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Adaptação tecnológica para teto de habitação social: estudo de caso em Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México; Technological adaptation for roof of social dwelling: study case in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico

Castañeda Nolasco, Gabriel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/10/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
O presente trabalho trata de um dos componentes da habitação social, o teto, que por suas características técnico-construtivas é o mais complexo dos seus componentes. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México, entre as atividades do programa 10x10, do projeto XIV.5 con techo, subordinado ao sub programa XIV, tecnologías para vivienda de interés social HABYTED de CYTED. Pelas atividades realizadas com o grupo técnico do programa citado, o objetivo principal foi desenvolver uma adaptação da tecnologia para teto Domozed ao contexto de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, México, orientada a melhorar a transferência tecnológica para habitação social. Esta tecnologia é utilizada no Peru e foi difundida em diversos países de América Latina, assim como muitas outras tecnologias cedidas pelos membros da equipe de trabalho do programa 10x10 con techo. As experiências vividas evidenciaram a necessidade de adaptação das tecnologias difundidas aos contextos selecionados, para sua melhor aceitação e funcionamento ou para sua realização. Partiu-se da hipótese que as tecnologias difundidas pelos membros participantes do programa 10x10, ao serem desenvolvidas para contextos específicos e pretender transferi-las a outros...

Arabidopsis Roots and Shoots Show Distinct Temporal Adaptation Patterns toward Nitrogen Starvation1[W]

Krapp, Anne; Berthomé, Richard; Orsel, Mathilde; Mercey-Boutet, Stéphanie; Yu, Agnes; Castaings, Loren; Elftieh, Samira; Major, Hilary; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plants. N levels in soil vary widely, and plants have developed strategies to cope with N deficiency. However, the regulation of these adaptive responses and the coordinating signals that underlie them are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize N starvation in adult Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants in a spatiotemporal manner by an integrative, multilevel global approach analyzing growth, metabolites, enzyme activities, and transcript levels. We determined that the remobilization of N and carbon compounds to the growing roots occurred long before the internal N stores became depleted. A global metabolite analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed organ-specific differences in the metabolic adaptation to complete N starvation, for example, for several tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, but also for carbohydrates, secondary products, and phosphate. The activities of central N metabolism enzymes and the capacity for nitrate uptake adapted to N starvation by favoring N remobilization and by increasing the high-affinity nitrate uptake capacity after long-term starvation. Changes in the transcriptome confirmed earlier studies and added a new dimension by revealing specific spatiotemporal patterns and several unknown N starvation-regulated genes...

Climate change adaptation: Where does global health fit in the agenda?

Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/05/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.18%
Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and vulnerabilities...

Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Health-Related Adaptation Decision-Making in Cambodia

Bowen, Kathryn J.; Alexander, Damon; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
Climate change adaptation in the health sector requires decisions across sectors, levels of government, and organisations. The networks that link these different institutions, and the relationships among people within these networks, are therefore critical influences on the nature of adaptive responses to climate change in the health sector. This study uses social network research to identify key organisational players engaged in developing health-related adaptation activities in Cambodia. It finds that strong partnerships are reported as developing across sectors and different types of organisations in relation to the health risks from climate change. Government ministries are influential organisations, whereas donors, development banks and non-government organisations do not appear to be as influential in the development of adaptation policy in the health sector. Finally, the study highlights the importance of informal partnerships (or ‘shadow networks’) in the context of climate change adaptation policy and activities. The health governance ‘map’ in relation to health and climate change adaptation that is developed in this paper is a novel way of identifying organisations that are perceived as key agents in the decision-making process...

Uma Plataforma de Middleware reflexivo com suporte para auto-adaptação; A Reflexive middleware plataform with support to self-adaptation

PROVENSI, Lucas Luiz
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência da Computação; Ciências Exatas e da Terra - Ciências da Computação Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência da Computação; Ciências Exatas e da Terra - Ciências da Computação
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The distributed computing environment today is characterized by increasing diversity, the dynamism and increasingly complex applications. Applications for this type of environment they need autonomy to conduct management activities such as installation, configuration and maintenance, with the aim of decreasing the cost and effort involved in such activities. In mobile environments, for example, applications need to adapt due to changes in the environment (available bandwidth, signal level, etc..), Which can affect the quality of service offered to users. This paper presents a proposal for self-adaptation based on the architecture of Meta-ORB reflective middleware. The fluffy main purpose is to provide support to self-adaptation for applications that have requirements of service quality. In this paper, the concept of adaptation policies was introduced in the meta-model middleware, allowing the developer to define both the model of adaptive behavior as their applications using the same modeling language. This unified model is available at run time, being used by a mechanism of self-adaptation to the embedded middleware. The proposed architecture was implemented in a prototype called MetaORB.NET, employed in a case study to evaluate the use of architecture in the development of self-adaptive applications; O ambiente de computação distribuída atual é caracterizado pela crescente heterogeneidade...

