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Burkina Faso - Public Expenditures Review : Rural Water and Sanitation Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.46%
The review aims at supporting efforts of the government in water and sanitation sector in rural and semi-urban areas. It carries out analysis of sector expenditures evolution during the period 2001-2006 and proposes recommendations likely to help better cope with the current and future challenges. The present review covers only public expenditures of the Ministry of Agriculture, Hydraulics, and Halieutics Resources (MAHRH) to the profit of Rural Water and Sanitation Supply (RWSS). Expenditures of other ministries (education, and health), as well as projects of local development, from Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), and private individuals, for whom data are not available, are excluded. The review of public expenditure in RWSS shows that RWSS sector has experienced dramatic development and that performance in terms of creation of water points is relatively satisfactory during the 2001-2006 periods in Burkina Faso. The annual volume of new water points is about 1.950 points. Facilities realized during this period theoretically made it possible to supply more than three million Burkinabe and the rate of access of populations to drinking water was 60 percent in 2006...

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene : Interventions and Diarrhoea

Fewtrell, Lorna; Colford, John M. Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.42%
Many individual studies have reported results of interventions intended to reduce illness through improvements in drinking water, sanitation facilities and hygiene practices. This paper provides a formal systematic review and meta-analysis examining the evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. Through a comprehensive literature search and bibliographic review, 2120 titles published prior to June 26th, 2003 were screened, 336 papers were obtained for a more thorough examination, and 64 of these papers (representing 60 distinct studies) were identified which detailed water supply, water quality, sanitation, hygiene or multifactorial interventions and examined diarrhoea morbidity as a health outcome in non-outbreak conditions. Data were extracted from these papers and pooled through meta-analysis to provide summary estimates of the effectiveness of each type of intervention. All interventions reduced diarrhoea morbidity, with pooled risk ratios ranging from 0.98 to 0.51 (where a risk ratio of 1.0 indicates no effect and lower risk ratios indicate stronger effects). The removal of poor quality studies from the analyses improved the strength of the intervention impact in most cases. The 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for the pooled risk ratios of various interventions overlapped...

Better Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor : Good Practice from Sub-Saharan Africa

Water Utility Partnership for Capacity Building (WUP) Africa
Fonte: Kenya: European Communities and Water Utility Partnership Publicador: Kenya: European Communities and Water Utility Partnership
Português
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46.75%
The document is structured in three parts covering the key thematic areas of water supply service delivery, sanitation service delivery, and overall policy. Each part describes a series of different actions that can be taken to improve service delivery to low-income communities, outlines key lessons and challenges and identifies the principles of good practice. This project is aimed at developing a better understanding of the conditions necessary for water and sanitation services to reach low-income communities. It sought to build on the knowledge and experience of the various actors currently involved in delivering or supporting these services. One of the main observations of the authors is that there is never just one solution to any particular problem. Within each country context, the key to a successful strategy lies in the capacity of practitioners working in the water and sanitation sector to innovate and to adapt solutions to address local constraints and opportunities. This document aims to: (i) describe the challenges facing service delivery to low-income urban communities; (ii) outline key principles that guide water and sanitation sector practitioners in the delivery of services to the urban poor; and (iii) provide tangible examples from a range of sub-saharan African countries to illustrate these principles and challenges.

Global Expeiences on Expanding Water and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor : Accompanying Volume

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.62%
In 2006-07, the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) initiated research to identify barriers to service delivery for the urban poor. The findings of the research have been presented in the Guidance Notes on Improving Water Supply and Sanitation Services to the Urban Poor in India. The Urban Global Practice Team of WSP decided to expand the ambit of this research to a global context as the learnings were relevant to experiences across Africa, Latin America, and East Asia and the Pacific. The Guidance Notes are based on an in-depth research of various initiatives from across the world (including South Asian, African, Latin American, and East Asian and the Pacific countries) and consultations with urban poor communities. The present volume is a documentation of this research and supports the Guidance Notes on Services for the Urban Poor. Section 1 of this report consists of 19 case studies. Section 2 describes consultations with urban poor communities. The main aim of the consultations was to record the issues they confronted related to water supply and sanitation.

A Decade of the Total Sanitation Campaign : Rapid Assessment of Processes and Outcomes, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.47%
The Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) of the Government of India has been in operation for over a decade (1999 to date). This report analyses primary and secondary data on the TSC to arrive at an understanding of the processes, outputs and outcomes at a national level and across the states; this is compared with the inputs which have gone into the program. These indicators are then compared individually and in combination to benchmark the states, to understand the relative performance of the states. This benchmarking, based on a combination of eight indicators, is undertaken for both states and districts across the country. The purpose of this report is to synthesis the wealth of information available through secondary sources such as the TSC and Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) online monitoring systems and primary surveys of select districts at different points on the performance curve, to understand the processes by which the national TSC guidelines are implemented at state and district levels and how these contribute to the outcomes achieved. The analysis will focus on the successes and challenges faced in implementing the TSC and NGP...

