morgandi, Matteo
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
This paper takes stock of methods to profile the unemployed in public employment services (PESs) in OECD countries, in order to single out suitable approaches for PES in emerging economies. Profiling should enable PESs to segment jobseekers into groups with similar risk of work-resumption, and in turn to determine their level of access to different levels of treatment. In our framework PESs rely to a varying extent on (i) case worker discretion and on (ii) data-intensive approaches. On one hand of the spectrum, PESs may allocate interventions on a first-come-first-serve basis according to broad eligibility criteria (age, unemployment duration). This is likely to either induce deadweight loss or to delay treatment. Most often case managers judgment, steered by qualitative guidelines, also plays a role. In this case outcomes depend strongly on the available time and capacity of case managers. An alternative approach is to exploit data about jobseekers to determine the probability of work-resumption according to a statistical model...

Labor Policy to Promote Good Jobs in Tunisia : Revisiting Labor Regulation, Social Security, and Active Labor Market Programs

Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.; Nucifora, Antonio; Robalino, David
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
Tunisians are striving for the opportunity to realize their potential and aspirations in a country that is rich in both human and physical capital, but whose recent economic growth has failed to create enough opportunities in the form of good and productive jobs. This report highlights the main barriers that hinder the Tunisian labor market from providing income, protection, and prosperity to its citizens and proposes a set of labor policies that could facilitate the creation of better, more inclusive, and more productive jobs. The weak economic performance and insufficient and low-quality job creation in Tunisia is primarily the result of an economic environment permeated by distortions, barriers to competition, and excessive red tape, including in the labor market. This has resulted in the creation of a insufficient number of jobs, especially in the formal sector. To change this situation, policy makers need to address five strategic directives that can promote long-term inclusive growth and formality: foster competition; realign incentives...

Botswana Labor Market Signals on Demand for Skills

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Botswana has an official unemployment rate of 17.8 percent. The low labor-intensity of growth is a potential explaining factor for this high level of unemployment. It is thus essential to analyze the role of education and training in the access to employment. This note finds that the role of education has changed under the effect of schooling expansion and persistent unemployment. Labor market institutions appear to have a limited impact on employment and wage levels, while the importance of active labor market programs is growing. This note aims to identify labor market signals that point to demand for specific current and future skills. The note seeks to answer the following questions: does the labor market place a higher premium on workers literacy and numeracy skills, technical skills, or behavioral skills?; is the labor market more in need of secondary or tertiary education graduates?; and will growing economic sectors (for example, tourism) benefit more by increasing the supply of sector-specific skills (for example...

Labor Market Regulations and Outcomes in Sweden

Ulku, Hulya; Muzi, Silvia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
This paper analyzes recent trends in Swedens labor market regulations in relation to comparator economies and examines the relationship between labor market regulations and outcomes. The paper finds that the Swedish labor market responded more rapidly to the recent global financial crisis than the majority of the European Union economies, which helped Sweden to recover quickly. Swedens hiring regulations are more flexible than those of many comparator economies, however, fixed-term contracts of short duration might have adverse consequences for the economy. In addition, Swedens regulations on work during the weekly holidays and mandatory paid annual leave are stricter than those of the majority of comparator economies. Moreover, among the economies of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Sweden has one of the largest differences in employment protection between permanent and temporary employees, which could lead to a segmented labor market, where insiders enjoy high job security and outsiders are largely marginalized. This could be cause for concern...

Electoral Cycles in Active Labor Market Policies

Mechtel, Mario; Potrafke, Niklas
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: ResearchPaper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
We examine how electoral motives influence active labor market policies that promote job-creation. Such policies reduce unemployment statistics. Using German state data for the period 1985 to 2004, we show that election-motivated politicians pushed job-promotion schemes before elections.

The Impact of Vocational Training for the Unemployed : Experimental Evidence from Turkey

Hirshleifer, Sarojini; McKenzie, David; Almeida, Rita; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
A randomized experiment is used to evaluate a large-scale, active labor market policy: Turkey's vocational training programs for the unemployed. A detailed follow-up survey of a large sample with low attrition enables precise estimation of treatment impacts and their heterogeneity. The average impact of training on employment is positive, but close to zero and statistically insignificant, which is much lower than either program officials or applicants expected. Over the first year after training, the paper finds that training had statistically significant effects on the quality of employment and that the positive impacts are stronger when training is offered by private providers. However, longer-term administrative data show that after three years these effects have also dissipated.