Achieving urban climate adaptation in Europe and Central Asia

Carmin, JoAnn; Zhang, Yan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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46.01%
Many cities across Europe and Central Asia are experiencing the impacts of climate change, but most have not integrated climate adaptation into their agendas. This paper examines the threats faced and measures that can be taken by cities in the region to protect buildings, heritage sites, municipal functions, and vulnerable urban populations. In general, local governments must be proactive in ensuring that existing buildings are climate ready, paying particular attention to emerging technologies for retrofitting the prefabricated, panel style buildings that dominate the landscape while assessing the viability of homes situated in flood plains, coastal areas, and steep slopes. They also must ensure that new developments and buildings are designed in ways that account for climatic fluctuations. Although the resilience of all populations needs to be considered, historical patterns of discrimination require that special provisions are made for the poor and for ethnic minorities such as the Roma because these groups will be most at risk...

The Perception of and Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa

Maddison, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The objective of this paper is to determine the ability of farmers in Africa to detect climate change, and to ascertain how they have adapted to whatever climate change they believe has occurred. The paper also asks farmers whether they perceive any barriers to adaptation and attempts to determine the characteristics of those farmers who, despite claiming to have witnessed climate change, have not yet responded to it. The study is based on a large-scale survey of agriculturalists in 11 African countries. The survey reveals that significant numbers of farmers believe that temperatures have already increased and that precipitation has declined. Those with the greatest experience of farming are more likely to notice climate change. Further, neighboring farmers tell a consistent story. There are important differences in the propensity of farmers living in different locations to adapt and there may be institutional impediments to adaptation in some countries. Although large numbers of farmers perceive no barriers to adaptation...

Pro-Poor Urban Adaptation to Climate Change : Based on Case Studies in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Poor urban populations in Southern cities are already experiencing the negative impacts of changing weather patterns associated with climate change and climate variability and future projections suggest that these impacts will get worse. Severe weather patterns, experienced as prolonged droughts, intense rainfall or wind speed cause substantial damage to the assets and well-being of city-dwellers, causing localized flooding, housing damage, economic loss, and posing dangers to health and educational achievement. Yet, severe weather events that do not register as disasters on the national or international screen are rarely addressed in the context of climate change adaptation. Urban governments face a number of constraints to effectively address and build resilience to severe weather: a knowledge constraint (given the scarce evidence of the impact of ongoing severe weather trends), in addition to institutional and fiscal limitations. Since most climate vulnerability research in urban centers has focused on projections and capacity building for disaster events...

Economic of Adaptation to Climate Change : Bangladesh, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to climate risks. Two-thirds of the nation is less than 5 meters above sea level and is susceptible to river and rainwater flooding, particularly during the monsoon. The Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP), adopted by the government of Bangladesh in 2009, seek to guide activities and programs related to climate change in Bangladesh. Until the past few years, climatic risks have been poorly reflected in national policies and programs Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to help decision makers in Bangladesh to better understand and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The study takes as its starting point the BCCSAP. It builds upon and strengthens the analytical models and quantitative assessment tools already in use in Bangladesh in support of the research and knowledge management theme of BCCSAP. The scope of this study is more limited than the BCCSAP, so the reported costs represent a lower bound on the total adaptation costs in Bangladesh. The study was developed in four discrete and somewhat independent components with varying degrees of analytical depth and quantification.

Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change : Samoa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Over the last two decades Samoa has suffered major damage from two cyclones in 1990-91, minor damage from a third cyclone in 2004, and an earthquake tsunami in 2009. Changes in the scale and impact of these types of natural disasters are likely to be important consequences of climate change for the country because the increases in sea level and in average sea surface temperatures will increase theintensity and damage from major storms. Other potential impacts are linked to changes in the weather patterns associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The primary concern focuses on the impact on agriculture, especially in periods of lower precipitation following strong El Niño episodes.This study examines the consequences of an increase in average temperatures of up to 1°C by 2050 and up to 2.75°C by 2100 for the frequency and intensity of major cyclones that hit the islands. Estimates of the economic damage caused by storms in the past have been used to calibrate a damage function that yields an estimated increase in the expected value of economic damage as the peak wind speeds for storms with return periods of 10...