Financing Water Supply and Sanitation Investments : Utilizing Risk Mitigation Instruments to Bridge the Financing Gap

Baietti, Aldo; Raymond, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.37%
Water supply is essential for growth, as well as for social well-being. It is probably the most difficult of all infrastructure services to substitute, and its absence or deficiency represents a particular burden on the poor. In the developing world, 2 out of every 10 people lack access to a safe water supply, and 5 out of 10 have inadequate sanitation. This means that worldwide, more than 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, and roughly 2.4 billion are without adequate sanitation. Yet even these estimates understate the extent of the access gap. Service is poor, even in many countries that have water supply systems. For many consumers, piped water is often intermittent, and, when available, it is unsafe for drinking. In addition, sanitation facilities are often inadequate, overloaded, in disrepair, or unused. To improve the situation, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 specified the targets of the Millennium Development Goals, which aim to reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Success in this would mean providing an additional 1.5 billion people with access to safe and reliable water and about 2 billion people with basic sanitation services.

Can the Principles of Franchising be used to Improve Water Supply and Sanitation Services? A Preliminary Analysis

van Ginneken, Meike; Tyler, Ross; Tagg, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.35%
Improving water supply and sanitation (WSS) services is a key mechanism for reducing poverty. WSS services contribute directly or indirectly to income generation, health, and education. Water is an intrinsic element of the Millennium Development Goals agreed upon by the international community in 2000. Halving by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation is one of the time bound targets that are embodied in the Millennium Development Goals. Reaching this target requires that roughly one quarter of a million people per day gain access to safe water and one third of a million per day gain access to adequate sanitation. Currently, in developing countries, the overall effectiveness of WSS service provision is disappointing due to such factors as: poor management, inadequate investment, and political interference. Substantially increasing the number of people with sustainable access to WSS requires a transformation of long-established sector approaches as well as a substantial increase in WSS investments in the developing world. Foremost among reform measures are the introduction of sound policies and effective institutions at all levels. Strengthened institutions will be better able to generate cash flows...

Sierra Leone : Public Expenditure Review for Water and Sanitation 2002 to 2009

Bennett, Anthony; Thompson, Darrell; van Ginneken, Meike
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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46.62%
This review focuses on how public expenditure translates into the delivery of water supply and sanitation services in rural and urban areas in Sierra Leone. It describes the legal and institutional framework for the allocation of resources assesses access to Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services and past sector performance, and analyzes public expenditure in the sector, including the factors affecting the efficiency of use of resources, and makes recommendations. Water supply includes the supply, distribution, and usage of water for drinking, food preparation, and hygiene. Sanitation is defined as the sanitary disposal of liquid waste and the promotion of hygienic practices. The review covers the period from 2002 to 2009, a period of reconstructing after a decade of upheavals. Since 2002, democracy and a stable environment for development have been re-established in the country, especially since the 2007 presidential elections. Sierra Leone remains one of the poorest countries in the world.

East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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46.5%
This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries. This country study contributed to the regional review by providing important information on sector operations in the Philippines. The development of urban sanitation in the Philippines needs to be considered in the context of the different situations in Metro Manila and the other parts of the country. The case studies for some urban areas were prepared to see how sanitation operations are carried out in the Philippines and a consultative workshop was held on February 19, 2013 in Manila. The findings of the Philippines country study are briefly presented which complements the findings of the regional report.

Turning Finance into Services for the Future; A Regional Synthesis of the Service Delivery Assessments for Water Supply and Sanitation in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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46.49%
From 2012 to 2014 water and sanitation service delivery assessments (SDA) have been carried out in seven selected countries in the East Asia and Pacific region under the guidance of the World Bank’s water and sanitation program and with valuable contributions of other development partners, such as United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), WaterAid, and Asian Development Bank (ADB). Countries where SDA were carried out are Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (PDR), Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam, while in Myanmar, a broad joint sector assessment took place by World Bank, UNICEF, ADB, and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). SDA were implemented as a country-owned process led by key government agencies, and drew on the experience and methodology of similar assessments conducted in more than 40 countries (and states) in Africa, Latin America, and South Asia. It has three main components: a review of past water and sanitation access trends, a costing model to assess the adequacy of anticipated future investments...

Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh

DeFrancis, Marc P.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
This study estimates the nonmonetary, financial, and economic costs of poor sanitation in the areas of health, drinking water, and domestic water, as well as user preference and welfare. Financial costs refer to the direct financial expense paid in monetary terms by someone, such as changes in household and government spending and real income losses for households. Nonmonetary costs consist of both longer-term financial impacts (such as less educated children, fewer children, and loss of working people due to premature death or relevant morbidity), and nonfinancial implications, such as the value of loss of life, time-use of adults and children, and intangible impacts. Bangladesh has made inadequate progress toward the sanitation-related millennium development goal (MDG) target. The country's financial commitment and political priority for sanitation also has shown inadequate progress (Water-Aid, 2008). Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects of poor sanitation and hygiene practices, intervention is necessary. The aim of this study is to provide concrete evidence of the impact poor sanitation has on the population and the environment and...

What Does It Take to Scale Up Rural Sanitation?; Comment accelerer le developpement de l'assainissement rural?

Perez, Eduardo; Cardosi, Jason; Coombes, Yolande; Devine, Jacqueline; Grossman, Amy; Kullmann, Craig; Kumar, C. Ajith; Mukherjee, Nilanjana; Prakash, Manu; Robiarto, Amin; Setiwan, Deviariandy; Singh, Upneet; Wartono, Djoko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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46.65%
Over the last 30 years, most rural sanitation projects have had pockets of success, but were small in scale and could not be scaled up. Learning how to expand on the successes of small-scale projects to increase access at large scale has been an enduring challenge. Project outcomes often fail the sustainability test once external funding ceases, and the benefits, even if sustained, remain limited to project areas. Despite growing political will to do more about rural sanitation, the lack of evidence and examples of effective and sustainable large-scale rural sanitation programs has constrained governments and development partners. In an attempt to help address these issues, starting in 2007, the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) provided technical assistance to help governments design, plan, implement, and monitor national rural sanitation programs that start at scale and are sustainable. This initiative was carried out in three countries, India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. To increase the supply of sanitation products and services...

Output-Based Aid in Honduras : An OBA Facility for the Water and Sanitation Sector; L aide basée sur les résultats au Honduras : un mécanisme OBA pour le secteurde l eau et de l assainissement

Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; Schiffler, Manuel; Silvia, Ana Aguilera
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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46.41%
Honduras has achieved a reasonable level of access to water supply and sanitation, but gaps in coverage remain, especially in rural and peri-urban areas, and service quality for those with access is often poor. To help the Government of Honduras achieve universal coverage and improve service quality, the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) is funding a project to test the viability of an innovative output-based aid mechanism for financing water and sanitation services. Housed within the Honduran Social Investment Fund, this 'OBA Facility' the first such facility funded by GPOBA aims to improve access to water and sanitation services for about 15,000 low-income households, and to increase efficiency and transparency in sector investment funding. To be eligible for funding from the OBA Facility, projects must meet specific criteria and payments are made against verifiable results.

Water Supply and Sanitation in South Africa : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understands what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). AMCOW delegated this task to the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program and the African Development Bank which are implementing it in close partnership with UNICEF and World Health Organization (WHO) in over 30 countries across SSA. This CSO2 report has been produced in collaboration with the Government of South Africa and other stakeholders during 2009/10. The analysis aims to help countries assess their own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services in each of four subsectors rural and urban water supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The CSO2 analysis has three main components: a review of past coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway. The CSO2's contribution is to answer not only whether past trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector targets...

Water Supply and Sanitation in Liberia : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs2) to better understands what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). AMCOW delegated this task to the World Bank's water and sanitation program and the African Development Bank who are implementing it in close partnership with United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) in over 30 countries across SSA. This CSO2 report has been produced in collaboration with the Government of Liberia and other stakeholders during 2009-10. The analysis aims to help countries assess their own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water supply, and rural and urban sanitation, and hygiene. The CSO2 analysis has three main components: a review of past coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway. The CSO2's contribution is to answer not only whether past trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector targets...

Water Supply and Sanitation in Sierra Leone : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
The African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW) commissioned the production of a second round of Country Status Overviews (CSOs) to better understands what underpins progress in water supply and sanitation (WSS) and what its member governments can do to accelerate that progress across countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). AMCOW delegated this task to the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Program and the African Development Bank who are implementing it in close partnership with UNICEF and WHO in over 30 countries across SSA. This CSO2 report has been produced in collaboration with the Government of Sierra Leone and other stakeholders during 2009-10. The analysis aims to help countries assess their own service delivery pathways for turning finance into water supply and sanitation services in each of four subsectors: rural and urban water supply, and rural and urban sanitation and hygiene. The CSO2 analysis has three main components: a review of past coverage; a costing model to assess the adequacy of future investments; and a scorecard which allows diagnosis of particular bottlenecks along the service delivery pathway. The CSO2's contribution is to answer not only whether past trends and future finance are sufficient to meet sector targets...