'Green' Growth, 'Green' Jobs and Labor Markets

Bowen, Alex
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
The term 'green jobs' can refer to employment in a narrowly defined set of industries providing environmental services. But it is more useful for the policy-maker to focus on the broader issue of the employment consequences of policies to correct environmental externalities such as anthropogenic climate change. Most of the literature focuses on direct employment created, with more cursory treatment of indirect and induced job creation, especially that arising from macroeconomic effects of policies. The potential adverse impacts of green growth policies on labor productivity and the costs of employment tend to be overlooked. More attention also needs to be paid in this literature to how labor markets work in different types of economy. There may be wedges between the shadow wage and the actual wage, particularly in developing countries with segmented labor markets and after adverse aggregate demand shocks, warranting a bigger and longer-lasting boost to green projects with high labor content. In these circumstances...

Public Employment Services, and Activation Policies

Kuddo, Arvo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
One of the responses to new challenges in the labor market has been the development and expansion of employment services and active labor market policies based on activation principles. The objective of this study is to document and review international experiences, predominantly from selected emerging market economies and developing countries, with the design and implementation of activation programs, provided by Public Employment Services, through the prism of incentives and sanctions. Employment promotion legislation from the reviewed countries is a major source of information. Participation of beneficiaries in relevant services and programs is also analyzed. The study finds that the countries use a variety of instruments, be it specific employment services, active labor market programs, or benefit and other sanctions, to 'activate' jobseekers with an aim to encourage them to become more active in their efforts to find work and/or improve their employability. In practice, the activation policies vary considerably across countries.

The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark; The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark

Abrahamson, Peter
Fonte: UnB-BCE Publicador: UnB-BCE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both agood investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market, where employers have few or no restrictions with regard to firing workers, with generous welfare benefits; and the two are facilitated through active labor market policies. Denmark really has a flexible labor market; but benefits in case of unemployment and activation cannot be described as generous in a European context. Activation is often perceived as a punishment for being unemployed and has mainly been undertaken because it is mandatory, and one is in risk of losing benefits if one refuses an activation offer. There is a price to be paid for a high degree of flexibility, and it comes in the form of marginalization and exclusion. 25 percent of the Danish population of working ages is for long spells or permanently existing on not very generous benefits outside the labor market.; Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both agood investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market, where employers have few or no restrictions with regard to firing workers, with generous welfare benefits; and the two are facilitated through active labor market policies. Denmark really has a flexible labor market; but benefits in case of unemployment and activation cannot be described as generous in a European context. Activation is often perceived as a punishment for being unemployed and has mainly been undertaken because it is mandatory...

O retorno das medidas de ativação na política de bem-estar dinamarquesa: Emprego e Proteção Social na Dinamarca; The active turn in Danish welfare policy: Employment and Social Protection in Denmark

Abrahamson, Peter
Fonte: UnB-BCE Publicador: UnB-BCE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
A flexicurity é divulgada como a melhor forma de assegurar tanto um bom ambiente de investimentos quanto uma força de trabalho protegida. A flexicurity combina mercado de trabalho flexível, no qual os empregadores têm grande liberdade de despedir os trabalhadores, com benefícios de bem-estar generosos; e essa combinação é facilitada pSelas políticas ativas de mercado de trabalho. Na realidade, a Dinamarca possui um mercado de trabalho flexível, mas os benefícios, em caso de desemprego e ativação para o trabalho, não podem ser descritos como generosos em um contexto europeu. A ativação é frequentemente percebida como punição pelo trabalhador, por estar desempregado, e tem sido aceita por ser obrigatória, ou seja, a pessoa correrá o risco de perder os benefícios se ela recusar medidas de ativação. Há um preço a ser pago pelo alto grau de flexibilidade e esse preço se traduz em marginalização e exclusão. 25% da população dinamarquesa em idade produtiva estão por muito tempo ou permanentemente vivendo fora do apoio público generoso do mercado de trabalho.; Flexicurity is viewed as the best way of securing both a good investment environment and a secure workforce. Flexicurity combines a flexible labor market...