Getting a Grip on Climate Change in the Philippines : Extended Technical Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Philippines currently experience and will continue to face significant impacts from climate change. To ensure climate resilience, build a low-carbon economy, and increase its role in the global climate change dialogue, the Philippine government has launched strong climate policy and institutional and financing reforms, supported by a clear rationale for no-regrets action. However, transformative progress toward a more climate resilient society and low carbon economy remains limited. Carried out at mid-term of the first phase of the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP), the Philippine Development Plan (2011-2016) and the current Administration, this review is an opportunity, and comes early enough, to ensure that first phase reforms are finalized and the groundwork for the second and third phases put in place. Recommendations consolidate the strategic direction of the NCCAP and set the stage for scaling up action over the next two phases. Specific activities are proposed to support eight objectives organized around three pillars: (i) strengthening the planning...

Climate change adaptation: where does global health fit in the agenda?

Bowen, Kathryn J; Friel, Sharon
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 7 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Human-induced climate change will affect the lives of most populations in the next decade and beyond. It will have greatest, and generally earliest, impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged populations on the planet. Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human wellbeing, safety, health and survival in many ways. Some impacts are direct-acting and immediate, such as impaired food yields and storm surges. Other health effects are less immediate and typically occur via more complex causal pathways that involve a range of underlying social conditions and sectors such as water and sanitation, agriculture and urban planning. Climate change adaptation is receiving much attention given the inevitability of climate change and its effects, particularly in developing contexts, where the effects of climate change will be experienced most strongly and the response mechanisms are weakest. Financial support towards adaptation activities from various actors including the World Bank, the European Union and the United Nations is increasing substantially. With this new global impetus and funding for adaptation action come challenges such as the importance of developing adaptation activities on a sound understanding of baseline community needs and ulnerabilities...

Enabling environments? Insights into the policy context for climate change and health adaptation decision-making in Cambodia

Bowen, Kathryn J; Miller, Fiona; Dany, Va; McMichael, Anthony J; Friel, Sharon
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Changes in climatic conditions and increases in weather variability affect human health directly and indirectly, including through agricultural changes and urban warming. Adaptation to climate change is receiving increasing attention, given, now, the inevitability of further climate change and its diverse impacts. However, with increased international funding for adaptation comes challenges such as ensuring supportive national policy environments for developing and implementing effective adaptation activities. Adaptation at community and population levels is underpinned by governance processes, such as the nature by which decisions are taken and implemented by government, community and private organizations. Thus an understanding of the policy context is necessary to identify the factors that enable or inhibit adaptation policy and programmes. This article examines to what degree there exist enabling factors to support the development of adaptation policy and activities, with relevance to the health sector. Results of a policy analysis are presented, which used stakeholder participation to investigate the context in which adaptation decisions were made within organizations across different sectors in Cambodia. Five factors were identified as critical components of the governance environment: (1)policy development processes; (2)the existence of a political recognition of climate change and (3–5) the organizational barriers relating to coordination...

ICTs for Climate Change Adaptation in Africa

Creech, Heather; Akoh, Ben; Parry, Jo-Ellen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Like other regions of the world, Africa is beginning to experience the impacts of human-induced climate change. These observed changes in climate parameters have not occurred uniformly across Africa. Mitigation is concerned with reducing the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the Earth's atmosphere that are the principal causes of climate change. Adaptation is concerned not with prevention but, in the words of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, with adjustments in human and or natural systems to reduce adverse impacts or take advantage of opportunities that may arise from it. Information and communication technology (ICT) have had an increasing impact on economic and social development over the past two decades, resulting from their capacity to generate and disseminate information, to facilitate the coordination of different actors in and beyond government, and to make government, business, and development processes more efficient. ICTs also have a complex relationship with sustainability and with the underlying cause of climate change. This relationship can be described in terms of the effects of ICTs: first order (direct) effects concern the impacts which ICTs have on climate change...

Building a Line of Defense Against Climate Change : From Reactive Coping to Adaptive Capacity in China's Irrigated Agricultural Development

Conrad, Bjorn; Li, Qun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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36.18%
Climate change threatens to undermine decades of development achievements in China's Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin. Farmers in the 3H Basin have long been plagued by water scarcity and frequent droughts and floods. Development efforts have succeeded in relieving some of these pressures, but the effects of climate change put these achievements in jeopardy. The mainstreaming climate change adaptation in irrigated agriculture project, funded under the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and integrated into the World Bank's Third Irrigated Agriculture Intensification Project, has been building a line of defense against the looming consequences of climate change on agricultural communities in China. The project was recognized as good adaptation practice in the 2011 world resources report as well as the SCCF evaluation of the independent GEF (Global Environment Facility) Evaluation Office. This smart lesson describes how the project created long-term adaptive capacity for affected communities to support sustainable irrigated agriculture in rural China.