Improving Transparency, Integrity, and Accountability in Water Supply and Sanitation : Action, Learning, Experiences

Gonzalez de Asis, Maria; O'Leary, Donal; Ljung, Per; Butterworth, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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46.45%
This manual on improving transparency, integrity, and accountability in water supply and sanitation is the result of a partnership between the World Bank Institute (WBI) and transparency international (TI). It was developed under the open and participatory government program at the municipal level (known by its Spanish acronym as the GAP Municipal Program). This manual can help: 1) increase the involvement of civil society by engaging all stakeholders in setting water supply and sanitation priorities and monitoring performance, including reducing opportunities for corruption; 2) increase the contributions of water supply and sanitation services to poverty reduction by increasing the quality and coverage of service to poorer communities on an equitable basis; 3) promote the financial sustainability of water and sanitation service delivery organizations, thereby increasing the confidence of consumers, civil society organizations, and other stakeholders in those institutions' ability to expand improve service; and 4) raise ethical standards among all stakeholders...

Republic of Tunisia : Water and Sanitation Strategy; Tunisienne - Reflexion strategique sur l'eau potable et l'assainissement en Tunisie

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This strategy is a comprehensive overview of the institutional, organizational, and economic aspects of the sector. Based on an analysis of the current situation, this strategy will examine the strengths and weaknesses of the sector and review reform options of reform that address upcoming challenges and provide the highest level of service at the lowest possible cost for urban and rural beneficiaries, while guaranteeing the widest and most sustainable service coverage. The Tunisian economy's strong growth during the past four decades, at over 5 percent per annum, enabled the government to mobilize substantial internal and external resources to finance sector investments. The increase in public revenue parallel to this growth was also instrumental in ensuring sustainable project funding. Moreover, this economic growth greatly stimulated household incomes, thus access to water supply and sanitation services. The objective of these studies and other related projects is to mobilize the potential in variable surface water as well as in fragile groundwater resources...

Water Supply and Sanitation in Mozambique : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Nairobi Publicador: World Bank, Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Mozambique has made enormous strides in the water supply sector in the past two decades. The sector has separated water resources and water production roles from water supply asset holding and from water services management. It has also created a regulatory structure and body that has struck a balance between government and private-sector management while giving increasing voice to consumers. The reform process continues today, with expected modifications at decentralized levels of governance. After more than a decade emphasizing service expansion, service sustainability needs attention. The urban water delegated management framework's greatest challenge lies in maintaining operational cost recovery and making steady progress on capital cost recovery. The challenge for rural water supply lies not simply in expanding access, but in ensuring sustainable services. Progress in urban and rural sanitation has stagnated, and updated approaches to service delivery are urgently needed. Sector information management systems and human resource development have not kept pace with institutional expansion...

Reflexions about the regulation of sanitation facilities; Considerações sobre a regulação para a universalização dos serviços de saneamento

Sampaio, Luiza Saito
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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46.41%
O setor brasileiro de saneamento básico se caracteriza por deficiências preocupantes em infra-estrutura que prejudicam o objetivo - legítimo e positivado na Lei n. 11.445/2007 (“Lei de Saneamento”) – de universalização do acesso aos serviços adequados e completos de saneamento. O desafio da ampliação das redes de prestação desse serviço essencial se evidencia na contraposição das lógicas pública e privada, tradicionalmente postuladas como paradoxais: a extração do máximo lucro no mínimo prazo a partir dos investimentos realizados, de um lado, e a cobrança módica ou mesmo a gratuidade da prestação dos serviços para efetivamente todos os cidadãos, de outro. O conceito fundamental para se balancear essa equação de lógicas opostas é o de regulação. No caso do setor de saneamento, economicamente configurado como monopólio natural e impregnado por forte sensibilidade social, deve-se buscar aprofundar e ampliar a noção de regulação, de tal maneira que não apenas a correção de falhas de mercado, mas também o interesse público seja garantido. A partir dessa reflexão sobre novas funções que se pode atribuir à regulação, é possível pensar em instrumentos redistributivos como catalisadores da universalização dos serviços de saneamento e da inclusão social. Nesse sentido...