Pro-Poor Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban Centers : Case Studies of Vulnerability and Resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua

Moser, Caroline; Norton, Andrew; Stein, Alfredo; Georgieva, Sophia
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
The objective of this economic sector work (ESW) is to address these gaps by piloting a methodology capable of quickly and cost-effectively introducing into adaptation planning processes an appreciation of the significance of climate change impacts for poor people in informal urban settlements. Specifically in the two case study sites (Mombasa in Kenya and Esteli in Nicaragua) sought to: a) make visible climate change impacts of various kinds on poor people; b) illustrate what poor households, small businesses and groups in communities are doing to cope with such climate change impacts (experienced as increasingly variable and capricious weather patterns); and c) identify how policy and institutional systems can best build on local realities to develop pro-poor urban climate change adaptation actions, particularly relating to resilience. The report introduces an asset-based framework to analyze the vulnerability of urban poor people to severe weather events whose frequency or intensity climate change may be increasing...

Reducing the Vulnerability of Albania's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.; Strzępek, Kenneth M.; Droogers, Peter
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Changes in climate and their impact on agricultural systems and rural economies are already evident throughout Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Adaptation measures now in use in Albania, largely piecemeal efforts, will be insufficient to prevent impacts on agricultural production over the coming decades. There is growing interest at the country and development partner levels to have a better understanding of the exposure, sensitivities, and impacts of climate change at farm level, and to develop and prioritize adaptation measures to mitigate the adverse consequences. Specifically, this report provides a menu of climate change adaptation options for the agriculture and water resources sectors, along with specific adaptation actions, that are tailored to four distinct agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within Albania. This menu reflects the results of three inter-related activities, conducted jointly by the team and local partners: (1) quantitative economic modeling of baseline conditions and the effects of climate change and an array of adaptation options; (2) qualitative analysis conducted by the team of agronomists, crop modelers, and water resources experts; and (3) input from a series of participatory workshops for national decision makers and farmers in each of the AEZs. This report provides a summary of the methods...

Reducing the Vulnerability of Moldova's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.; Iglesias, Ana; Boehlert, Brent B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Changes in climate and their impact on agricultural systems and rural economies are already evident throughout Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Adaptation measures now in use in Moldova, largely piecemeal efforts, will be insufficient to prevent impacts on agricultural production over the coming decades. There is growing interest at country and development partner levels to have a better understanding of the exposure, sensitivities, and impacts of climate change at farm level, and to develop and prioritize adaptation measures to mitigate the adverse consequences. The approach of this volume is predicated on strong country ownership and participation, and is defined by its emphasis on 'win-win' or 'no regrets' solutions to the multiple challenges posed by climate change for the farmers of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The solutions are measures that increase resilience to future climate change, boost current productivity despite the greater climate variability already occurring, and limit greenhouse gas emissions-also known as 'climate-smart agriculture.' Specifically, this report provides a menu of climate change adaptation options for the agriculture and water resources sectors, along with specific recommendations that are tailored to three distinct Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) within Moldova. This menu reflects the results of three inter-related activities...

Climate and Disaster Resilience : The Role for Community-Driven Development

Arnold, Margaret; Mearns, Robin; Oshima, Kaori; Prasad, Vivek
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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36.13%
This paper is part of a larger effort to document, assess, and promote scalable models and approaches to empower poor communities to manage a climate and disaster risk agenda in support of their development goals and to identify practical ways of getting climate and disaster risk financing directly to the ground level where impacts are felt. Social funds, social protection systems and safety nets, community-driven development (CDD) projects, livelihoods-support and related operational platforms can serve as useful vehicles for promoting community-level resilience to disaster and climate risk. This paper examines the World Bank's Community-Driven Development (CDD) portfolio to assess experience to date and to explore the potential for building the resilience of vulnerable communities to climate and disaster risk through CDD programs. It aims to be useful to both the Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management practitioner as well as the CDD practitioner. The paper assesses the scale of climate and disaster resilience support provided through CDD projects from 2001-11 and characterizes the forms of support provided. For the climate change adaption and disaster risk management (DRM) practitioner...

Factors affecting activities and participation in persons with disabilities - informing models and measures

Wee, Joy Yenn May
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1385744 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Purpose- The World Health Organization describes ‘activities’ as what one does, and ‘participation’ as life situations or roles. This thesis explores and describes important influencers of activities and participation from the perspective of persons with disabilities. It also suggests how to include such information when reporting results of tools measuring activities and participation, so that health professionals working with persons with disabilities might collaborate and communicate more effectively with each other and the people they serve. Method- The World Health Organization framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used. Participants with mobility problems living in the community with their disability for a least 1 year were involved in this mixed methods study to gain a broad understanding of how persons with disabilities perceive and experience factors that affect their general and specific activities and participation. Semi-structured interviews guided by categories contained in two standard measures, the Barthel Index (BI), and the Participation Scale (P-scale) were employed, and grounded theory methods were used. From their responses, relationships between important concepts were used to inform a theoretical model. Upon this framework...